Sudán

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República del Sudán
جمهورية السودان
Jumhuriyat as-Sudán
Bandera Emblema
Lema: النصر لنا ( árabe )
"Un Nasar-li-na"
"La victoria es nuestra"
Himno:
Lugar de Sudán (azul oscuro) - en África (azul claro y gris oscuro) - en la Unión Africana (azul claro)
Ubicación de   Sudán    (Azul oscuro)

- En África    (Azul claro y gris oscuro)
- En la Unión Africana    (Azul claro)

Capital Jartum
15 ° 38'N 032 ° 32'E / 15.633 ° N 32.533 ° E / 15.633, 32.533
La ciudad más grande Omdurman [1] [2]
Idiomas oficiales
Demonym Sudanés
Gobierno Federal presidencial república
- Presidente Omar al-Bashir ( NCP )
- Vice Presidente
Legislatura Nacional Legislativa
- Cámara alta Consejo de los Estados
- Cámara Baja Asamblea nacional
Establecimiento
- Nubian reinos 3500 aC
- Sennar dinastía 1504 [3]
- Unificado con Egipto 1821
- Sudán anglo-egipcio 1899
- Independencia (del Reino Unido y Egipto) 01 de enero 1956
- Constitución actual 09 de enero 2005
Área
- Total 1.886.068 kilometros 2 ( 16a )
728.215 millas cuadradas
Población
- Censo de 2008 30894000 (disputado) [4] ( 40a )
- Densidad 16.4/kilómetro 2
42.4/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2011 estimación
- Total $ 89,048 mil millones [5]
- Per cápita $ 2.860
PIB (nominal) 2012 estimación
- Total $ 53,267 mil millones [5]
- Per cápita $ 1.590 [5]
HDI (2011) Aumentar 0,408 [6]
bajo · 169a
Moneda Libra sudanesa ( SDG )
Huso horario África del Este Hora ( UTC +3)
- Verano ( DST ) no observados ( UTC +3)
Formato de fecha dd / mm / aaaa
Unidades en el derecho
Prefijo telefónico 249
ISO 3166 SD
Dominio Internet . Sd

Sudán ( árabe : السودان as-Sudán Escuchar i / s u ː d æ n / o / s u ː ɑ ː d n / , [7] ), oficialmente la República del Sudán [8] ( en árabe : جمهورية السودان Jumhuriyat as-Sudán) y, a veces llamado el norte de Sudán, [9] [10] [11] es un estado árabe en África del Norte limita con Egipto al norte, el Mar Rojo al noreste, Eritrea y Etiopía al este, el sur de Sudán , al sur, la República Centroafricana al sudoeste , Chad al oeste y Libia al noroeste. Internamente, el Nilo divide al país en dos mitades oriental y occidental. [12] La población de Sudán es una combinación de los habitantes indígenas del valle del Nilo y descendientes de inmigrantes de la Península Arábiga . arabización ha hecho de la cultura árabe en la norma y la inmensa mayoría de la población actual se adhiere al Islam . Como consecuencia, Sudán también es a menudo considerado como parte del Oriente Medio . [13]

El pueblo de S u d a n tienen una larga historia que se extiende desde la antigüedad que se entrelaza con la historia de Egipto . Sudán sufrió diecisiete años de guerra civil durante la primera guerra civil sudanesa (1955-1972) seguida por étnica conflictos, religiosas y económicas entre los árabes musulmanes del norte de Sudán y los en su mayoría animista y cristiana Nilotes del sur de Sudán. [14] [15] Esto llevó a la segunda guerra civil sudanesa en 1983. Debido a los continuos conflictos políticos y militares, Sudán fue capturado en un incruento golpe de Estado del coronel Omar al-Bashir en 1989, que posteriormente se proclamó presidente de Sudán . [16] La guerra civil terminó con la firma de un Acuerdo General de Paz que concedió la autonomía a lo que era entonces la región sur del país. Tras un referéndum celebrado en enero de 2011, Sudán del Sur se separó el 9 de julio de 2011 con el consentimiento de Sudán. [17] [18]

Un miembro de la ONU , Sudán también mantiene afiliación con la Unión Africana , la Liga Árabe , la Organización de Cooperación Islámica y el Movimiento de Países No Alineados , además de servir como observador en la Organización Mundial del Comercio . [8] Su capital es Jartum , que sirve como el centro político, cultural y comercial de la nación. Oficialmente un federal presidencial representante democrático república , las políticas de Sudán son ampliamente considerado por la comunidad internacional que tendrá lugar dentro de un autoritario sistema debido al control del Partido Nacional del Congreso ( NCP ) del poder judicial , ejecutivo y legislativo poderes del Estado. [ 19]

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia

Parte de una serie en la
Historia de Sudán
Historia de la plantilla de Sudán graphic.jpg
Cronológico
A principios Sudán a c. 650
Islamización c. 650 - ciento 19.
Ali dinastía 1821-1885
El Mahdiyah 1885-1899
Anglo-Egipcio regla 1899-1956
Independiente de Sudán 1956 - presente
Primera Guerra Civil 1955-1972
Nimeiri era 1969-1985
Mando de la Revolución 1969-1971
Segunda Guerra Civil 1983-2005
Consejo Militar 1985-1986
Coaliciones / al-Bashir 1986 - presente
Consejo de Salvación 1989-1993
Por región
Por tema
Línea de tiempo
Portal icono Sudán portal

[ editar ] Prehistoria de Sudán

Por el octavo milenio antes de Cristo, las personas de un Neolítico cultura se había instalado en un modo de vida sedentario hay en fortificadas de adobe aldeas, donde complementados caza y pesca en el Nilo con grano recolección y ganado pastoreo. [20] Durante el quinto milenio migraciones BC desde el secado Sahara trajo a la gente del Neolítico en el valle del Nilo, junto con la agricultura. La población que resultó de esta mezcla cultural y genética jerarquía social desarrollada durante los siguientes siglos convertirse en el reino de Kush (con capital en Kerma) en el 1700 aC la investigación antropológica y arqueológica indican que durante el período predinástico y Nagadan Nubia Alto Egipto eran étnicamente, y culturalmente casi idénticas, y por lo tanto, los sistemas se desarrollaron al mismo tiempo de la realeza faraónica de 3300 antes de Cristo. [21] Junto con otros países se encuentra en el Mar Rojo , Sudán es considerado el lugar más probable de la tierra conocida por los antiguos egipcios como Punt (o " Ta Netjeru ", que significa" Tierra de Dios "), cuya primera mención data del siglo 25. [22]

[ editar ] Reino de Kush

El Reino de Kush fue una antigua Nubia estado centrada en las confluencias de la Nilo Azul , el Nilo Blanco y el río Atbara. Se estableció después de la edad de bronce colapso y la desintegración del Imperio Nuevo de Egipto, centrado en Napata en su fase temprana. Después que el rey Kashta ("el cusita") invadió Egipto en el siglo 8 aC, los reyes gobernaron como faraones Kushite de la dinastía XXV de Egipto durante un siglo antes de ser derrotados y expulsados ​​por los asirios . En el apogeo de su gloria, el cusita conquistó un imperio que se extendía desde lo que hoy se conoce como Kordofán del Sur hasta llegar al Sinaí. El rey Piye tratado de ampliar el imperio en el Cercano Oriente, pero fue frustrado por el rey asirio Sargón II . El Reino de Kush se menciona en la Biblia como haber salvado a los israelitas de la ira de los asirios, aunque la enfermedad entre los beseigers fue la principal razón para no tomar la ciudad. [23] La guerra que tuvo lugar entre el rey Taharqa y la El rey asirio Senaquerib fue un acontecimiento decisivo en la historia occidental, con los nubios de ser derrotado en su intento de hacerse un hueco en el Cercano Oriente por Asiria. Sucesor de Senaquerib Asaradón fue más allá, e invadió Egipto mismo, deponiendo Taharqa y conducir los nubios de Egipto por completo. Taharqa huyó de regreso a su tierra natal, donde murió dos años más tarde. Egipto se convirtió en una colonia asiria, sin embargo rey Tantamani , después de suceder a Taharqa, hizo un último intento decidido a recuperar Egipto. Asaradón murió mientras se prepara para salir de la capital asiria de Nínive para expulsarlo. Sin embargo, su sucesor Asurbanipal envió un gran ejército en el sur de Egipto y derrotó Tantamani, poniendo fin a las esperanzas de un renacimiento del imperio nubio. Durante la Antigüedad clásica, la capital de Nubia estaba en Meroe . A principios del griego geografía, el reino Meroitic era conocido como Etiopía (término también utilizado anteriormente por los asirios cuando se enfrentan a los nubios). La civilización de Kush fue de los primeros en el mundo en utilizar la tecnología de fundición de hierro. El reino nubio de Meroe se mantuvo hasta el siglo cuarto. Después de la caída del imperio cusita varios estados surgieron en sus antiguos territorios, entre ellos Nubia.

[ editar ] El cristianismo y el Islam

Ruinas de Old Dongola .

En el siglo sexto, cincuenta estados habían convertido en los herederos políticos y culturales del Reino Meroitic. Nobatia en el norte, también conocido como Ballanah, tenía su capital en Faras, en lo que hoy es Egipto, el reino central, Muqurra (Makuria), se centró en Dunqulah, unos 13 kilómetros (10 millas) al sur de la moderna Dunqulah y Alawa ( Alodia ), en el corazón de la antigua Meroe, que tenía su capital en Sawba (ahora un suburbio de Jartum de hoy en día). En los tres reinos, aristocracias guerreras gobernado poblaciones meroíticos de las cortes reales, donde los funcionarios llevaban títulos griegos en emulación del bizantino corte. Un misionero enviado por la emperatriz bizantina Teodora llegó a Nobatia y comenzó a predicar el cristianismo alrededor de 540 AD. El nubio reyes se convirtió en monofisita cristianos. Sin embargo, Makuria era de la melquita fe cristiana, a diferencia de Nobatia y Alodia.

Después de muchos intentos de conquista militar fallido, el comandante árabe en Egipto concluyó la primera de una serie de tratados regularmente renovados llamados Albaqut al-Sharim (pactum) con los nubios que rigen las relaciones entre los dos pueblos desde hace más de 678 años. Islam avanzado en el área durante un largo período de tiempo a través de los matrimonios mixtos y contactos con los comerciantes árabes y los colonos, sobre todo los nobles sufíes de Arabia. Además, la exención de impuestos en las regiones bajo dominio musulmán eran también un poderoso incentivo para la conversión. [24] En 1093, un príncipe musulmán de Nubian sangre real ascendió al trono como rey de Dunqulah. Las dos tribus árabes más importantes que surgen en Nubia fueron los Jaali y la Juhayna. Hoy el norte de la cultura sudanesa menudo combina elementos de Nubia y el árabe.

Durante el siglo 16, un pueblo llamado Funj , bajo un líder llamado Amara Dunqus , apareció en el sur de Nubia y suplantado a los restos del antiguo reino cristiano de Alwa , el establecimiento de As-Saltana az-Zarqa (el Sultanato Azul), también llamado el Sultanato de Sennar . El Sultanato Azul finalmente se convirtió en la piedra angular del imperio Funj. En el siglo de mid-16th, Sennar controlado Al Jazirah y ordenó la lealtad de los estados vasallos y los distritos tribales del norte a la tercera catarata y el sur de las selvas tropicales. El gobierno se vio debilitado sustancialmente por una serie de argumentos de sucesión y golpes dentro de la familia real. En 1820, Muhammad Ali de Egipto envió 4.000 soldados a invadir Sudán. Sus fuerzas aceptó la rendición Sennar desde la última Funj sultán , Badi VII .

[ editar ] Período egipcio turcos

Ismail Pacha sultán de Egipto y Sudán

En 1821, el gobernante albano-otomano de Egipto, Muhammad Ali, había invadido y conquistado el norte de Sudán. Aunque técnicamente el wali de Egipto bajo el sultán otomano , Muhammad Ali se labró como Jedive de Egipto prácticamente independiente. Tratando de añadir Sudán a sus dominios, envió a su tercer hijo Ismail (que no debe confundirse con Ismail el Magnífico se menciona más adelante) para conquistar el país, y posteriormente incorporarlo en Egipto. Esta política se ha ampliado e intensificado por Ibrahim hijo 's, Ismail I , bajo cuyo reinado la mayor parte del resto de la actual Sudán fue conquistado. Las autoridades egipcias hecho importantes mejoras en la infraestructura de Sudán (principalmente en el norte), especialmente en lo que respecta a la producción de riego y el algodón. En 1879, las grandes potencias obligaron a la retirada de Ismail y estableció su hijo Tewfik yo en su lugar. Tewfik la corrupción y la mala gestión dio lugar a la rebelión Orabi , que amenazaba la supervivencia del Jedive. Tewfik pidió ayuda a la británica , que posteriormente ocupó Egipto en 1882. Sudán quedó en manos del gobierno Khedivial, y la mala gestión y la corrupción de sus funcionarios. [25] Durante la década de 1870, las iniciativas europeas contra el comercio de esclavos provocó una crisis económica en el norte de Sudán, lo que precipitó el ascenso de Mahdist fuerzas. [26 ]

Finalmente, estalló una revuelta en Sudán, encabezado por Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah , el Mahdi (guiado One), que trató de poner fin a la presencia extranjera en Sudán. Mahdi revolución tenga éxito en enero de 1885. Más tarde ese mismo año, las fuerzas del Mahdi atacaron y entró Jartum [ aclaración necesaria ], que ha sido defendida por los británicos Gobernador General , Charles George Gordon (también conocido como Gordon de Jartum), que fue asesinado. Egipto y el Reino Unido retiró las fuerzas de Sudán dejando el Mahdi y su sucesor para formar un gobierno de 14 años de Sudán.

[ edit ] mahdista Sudán

Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi gobernante de Sudán.

Al Mahdi, que partió de Aba Island con unos pocos seguidores, armados con palos y lanzas terminaron haciéndose dueño de casi todo el territorio anteriormente ocupado por el gobierno egipcio. Su principal objetivo era conquistar Egipto y seguir sus conquistas al atacar Europa.

La religión musulmana fue arraigado en él. Se ofreció a los ansares (sus seguidores) y los que se le rindió una opción entre adoptar el Islam o morir. La proclamación siguiente fue publicado por el Mahdi: Que todos penitencia espectáculo delante de Dios, y abandonar los malos hábitos y prohibidos, tales como el uso del vino y el tabaco, la mentira, actos degradantes de la carne, etc Todos los que no prestan atención a estos principios desobedecer a Dios y su Profeta y serán sancionados de conformidad con la ley. Estos preceptos se cumplían ferozmente. Latigazos a la muerte y la amputación de las manos eran las penas impuestas ya que, según la ley islámica.

Durante el mes de Ramadán, cuando se impuso la austeridad absoluta a sus seguidores, a grandes multitudes esperaban la aparición de maestría en la oración, pero tenían poca noción de lo que estaba pasando dentro de la casa del Mahdi. Hubo varias versiones de su muerte. Algunos dicen que fue envenenado mientras que otros afirman que el tifus o viruela pequeña eran la causa de su muerte. Murió el 22 de junio 1885 exactamente 5 meses después de la muerte de Gordon.

Después de una lucha de poder entre sus diputados, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad , con la ayuda principalmente de la Baqqara árabes del oeste de Sudán, se sobrepuso a la oposición de los demás, y emergió como el líder indiscutible de la Mahdiyah. Después de consolidar su poder, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad asumió el título de Califa (sucesor) del Mahdi, instituyó una administración, y nombró a Ansar (que eran por lo general Baqqara) como emires más de cada una de las diversas provincias.

Relaciones regionales se mantuvo tensa durante gran parte del período Mahdiyah, en gran parte debido a los métodos brutales del Khalifa de extender su dominio en todo el país. En 1887, un hombre de 60.000 Ansar ejército invadió Etiopía , penetrando hasta Gondar . En marzo de 1889, el rey Yohannes IV de Etiopía , marchó sobre Metemma , sin embargo, después de Yohannes cayó en la batalla, las fuerzas etíopes se retiraron. Abd ar Rahman una Nujumi , el general Khalifa, intentó una invasión de Egipto en 1889, pero egipcia dirigida por los británicos tropas derrotaron a los Ansar a Tushkah. El fracaso de la invasión de Egipto rompió el hechizo de invencibilidad del Ansar. El belgas impidieron el Mahdi hombres de la conquista de Equatoria , y en 1893, el italianos repelieron un ataque de Ansar al Akordat (en Eritrea ) y obligaron a los Ansar a retirarse de Etiopía.

[ edit ] Sudán anglo-egipcio

Muhammad Ali, Jedive de Egipto y Sudán

En la década de 1890, el británico intentó restablecer su control sobre Sudán, una vez más, oficialmente, en nombre del jedive egipcio, pero en realidad tratar al país como una colonia británica. En la década de 1890, británicos, franceses y belgas reclamaciones habían convergido en el Nilo cabeceras. Gran Bretaña temía que los otros poderes se aprovecharía de la inestabilidad de Sudán para adquirir territorio anexado previamente a Egipto. Aparte de estas consideraciones políticas, Gran Bretaña quería establecer un control sobre el Nilo para salvaguardar una presa de riego prevista en Asuán .

Lord Kitchener dirigió campañas militares contra los mahdistas 1896 a 1898. Campañas de Kitchener culminó en una victoria decisiva en la batalla de Omdurman , el 2 de septiembre de 1898. A raíz de esto, en 1899, Gran Bretaña y Egipto llegaron a un acuerdo por el que Sudán era dirigido por un gobernador general nombrado por Egipto con el consentimiento británico. En realidad, mucho a la repugnancia de los egipcios y sudaneses nacionalistas [ cita requerida ], Sudán se aplique de manera efectiva como una colonia británica . Los británicos estaban dispuestos a invertir el proceso, iniciado a raíz Muhammad Ali Pasha , de unir el valle del Nilo bajo el liderazgo egipcio, y pretendían hacer fracasar todos los esfuerzos encaminados a continuar la unión de los dos países. Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial , Sudán estuvo directamente involucrado militarmente en la Campaña de África Oriental . Formada en 1925, la Fuerza de Defensa de Sudán (SDF) desempeñó un papel activo en la respuesta a las incursiones tempranas (ocupación de las tropas italianas de Kassala y otras zonas fronterizas) en el Sudán del África Oriental Italiana durante 1940. En 1942, las Fuerzas de Autodefensa también jugó un papel en la invasión de la colonia italiana por las fuerzas británicas y de la Commonwealth. Desde 1924 hasta su independencia en 1956, los británicos tenían una política de ejecución de Sudán en dos territorios separados esencialmente, el norte (musulmán) y el sur (cristiano). Los británicos último Gobernador General fue Sir Robert Howe .

[ editar ] Independencia y la Norma nacional

La continuación de la ocupación británica de Sudán dio pie a una reacción nacionalista cada vez más estridente en Egipto, Egipto líderes nacionalistas decididos a obligar a Gran Bretaña a reconocer un sindicato único independiente de Egipto y Sudán. Con el fin formal de la dominación otomana en 1914, Hussein Kamel fue declarado sultán de Egipto y Sudán , al igual que su hermano y sucesor Fuad I . Continuaron su insistencia de un solo egipcio-sudanés estado incluso cuando el sultanato fue retitulado como el Reino de Egipto y Sudán , pero los británicos continuaron frustrar llega a tal por la independencia.

La revolución egipcia de 1952 , finalmente anunció el inicio de la marcha hacia la independencia de Sudán. Una vez abolida la monarquía en 1953, los nuevos líderes de Egipto, Muhammad Naguib , cuya madre era sudanés, y más tarde Gamal Abdel Nasser- , creía que la única manera de acabar con la dominación británica en Sudán a Egipto para abandonar oficialmente sus pretensiones de soberanía sobre Sudán.

Los británicos, por su parte continuó su apoyo político y financiero para el Mahdi sucesor Sayyid Abdel Rahman que, en su opinión, podían resistir las presiones egipcios por la independencia de Sudán. Rahman fue capaz de resistir las presiones, pero su régimen estuvo plagado de ineptitud política, lo que le valió la pérdida de apoyo en el norte y centro de Sudán. Egipto y Gran Bretaña sintió una gran inestabilidad política de formación, y optó por permitir a los sudaneses en el norte y el sur para tener un voto libre en la independencia para ver si se desea disponer de una retirada británica.

Bandera de Sudán planteó en la ceremonia de independencia el 1 de enero de 1956 por el primer ministro, Ismail al-Azhari y en presencia del líder opositor Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub

Un proceso de votación se llevó a cabo como resultado de la composición de un parlamento democrático y Ismail al-Azhari fue elegido Primer Ministro y dirigió el primer gobierno moderno sudanés. [27] El 1 de enero de 1956, en una ceremonia especial celebrada en el Palacio del Pueblo, el banderas egipcias y los británicos fueron bajados y la nueva bandera de Sudán, compuesto por rayas verdes, azules y blancos, fue levantado en su lugar por el primer ministro Ismail al-Azhari.

[ editar ] Golpe de Estado

El 30 de junio de 1989, el coronel Omar al-Bashir lideró un grupo de oficiales del ejército en el derrocamiento del gobierno de coalición inestable de primer ministro Sadiq al-Mahdi en un incruento golpe militar . [16] Bajo el liderazgo de al-Bashir, el nuevo gobierno militar suspendió político partes y presentó un código legal islámico en el ámbito nacional. [28] Luego se convirtió en Presidente del Consejo del Comando Revolucionario para la Salvación Nacional (organismo de reciente creación con los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo para lo que fue descrito como un período de transición), y asumió la cargos de jefe de Estado , primer ministro , jefe de las fuerzas armadas, y el ministro de defensa . [29] Con posterioridad a la adhesión al-Bashir como presidente del Consejo del Comando Revolucionario para la Salvación Nacional, se alió con Hassan al-Turabi , el líder del Frente Islámico Nacional (NIF), que, junto con al-Bashir, se inició la institucionalización de la ley Sharia en el norte de Sudán. Más tarde, al-Bashir realizó purgas y ejecuciones en las filas superiores del ejército, la prohibición de asociaciones, partidos políticos y periódicos independientes, y el encarcelamiento de los principales personajes políticos y periodistas. [30]

El 16 de octubre de 1993, los poderes de al-Bashir aumentó cuando nombró a sí mismo " presidente "del país, tras lo cual se disolvió el Consejo del Mando Revolucionario y el resto de partidos políticos rivales. Los poderes ejecutivo y legislativo del consejo fueron tomadas por al-Bashir. [31] En la elección nacional de 1996, donde fue el único candidato por el derecho a presentarse a las elecciones, [19] al-Bashir de Sudán transformado en un partido único estado y creó el Partido del Congreso Nacional (NCP) con un nuevo parlamento y gobierno compuesto únicamente por miembros de la PNC. [32] Durante la década de 1990, Hassan al-Turabi, entonces presidente de la Asamblea Nacional, se acercó a fundamentalistas islámicos grupos, así como lo que les permite funcionar de Sudán, incluso invitando personalmente a Osama bin Laden en el país. [33]

Los Estados Unidos aparece posteriormente a Sudán como un estado patrocinador del terrorismo . [34] Los EE.UU. bombardeó Sudán en 1998 y las empresas estadounidenses se les prohibió hacer negocios en Sudán. Más tarde, la influencia de al-Turabi y el de "ala" internacionalista "e ideológica" de su partido se desvaneció ", en favor de los líderes" nacionalistas "o pragmática más que se centran en tratar de recuperarse de la desastrosa Sudán aislamiento internacional y el daño económico que resultó de aventurerismo ideológico ". [35] Al mismo tiempo, Sudán trabajó para apaciguar a los Estados Unidos y otros críticos internacionales al expulsar a miembros de la Yihad Islámica Egipcia y bin Laden alentador a irse. [36] Antes de la elección presidencial de 2000 , al-Turabi presentó un proyecto de ley para reducir los poderes del Presidente, lo que llevó al-Bashir de disolver el Parlamento y declarar un estado de emergencia . Cuando al-Turabi instó a boicotear la campaña de reelección del presidente y firmó un acuerdo con la gente de Sudán del Ejército de Liberación , al-Bashir sospechaba que estaban conspirando para derrocarlo y el gobierno, [37] , al que dio como resultado el encarcelamiento de Hassan Turabi ese mismo año. [38] debido a los importantes cambios culturales, sociales, políticos, étnicos y económicos que ocurren en un corto período de tiempo, los conflictos se desarrollaron en las provincias occidentales y del este de Sudán, además de una escalada del conflicto en el sur de Sudán . Dado que el Acuerdo de Paz de 2005 (CPA), varias luchas violentas entre los Janjaweed milicias y grupos rebeldes como el Pueblo de Liberación de Sudán (SPLA), el Ejército de Liberación Sudanés (SLA) y el Movimiento de Justicia e Igualdad (JEM) en la forma de la guerra de guerrillas en el Darfur , Mar Rojo y Equatoria regiones había ocurrido. Estos conflictos como resultado el número de muertos entre 200.000 [39] y 400.000, [8] [40] [41] más de 2,5 millones personas están desplazadas [42] y las relaciones diplomáticas entre Sudán y Chad siendo sometido a una gran presión. [43]

El gobierno de Sudán apoyó el uso de las milicias árabes reclutados en la guerra de guerrillas , como en el actual conflicto en Darfur . [39] [44] Desde entonces, miles de personas han sido desplazadas y asesinadas, y la necesidad de atención humanitaria en Darfur ha atraído la atención mundial. El conflicto ha sido descrito como un genocidio , [45] y la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI) ha emitido dos órdenes de arresto para al-Bashir, el actual presidente de Sudán. [46] [47]

Sudán también ha sido objeto de severas sanciones por supuestos vínculos con el egipcio Yihad Islámica y Al-Qaeda . [33] [34] Sudán ha anotado medio en desarrollo humano en los últimos años, [48] la número 150 en 2009, entre Haití y Tanzania . Las estadísticas indican que aproximadamente el diecisiete por ciento de la población vive con menos de 1,25 dólares EE.UU. por día. [49] Entre la población de Sudán de 30 millones de personas, casi todos siguen el Islam sunní , [8] mientras que el árabe es la lengua franca hablada por todos los sudaneses, y Inglés es también una lengua oficial. [50]

Sudán ha logrado un gran crecimiento económico mediante la implementación macroeconómicas reformas. Rico en recursos naturales como el petróleo , la economía de Sudán es uno de los de más rápido crecimiento en el mundo. [51] La República Popular de China y Japón son los principales socios de exportación de Sudán. [52]

[ edit ] las guerras civiles y la secesión de Sudán del Sur

En 1955, una guerra civil entre el norte y comenzó a Sudán del Sur. Los sureños, anticipándose a la independencia, temía que la nueva nación estaría dominado por el norte. Históricamente, el norte de Sudán tiene vínculos más estrechos con Egipto y fue predominantemente árabe o arabizado y musulmán , mientras que el sur era predominantemente no arabizados y animista o cristiana. Había sido ilegal para las personas que viven al norte del paralelo 10o a ir más al sur, y para la gente al sur del paralelo octavo ir más hacia el norte desde 1924. La ley fue promulgada con el pretexto de evitar la propagación de la malaria y otras enfermedades tropicales que devastaron las tropas británicas, y para facilitar la expansión del cristianismo entre la población mayoritariamente animista mientras se detiene la influencia árabe e islámico de avanzar hacia el sur. El resultado fue un mayor aislamiento entre el ya distinto norte y el sur y podría decirse que sentó las semillas del conflicto en los años venideros.

El conflicto resultante duró de 1955 a 1972. La guerra de 1955 comenzó cuando los oficiales del Ejército del Sur se amotinaron y luego formó el movimiento guerrillero Anya-Nya. Unos años más tarde el primer régimen sudanés militares tomaron el poder bajo el general Abboud. Los regímenes militares continuaron en 1969 cuando el general Gaafar Nimeiry dirigió un exitoso golpe de Estado. [53]

En 1972, un cese del conflicto norte-sur fue acordado bajo los términos del Acuerdo de Addis Abeba , tras las conversaciones que fueron patrocinados por el Consejo Mundial de Iglesias . Esto llevó a una pausa de diez años en el conflicto nacional con el sur disfruta de autonomía por medio de la creación de la Región Autónoma del Sur de Sudán .

En 1983, la guerra civil se reavivó tras la decisión del presidente Nimeiry de eludir el Acuerdo de Addis Abeba [ cita requerida ]. Nimeiry intentado crear un Sudán incluidos los estados federados en el sur de Sudán, que violaba el Acuerdo de Addis Abeba, que había concedido la autonomía del sur. Se nombró una comisión para llevar a cabo "una revisión sustancial del Acuerdo de Addis Abeba, en particular en las esferas de las medidas de seguridad, comercio transfronterizo, el idioma, la cultura y la religión". [54] Mansour Khalid, un ex ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, escribió: "Nimeiri tenía nunca ha sido verdaderamente comprometidos con los principios del Acuerdo de Addis Abeba ". [55] Cuando se le preguntó acerca de las revisiones afirmó: "El acuerdo de Addis Abeba es yo y Joseph Lagu y lo queremos de esa manera ... estoy 300 por ciento de la constitución. I No sé de ningún plebiscito porque estoy dispuesto por la gente como el Presidente ". [56] tropas del sur se rebelaron contra la ofensiva política del norte, y lanzaron ataques en junio de 1983.

En septiembre de 1983, la situación se agravó cuando Nimeiry impuso nuevas leyes de la Sharia islámica en todo el Sudán, incluyendo el sur no musulmán, seguido por la imposición de la ley marcial en mayo de 1984. [57]

En 1995, el ex presidente de EE.UU. Jimmy Carter negoció el mayor cese al fuego en la historia de la guerra para permitir que la ayuda humanitaria a entrar en el sur de Sudán, que habían sido inaccesibles debido a la violencia. [58] Este alto el fuego, que duró casi seis meses, ha sido desde entonces llamado el " gusano de Guinea alto el fuego ". [58]

Desde 1983, una combinación de la guerra civil y la hambruna ha cobrado la vida de cerca de 2 millones de personas en Sudán. [59] Se estima que alrededor de 200.000 personas se habían tenido en la esclavitud durante la segunda guerra civil sudanesa. [60] El guerra continuó aún después de Nimeiry fue derrocado y un gobierno democrático elegido por Al Sadiq Al Mahdi Partido Umma tener la mayoría en el parlamento. El líder del SPLA John Garang se negó a reconocer al gobierno y negociar con él como representante de Sudán, pero accedió a negociar con los funcionarios gubernamentales como representantes de sus partidos políticos. [ citación necesaria ] El Ejército sudanés avanzado con éxito en el sur, llegando a la fronteras del sur con la vecina Kenia y Uganda . La campaña se inició en 1989 y terminó en 1994. During the fight the situation worsened in the tribal south causing casualties among the Christian and animist minority. [ 61 ] Rebel leader Riek Machar subsequently signed a peace agreement with the Sudanese government and became Vice President of Sudan. His troops took part in the fight against the SPLA during the government offensive in the 1990s. After the Sudanese army took control of the entire south with the help of Machar, the situation improved. In time, however, the SPLA sought support in the West by using the northern Sudanese government's religious propaganda to portray the war as a campaign by the Arab Islamic government to impose Islam and the Arabic language on the animist and Christian south.

The war went on for more than twenty years, including the use of Russian-made combat helicopters and military cargo planes that were used as bombers to devastating effect on villages and tribal rebels alike. "Sudan's independent history has been dominated by chronic, exceptionally cruel warfare that has starkly divided the country on ethnic,racial, religious, and regional grounds; displaced an estimated four million people (of a total estimated population of thirty-two million); and killed an estimated two million people." [ 62 ] It damaged Sudan's economy and led to food shortages, resulting in starvation and malnutrition. The lack of investment during this time, particularly in the south, meant a generation lost access to basic health services, education and jobs.

Peace agreement dancers in Kapoeta , Eastern Equatoria

Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004. The peace was consolidated with the official signing by both sides of the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9 January 2005, granting Southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence. It created a co-vice president position and allowed the north and south to split oil deposits equally, but also left both the north's and south's armies in place. John Garang , the south's peace agreement appointed co-vice president, died in a helicopter crash on 1 August 2005, three weeks after being sworn in. This resulted in riots, but peace was eventually restored. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of 24 March 2005. Its mandate is to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and to perform functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights . In October 2007 the former southern rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) withdrew from government in protest over slow implementation of a landmark 2005 peace deal which ended the civil war.

The referendum was negotiated under the auspices of Intergovernmental Organization Authority for Development IGAD , the regional organization of which Sudan is a member. Despite its role in finalizing the peace process, the debate around it increasingly became argumentative. According to a Wikileaks cable, the Khartoum Government along with the Egyptian government had been trying to delay or indefinitely adjourn the referendum. However, the southern leadership, the United Nations, and the whole region remained determined to hold vote as scheduled. As such, the vote continued. On 9 January 2011, the referendum was held worldwide; the South Sudanese diaspora who voted included those from the US, the UK, Australia, Europe and East Africa. The result showed 98.9% in favour of secession.

The southern region became independent on 9 July 2011, with the name of South Sudan . Despite this result, many crucial issues are yet unresolved. The threats to people of South Sudan after referendum are numerous, with security topping the list. Other threats include disputes over the region of Abyei , control over oil fields, the borders, and the issue of citizenship.

As of 23 April 2012, Omar al-Bashir, President of Sudan, has declared he is unwilling to negotiate with officials in South Sudan. After South Sudan took control of the territorially contested Heglig for 10 days, Sudan forces pushed them out of the oil town, to the south. Even after South Sudan's withdrawal from Heglig, Sudanese MiG 29 fighter planes dropped three bombs in South Sudan. With Sudanese attacks as far as 10 km into South Sudan, South Sudanese officials cited this as both a "violation of the territory" and "clear provocation." [ 63 ] Hostility is inflating as both nations scramble to bulk up their military forces. President Bashir stated: "We will not negotiate with the South's government, because they don't understand anything but the language of the gun and ammunition...Our talks with them were with guns and bullets." [ 63 ]

[ edit ] Conflict in Abyei

The issue of Abyei is a grave matter in terms of bringing lasting peace to the country. According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the region of Abyei must hold its own referendum, and decide whether to go with the south, or remain with Sudan. As such, the CPA set forth two referenda in Sudan, the South Sudan referendum as to whether to split from Sudan and the Abyei referendum as to whether to join South Sudan in its secession. Nevertheless, the voting in Abyei did not happen as stipulated largely because of the dispute over who has the right to vote in the region. Until now the referendum on Abyei is yet to be rescheduled, and the tension is rising in the region. The Government of Sudan is calling for all the residents of Abyei to take part in the referendum while the SPLA/M wants to exclude non-Dinka residents. Recently, the standing Abyei Committee has formed a new committee called the Joint Technical Committee to look at the case again, as well as the case of Kadugli.

Many humanitarian aid and relief services, such as the World Food Program , World Vision , Oxfam , Cordaid and Care International , have a presence in the area. Secession from Sudan will not necessarily solve the economic problems for Abyei. Further, the situation in Abyei is worsening in terms of security and disputes over land now that South Sudan has become independent.

[ edit ] War in Darfur

Map highlighting the Darfur region of Sudan

Just as the long north-south civil war was reaching a resolution, some clashes occurred in the Muslim western region of Darfur in the early 1970s between the pastoral tribes. The rebels accused the central government of neglecting the Darfur region economically. Both the government and the rebels have been accused of atrocities in this war, although most of the blame has fallen on Arabic speaking nomads militias known as the Janjaweed , which are armed men appointed by the Al Saddiq Al Mahdi administration to stop the longstanding chaotic disputes between Darfur tribes. According to declarations by the US government, these militias have been engaging in genocide , the UN and African Union does not agree with the genocide label; the fighting has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, many of them seeking refuge in neighbouring Chad . The government claimed victory over the rebels after capturing a town on the border with Chad in early 1994. However, the fighting resumed in 2003.

On 9 September 2004, US Secretary of State Colin Powell termed the Darfur conflict a genocide, claiming it as the worst humanitarian crisis of the 21st century. [ 64 ] There have been reports that the Janjaweed has been launching raids, bombings, and attacks on villages, killing civilians based on ethnicity, raping women, stealing land, goods, and herds of livestock. So far, over 2.5 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is variously estimated from 200,000 [ 39 ] to 400,000 killed. [ 65 ] These figures have remained stagnant since initial UN reports of the conflict hinted at genocide in 2003/2004. Genocide has been considered a criminal offense under international humanitarian law since the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide . [ 66 ]

On 5 May 2006, the Sudanese government and Darfur's largest rebel group, the SLM (Sudanese Liberation Movement), signed the Darfur Peace Agreement , which aimed at ending the three-year-long conflict. [ 67 ] The agreement specified the disarmament of the Janjaweed and the disbandment of the rebel forces, and aimed at establishing a temporal government in which the rebels could take part. [ 68 ] The agreement, which was brokered by the African Union , however, was not signed by all of the rebel groups. [ 68 ] Only one rebel group, the SLA, led by Minni Arko Minnawi, signed the agreement. [ 69 ]

Since the agreement was signed, however, there have been reports of widespread violence throughout the region. A new rebel group has emerged called the National Redemption Front, which is made up of the four main rebel groups that refused to sign the May peace agreement. [ 70 ] Recently, [ when? ] both the Sudanese government and government-sponsored militias have launched large offensives against the rebel groups, resulting in more deaths and more displacements. Clashes among the rebel groups have also contributed to the violence. [ 70 ] Recent [ when? ] fighting along the Chad border has left hundreds of soldiers and rebel forces dead and nearly a quarter of a million refugees cut off from aid. [ 71 ] In addition, villages have been bombed and more civilians have been killed. UNICEF recently [ when? ] reported that around eighty infants die each day in Darfur as a result of malnutrition . The hunger in the Darfur region is still concerning many developed countries in the world.

The people in Darfur are predominantly non-Arabized members of the Darfur tribe who adhere to Islam. While the Janjaweed / Baggara militia is made up of Arabized indigenous Africans and few Arab Bedouin ; the majority of other Arab groups in Darfur remain uninvolved in the conflict. [ 72 ]

The International Criminal Court (ICC) has indicted State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun and alleged Muslim Janjaweed militia leader Ali Mohammed Ali, also known as Ali Kosheib, in relation to the atrocities in the region. Ahmed Haroun belongs to the Bargou tribe, one of the non-Arab tribes of Darfur, and is alleged to have incited attacks on specific non-Arab ethnic groups. Ali Kosheib is a former soldier and a leader of the popular defense forces, and is alleged to be one of the key leaders responsible for attacks on villages in west Darfur.

The ICC's chief prosecutor on Darfur, Luis Moreno Ocampo , announced on 14 July 2008 ten criminal charges against Bashir, accusing him of sponsoring war crimes and crimes against humanity . [ 73 ] The ICC's prosecutors have claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity The Arab League , African Union , and France support Sudan's efforts to suspend the ICC investigation. [ 74 ] They are willing to consider Article 16 of the ICC's Rome Statute , which states ICC investigations can be suspended for one year if the investigation endangers the peace process.

[ edit ] Conflict with Chad

The Chad-Sudan Conflict (2005–2007) officially started on 23 December 2005, when the government of Chad declared a state of war with Sudan and called for the citizens of Chad to mobilize themselves against the "common enemy" [ 75 ] —the United Front for Democratic Change , a coalition of rebel factions dedicated to overthrowing Chadian President Idriss Déby (and who the Chadians believe are backed by the Sudanese government), and Sudanese janjawid, who have been raiding refugee camps and certain tribes in eastern Chad. Déby accuses Sudanese President Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir of trying to "destabilize our country, to drive our people into misery, to create disorder and export the war from Darfur to Chad."

The problem prompting the declaration of war was an attack on the Chadian town of Adré near the Sudanese border that led to the deaths of either one hundred rebels (as most news sources reported) or three hundred rebels. The Sudanese government was blamed for the attack, which was the second in the region in three days, [ 76 ] but Sudanese foreign ministry spokesman Jamal Mohammed Ibrahim denied any Sudanese involvement, "We are not for any escalation with Chad. We technically deny involvement in Chadian internal affairs." The Battle of Adré led to the declaration of war by Chad and the alleged deployment of the Chadian air force into Sudanese airspace, which the Chadian government denies. [ 77 ] The leaders of Sudan and Chad signed an agreement in Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the Darfur conflict along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) border. [ 78 ]

[ editar ] Frente Oriental

Beja nomads
Rashaida in the east

The Eastern Front, whose chairman is the current presidential adviser Mr. Musa Mohamed Ahmed , was a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea , particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala . While the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, the SPLA was obliged to leave by the January 2005 agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War . Their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions , two tribal-based groups of the Arabized Beja and the Arab Rashaida people , respectively. [ 79 ]

Both the Free Lions and the Beja Congress stated that government inequity in the distribution of oil profits, and for the Beja the often uncompromising Arabization campaign of the central government, was the cause of their rebellion. They demanded to have a greater say in the composition of the national government, which has been seen as a destabilizing influence on the agreement ending the conflict in Southern Sudan . [ citation needed ]

The Eritrean government in mid-2006 dramatically changed its position on the conflict. From being the main supporter of the Eastern Front, it decided that bringing the Sudanese government around the negotiating table for a possible agreement with the rebels would be in its best interests. [ citation needed ]

It was successful in its attempts and on 19 June 2006, the two sides signed an agreement on declaration of principles. [ 80 ] This was the start of four months of Eritrean-mediated negotiations for a comprehensive peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front, which culminated in signing of a peace agreement on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. The agreement covers security issues, power sharing at a federal and regional level, and wealth sharing in regards to the three Eastern states Kassala , Red Sea and Al Qadarif . [ citation needed ] One of the agreements made between the Khartoum government and the Eastern Front was that Khartoum would push for international arbitration to solve the situation in the disputed Hala'ib Triangle which has been under Egyptian military annexation since 1995.

In July 2007, many areas in the western and southern parts of the country were devastated by flooding , prompting an immediate humanitarian response by the United Nations and partners, under the leadership of acting United Nations Resident Coordinators David Gressly and Oluseyi Bajulaiye . [ 81 ] Over 400,000 people were directly affected, with over 3.5 million at risk of epidemics. [ 82 ] The United Nations allocated US$ 13.5 million for the response from its pooled funds, and launched an appeal to the international community to cover the gap. [ 83 ] The humanitarian crisis is in danger of worsening. Following attacks in Darfur, the UN World Food Programme announced it could stop food aid to some parts of Darfur. [ 84 ] Banditry against truck convoys is one of the biggest problems, as it impedes the delivery of food assistance to war-stricken areas and forces a cut in monthly rations.

[ editar ] Gobierno y política

Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic , where the President of Sudan is head of state , head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudan People's Armed Forces in a multi-party system . Legislative power is vested in both the government and the bicameral parliament — the National Legislature , with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber). The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court . [ 8 ]

However, following the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005) and the now-low-scale war in Darfur , Sudan is widely recognized as an authoritarian state where all effective political power is obtained by President Omar al-Bashir and the ruling National Congress Party (NCP). The political system of the country was restructured following a military coup on 30 June 1989, when al-Bashir, then a colonel in the Sudanese Army , led a group of officers and ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi . Under al-Bashir's leadership, the new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level. [ 28 ]

He then became Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (a newly established body with legislative and executive powers for what was described as a transitional period), and assumed the posts of chief of state , prime minister , chief of the armed forces and minister of defense . [ 29 ] Further on, after institutionalizing Sharia law in the northern part of the country along with Hassan al-Turabi , al-Bashir issued purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent newspapers and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists. [ 30 ]

In 1993, Sudan was transformed into an Islamic authoritarian single-party state as al-Bashir abolished the Revolutionary Command Council and created the National Islamic Front (NIF) with a new parliament and government obtained solely by members of the NIF. At the same time, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of twenty-six states, each headed by a governor , thus making Sudan a federal republic . As a result, the Second Sudanese Civil War with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) would only escalate in the following years. [ 37 ] [ 38 ]

Following the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the government of al-Bashir and the SPLA, a government of national unity was installed in Sudan in accordance with the Interim Constitution whereby a co- Sudan Vice President position representing the south was created in addition to the northern Sudanese Vice President . This allowed the north and south to split oil deposits equally, [ 85 ] but also left both the north's and south's armies in place. Following the Darfur Peace Agreement in 2006, the office of senior presidential advisor was allocated to Minni Minnawi , a Zaghawa of the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA), and, thus, became the fourth-highest constitutional post.

Executive posts are divided between the NCP, the SPLA, the Sudanese Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). This peace agreement with the rebel group SPLA granted Southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence in 2011.

According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament and is divided between two chambers — the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats, and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms. [ 8 ]

Despite his international arrest warrant, al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election , the first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in twenty-four years. [ 86 ] In the build-up to the vote, Sudanese pro-democracy activists say they faced intimidation by the government [ 87 ] and the International Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had gerrymandered electoral districts. [ 88 ] A few days before the vote, the main opposition candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from the race. [ 89 ] The US-based Carter Center , which helped monitor the elections, described the vote tabulation process as "highly chaotic, non-transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation." [ 90 ] Al-Bashir was declared the winner of the election with sixty-eight percent of the vote. [ 86 ] There was considerable concern amongst the international community of a return to violence in the run-up to the January 2011 southern Sudan referendum , with post-referendum issues such as oil-revenue sharing and border demarcation not yet resolved. [ 91 ]

[ editar ] Relaciones Exteriores

Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi head of Arab League monitors in Syria (January 2012)

Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its radical Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda , Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). But in the early 1980s, at the time of President Gaafar Nimeiry , who took power on 25 May 1969, Sudan had a good relationship with the West. In early 1983, South Sudanese revolted against the government and formed the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) movement. Like many other African nationalist movements, SPLA was initially tied with Cuba, Russia, and other communist states. For this reason, the Khartoum government used the links effectively to woo Western states for support in its war against the SPLA. Nevertheless, the relationship was short-lived. In 1998, the Khartoum government was sanctioned for collaborating with terrorist organizations. From the mid-1990s, Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased US pressure following the 1998 US embassy bombings , in Tanzania and Kenya , and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle . Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan have centred on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the war in Darfur .

Shortly after the Islamic Conservatists seized power in a coup in 1989, Sudan increasingly became a fundamentalist Islamic state. In addition, the National Islamic Front engaged in both regional and international terrorism. For example the NIF was accused of supporting Egyptian Jihad against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak . The assassination attempt against the Egyptian president was largely blamed on the Khartoum government. Sudan's relation with its eastern neighbour Eritrea was very rocky for the same reason. In December 1995, Eritrea accused Khartoum of supporting its Islamic rebels. As a result, Eritrea severed ties with the Khartoum government. Other neighboring countries such as Uganda and Chad have taken the same course. Hence, the National Islamic Front ultimately stands alone in the region. In 1990s, Al Qaeda leader bin-Laden joined the regime and Sudan became a safehaven for terrorism. As the National Islamic Front regime in Khartoum gradually emerged as a real threat to the region and the world, the US began to list Sudan on its list of State Sponsors of Terrorism . Before that, the Clinton administration bombed a Khartoum suspected site in 1998, known as Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory . The US thought that the place was used for chemical weapons and thought it was connected with the Al Qaeda network. According to Bob Edward, the Secretary of State Warren Christopher has added Sudan to the list of countries that sponsor terrorist in the State Department. After the US listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop relations with Iraq , and later Iran , the two most controversial countries in the region: they were also in old with America. Accusations against the National Islam Front of Khartoum range from state sponsor terrorism to its affiliation with radical group such as Palestinian and Iranian regimes.

Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten percent of its oil from Sudan. According to a former Sudanese government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms. [ 92 ]

On 23 December 2005, Sudan's neighbour to the west, Chad , declared war on Sudan and accused the country of being the "common enemy of the nation [Chad] ." This happened after the 18 December attack on Adré , which left about one hundred people dead. A statement issued by Chadian government on 23 December accused Sudanese militias of making daily raids into Chad, thereby stealing cattle, killing people and burning villages on the Chadian border. The statement went on to call for Chadians to form a patriotic front against Sudan. [ 75 ]

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC, formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference) has called on Sudan and Chad to exercise self-restraint to defuse growing tensions between the two countries. [ 93 ] On 11 May 2008, Sudan announced it was cutting diplomatic relations with Chad, claiming that it was helping rebels in Darfur to attack the Sudanese capital Khartoum . [ 94 ]

On 27 December 2005, Sudan became one of the few states to recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara . [ 95 ]

On 20 June 2006, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir told reporters that he would not allow any UN peacekeeping force into Sudan. He denounced any such mission as "colonial forces." [ 96 ] On 17 November 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced that "Sudan has agreed in principle to allow the establishment of a joint African Union and UN peacekeeping force in an effort to solve the crisis in Darfur" — but had stopped short of setting the number of troops involved. Annan speculated that this force could number 17,000. [ 97 ]

Despite this claim, no additional troops had been deployed as of late December 2006. On 31 July 2007, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1769, authorizing the deployment of UN forces. [ 98 ] Violence continued in the region and on 15 December 2006, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC) stated they would be proceeding with cases of human-rights violations against members of the Sudanese government. [ 99 ] A Sudanese legislator was quoted as saying that Khartoum may permit UN peacekeepers to patrol Darfur in exchange for immunity from prosecution for officials charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity.

[ editar ] Fuerzas Armadas

The Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of Sudan and is divided into five branches; the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy (including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force , Border Patrol and the Internal Affairs Defense Force, totalling about 200,000 troops. The military of Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force, thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and preserve internal security.

However, since the Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups such as the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have been important priorities. While not official, the Sudanese military also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the Janjaweed , in executing a counter-insurgency war. [ 100 ] Somewhere between 200,000 [ 39 ] and 400,000 [ 8 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] people have died in the violent struggles.

[ edit ] International organizations in Sudan

Several UN agents are operating in Sudan such as the World Food Program ( WFP ); the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation ( FAO ); the United Nations Development Program ( UNDP ); the United Nations Industrial Development Organizations ( UNIDO ); the United Nations Children Fund ( UNICEF ); the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ); the United Nations Mine Service (UNMAS), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the World Bank . Also present is the Intergovernmental Organization for Migration ( IOM );.. [ 101 ] [ 102 ]

Since Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also involved in humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. The NGOs are working in every corner of Sudan, especially in the southern part and western parts. During the civil war, international nongovernmental organizations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south but based in the capital Khartoum. [ 103 ] The attention of NGOs shifted shortly after the war broke out in the western part of the Sudan known as Darfur. The most visible organization in South Sudan is the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) consortium. [ 104 ]

Even though most of the international organizations are substantially concentrated in both South Sudan and Darfur region, some of them are working in the northern part as well. For example the United Nations Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in Khartoum , the capital. It is mainly funded by the European Union and recently opened more vocational training. The Canadian International Development Agency is operating largely in the northern Sudan. [ 105 ]

[ edit ] Legal system

The legal system in Sudan is based on English common law and Islamic sharia . Islamic law was implemented in all of the north as of September 1983, by Jafar An-Numeri, the Second Sudanese Military Dictator; this applied to all residents of the Sudan regardless of their religion. The 2005 Naivasha Agreement , ending the civil war between north and south Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum. International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with reservations. Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law did not apply in the south. [ 106 ] Since the secession of South Sudan there is some uncertainty as to whether Sharia law will now apply to the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter. [ 107 ]

The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court and National Courts of Appeal, and other national courts; the National Judicial Service Commission provides overall management for the judiciary.

[ editar ] Derechos humanos

[ edit ] Southern Sudan

As early as 1995, international rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch and CASMAS have reported that slavery in Sudan is a common fate of captives in the Second Sudanese Civil War and rebels fighting in the Sudan People's Liberation Army in connections to the war in Darfur , while the 2002 report issued by the International Eminent Persons Group, acting with the encouragement of the US State Department , found the SPLA and pro-government militias guilty of abduction of civilians as well. [ 108 ]

While the Sudanese government denies these allegations, Rift Valley Institute 's Sudan Abductee Database claim over 11,000 people were abducted in twenty years of slave-raiding in the southern regions, [ 109 ] while SudanActivism.com mentions that hundreds of thousands have been abducted into slavery , fled or are otherwise unaccounted for in a second genocide in southern Sudan. [ 110 ]

Although South Sudan proper became independent in July 2011, allegations of human rights abuses continue to be made against the Sudanese government amidst its efforts to pacify rebellion in the southern state of South Kordofan .

Darfur refugee camp in Chad , 2005

According to the Annual Report 2011 of the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, a joint program FIDH (International Federation for Human Rights) and OMCT (World Organisation Against Torture), in 2010–2011, in the run up to the referendum on Southern Sudan independence, repression intensified against all dissenting voices, largely conducted by the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS). As in previous years, crackdown on human rights activists aimed at preventing any independent reporting on the human rights situation in Darfur continued, and humanitarian workers working in that region were subjected to further attacks and restrictions on freedom of movement. Journalists reporting on human rights violations also faced censorship and harassment. Human rights defenders promoting fair, transparent and free electoral processes and a number of women's rights defenders were also targeted. [ 111 ]

[ edit ] Darfur

A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of protecting its own citizens in Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity . The letter added that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004. [ 112 ] Some reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the government and the Janjaweed . The US State Department's human-rights report issued in March 2007 claims that " [a] ll parties to the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and recruitment of child soldiers." [ 113 ]

Both government forces and militias allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights defenders , student activists and displaced people in and around Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been accused in a report issued by the US government of attacking humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians. [ 114 ]

[ edit ] States and regions

Political map of Sudan. The Hala'ib Triangle has been under Egyptian administration since 2000.

Sudan is divided into seventeen states ( wilayat , sing. wilayah ). They are further divided into 133 districts .




[ edit ] Regional bodies and areas of conflict

In addition to the states, there also exist regional administrative bodies established by peace agreements between the central government and rebel groups.

  Central and northern states
  Darfur
  South Kurdufan and Blue Nile states
[ edit ] Regional administrative bodies
[ edit ] Disputed areas and zones of conflict

[ editar ] Geografía

Jebel Barkal mountain in Nubia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
Satellite image of Sudan

Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea . [ 117 ] With an area of 1,886,068 km 2 (728,215 sq mi), it is the third largest country on the continent (after Algeria and DR Congo ) and the sixteenth largest in the world. Sudan lies between latitudes and 23°N .

The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the west the Deriba Caldera (3,042 m/9,980 ft), located in the Marrah Mountains , is the highest point in Sudan; in the east are the Red Sea Hills . [ 118 ]

The Blue and White Nile rivers meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile , which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea . The Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between Sennar and Khartoum . The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries.

The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. In the north there is the very dry Nubian Desert ; in the south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan's rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south. The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms , known as haboob , which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic , travelling with their herds of sheep and camels . Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops . [ 119 ]

There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border.

Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos , chromite , cobalt , copper , gold , granite , gypsum , iron , kaolin , lead , manganese , mica , natural gas , nickel , petroleum , silver , tin , uranium and zinc . [ 120 ]

Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. [ 121 ] There is also concern over soil erosion . Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation , soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table . [ 122 ]

The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp , Northern White Rhinoceros , Tora Hartebeest , Slender-horned Gazelle , and hawksbill turtle . The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild. [ 123 ]

[ editar ] Economía

In 2010, Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy [ 124 ] in the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New York Times in a 2006 article. [ 125 ] Due to the secession of South Sudan , which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields, the economic forecast for Sudan in 2011 and beyond is uncertain.

Development in Khartoum.

Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a rise from a very low level of per capita output. In any case, the economy in the Sudan has been slowly growing over the last ten years, and according to a World Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent. [ 8 ] This growth was sustained even during the crisis in Darfur and period of southern autonomy preceding South Sudan's independence. [ 126 ] [ 127 ]

While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000 growth. Currently, the International Monetary Fund IMF is working hand in hand with Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic policies.This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and World Bank soured, culminating in its eventual suspension from the IMF. [ 128 ] The program has been in place since early '90s, and also work-out exchange rate and reserve of foreign exchange. [ 8 ] Since 1997, Sudan has been implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the International Monetary Fund . [ citation needed ]

In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999, recorded its first trade surplus . Increased oil production (the current [ when? ] production is about 520,000 barrels per day (83,000 m 3 /d)) revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain gross domestic product (GDP) growth at 6.1 percent in 2003. These gains, along with improvements to monetary policy, have stabilized the exchange rate. The People's Republic of China is Sudan's largest economic partner, with a 40 percent share in its oil. [ 129 ] The country also sells Sudan small arms, which have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur and South Kordofan . [ 130 ]

Oil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007. Sustained growth was expected the next year in 2008 due to not only increasing oil production, but also to the boost of hydroelectricity (annual electricity yield of 5.5 TWh) provided by the Merowe Dam . The independence of oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's direct control. In order to export oil, South Sudan must rely on a pipeline to Port Sudan on Sudan's Red Sea coast, as South Sudan itself is landlocked, as well as on Sudan's superior refinery infrastructure. The exact terms of a revenue-splitting agreement between Juba and Khartoum have yet to be established, but Sudan will likely receive a significant portion of the income from South Sudan's oil sales as a fee for the use of Sudanese pipelines, refineries, and port facilities, perhaps as much as 50 percent of the profits. [ 131 ]

Agriculture production remains Sudan's most-important sector, employing eighty percent of the workforce and contributing thirty-nine percent of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought . Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.

The Merowe Dam , also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in Northern Sudan, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. It is situated on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream from the dam's construction site.

The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. The construction of the dam was finished December 2008, supplying more than ninety percent of the population with electricity. Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum State and other States.

[ editar ] Demografía

A Nubian wedding
Sudanese writer Leila Aboulela
Student from Khartoum
Bedouin in North

In Sudan's 2008 census , the population of Northern, Western and Eastern Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. [ 132 ] This puts present estimates of the population of Sudan after the secession of South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6 million. [ 133 ] The population of metropolitan Khartoum (including Khartoum , Omdurman , and Khartoum North ) is growing rapidly and was recorded to be 5.2 million.

Despite being a refugee-generating country, Sudan also hosts a refugee population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 , published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , 310,500 refugees and asylum seekers lived in Sudan in 2007. The majority of this population came from Eritrea (240,400 persons), Chad (45,000), Ethiopia (49,300) and the Central African Republic (2,500). [ 134 ] The Sudanese government UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2007 forcibly deported at least 1,500 refugees and asylum seekers during the year. Sudan is a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees . [ 134 ]

[ editar ] Grupos étnicos

The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population. [ 135 ] Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians , Copts , and Beja . [ 136 ] [ 137 ] Sudan has 597 tribes that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. [ 138 ] Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan, they are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic ; some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic ; Rufa'a , Bani Hassan , Al-Ashraf , Kinanah and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic . In addition, the Western province comprise various ethnic groups, while few Arab Bedouin of the northern Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese Arabic and share the same culture and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs, The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes like the Fur , Zaghawa , Masalit and some Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian Arabic , show less cultural integration, not often included in Sudanese Arabs definition, due to cultural, linguistic and genealogical variations with other Arab and Arabized tribes. [ 139 ] Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian peninsula and some of the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, most predominately the Nubian people who also share a common history with Egypt and Beja . Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century. [ 140 ] The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous African populations and introduced Islam. [ 141 ]

In common with much of the rest of the Arab world , the gradual process of Arabization in Sudan following these Arabian migrations after the 12th century led to the predominance of the Arabic language and aspects of Arab culture , leading to the shift among a majority of Sudanese today to an Arab ethnic identity . This process was furthered both by the spread of Islam and an emigration to Sudan of genealogical Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula, and their intermarriage with the Arabized indigenous peoples of the country. [ citation needed ]

Sudan consists of numerous other non-arabic tribes, such as the Masaleet , Zagawa , Fulani , Northern Nubians , Nuba , and Bija .

[ editar ] Religión

A Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Khartoum

97 percent of the population adheres to Islam . The Sudanese Muslims are entirely adherents to Sunni branch, [ 142 ] [ 143 ] [ 144 ] Almost all Muslims are Sunni, although there are significant distinctions between followers of different Sunni traditions. Two popular divisions, the Ansar and the Khatmia, are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist Parties, respectively. There are significant but long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians in Khartoum and other northern cities.

There are also Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities in Khartoum and eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past few decades. Other Christian groups with smaller followings in the country include the Africa Inland Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church , the Sudan Church of Christ, the Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah's Witnesses , the Sudan Pentecostal Church, the Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North) Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions. Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its support from Islamists , Salafis / Wahhabis and other conservative Arab Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab followers of the Ansar sect of Sufism as well as non-Arab Muslims from Darfur and Kordofan. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both Arab and non-Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in the Khatmia Sufi sect.

[ edit ] Tribes of Sudan




Personas Ubicación
Fula (Fulani) Blue Nile, and West
Rashaida east
Piel west

[ editar ] Idiomas

The most widely spoken languages in Sudan are:

  1. Árabe
    1. Sudanese Arabic .
    2. Najdi and Hejazi Arabic, (mainly in mid-north and mid-east regions).
    3. Chadic Arabic in western region, (mainly spoken by Baggara and various Arabized African tribes).
  2. Nubian language in far north, (mainly spoken by Nubians of Mahas, Dongola and Halfa).
  3. Beja language knows as Bedawit in far east alongside Red sea, (mainly spoken by Beja of Hadandawa, Ababda and Bisharin). [ citation needed ]

Before 2005, only Arabic was the official language. [ 145 ] In the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became Arabic and English . [ 146 ]

[ editar ] Cultura

[ editar ] Educación

Khartoum University established in 1902

Institutions of higher education in Sudan include:





[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

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[ editar ] Bibliografía

Libros

Article

  • "Quo Vadis bilad as-Sudan? The Contemporary Framework for a National Interim Constitution". Law in Africa ( Cologne ; 2005). Vol. 8, pp. 63–82. ISSN 1435-0963 .

[ editar ] Enlaces externos

Coordinates : 15°N 032°E  /  15°N 32°E  / 15; 32