Sierra Leona

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República de Sierra Leona
República de Sierra Leona
Lema: "Unidad, Libertad, Justicia"
Himno: Te damos de alta exaltar, Realm of the Free
Lugar de Sierra Leona (azul oscuro) - en África (azul claro y gris oscuro) - en la Unión Africana (azul claro) - [Leyenda]
Ubicación de   Sierra Leona    (Azul oscuro)

- En África    (Azul claro y gris oscuro)
- En la Unión Africana    (Azul claro) - [ Leyenda ]

Capital
y la ciudad más grande
Freetown
8 ° 29,067 'N 13 ° 14.067' W / 13.23445 ° N 8.48445 ° W / 8,48445; -13.23445
Idiomas oficiales Inglés
Lenguas vernaculares
Los grupos étnicos (2008)
Demonym Sierra Leona
Gobierno Presidencial constitucional república
- Presidente Ernest Bai Koroma ( APC )
- Vice Presidente Samuel Sam-Sumana ( APC )
- Presidente del Parlamento Abel Bankole Stronge ( APC )
- Presidente del Tribunal Supremo Umu Hawa Tejan-Jalloh
Legislatura Parlamento
Independencia
- desde el Reino Unido 27 de abril 1961
- República declaró 19 de abril 1971
Área
- Total 71.740 kilometros 2 ( 119a )
27.699 millas cuadradas
- Agua (%) 1,1
Población
- 2012 estimación 6.000.000 [1] [2]
- Densidad 79.4/km 2 ( un 114a )
205.6/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2011 estimación
- Total $ 5,093 mil millones [3]
- Per cápita $ 849 [3]
PIB (nominal) 2011 estimación
- Total $ 2,196 mil millones [3]
- Per cápita $ 366 [3]
Gini (2003) 62,9 (media)
HDI (2011) Aumentar 0.336 (baja / 180a )
Moneda Leona ( SLL )
Huso horario GMT ( UTC +0)
Unidades en el derecho b
Prefijo telefónico 232
Dominio Internet . Sl
una. Posición basada en cifras de 2007.
b. Desde el 1 de marzo de 1971.

Sierra Leona ( Escuchar i / s ɪ ɛər ə l ɪ n ɪ / o / l ɪ n / ), [4] La República de Sierra Leona, es un país de África occidental que limita con Guinea al noreste, Liberia hacia el sureste y el Atlántico océano hacia el suroeste. Sierra Leona es una república constitucional con una elección directa del presidente y una Asamblea Legislativa unicameral . El país tiene un clima tropical , con un ambiente diverso que van desde la sabana a selva . El país tiene una superficie total de 71.740 km2 (27.699 millas cuadradas) [5] y con una población estimada de 6 millones (2011 de las Naciones Unidas estimación). [1] [2]

Sierra Leona se divide en cuatro geográficas regiones : la Northern Province , Provincia Oriental , Provincia del Sur y la zona occidental , que se dividen en catorce distritos . Los distritos tienen su propia elección directa del gobierno local conocido como consejo de distrito , encabezada por un presidente del consejo. Freetown es la capital de la ciudad más grande, así como su centro económico, comercial y político.

Sierra Leona se ha basado en la minería , especialmente diamantes , por su base económica. El país se encuentra entre los mayores productores de titanio y bauxita , y un importante productor de oro . El país tiene uno de los mayores depósitos del mundo de rutilo . Sierra Leona es también el hogar del tercer mayor puerto natural del mundo, donde el envío de todo el mundo en la famosa plaza de Freetown Queen Elizabeth II Quay . A pesar de esta riqueza natural, el 70% de su población vive en la pobreza . [6]

Sierra Leona es predominantemente musulmana país, [7] [8] [9] , aunque con una influencia cristiana minoritaria. Sierra Leona está considerado como uno de los países más religiosamente tolerantes del mundo. [10] [11] [12] La gente a menudo se casan a través de las fronteras étnicas y religiosas. Los musulmanes y los cristianos colaboran e interactúan unos con otros en paz. [13] [10] La violencia religiosa es muy rara en el país. La población de Sierra Leona cuenta con cerca de dieciséis grupos étnicos , cada uno con su propia lengua y traje. El mayor y más influyente dos son el Temne y el Mende . Aunque Inglés es el idioma de instrucción en las escuelas y la lengua oficial en la administración pública, el lenguaje Krio (derivado de Inglés y varios idiomas africanos indígenas) es la lengua principal de comunicación entre los diferentes grupos étnicos de Sierra Leona, y es hablado por el 90% de la población del país. [14] El lenguaje Krio une a todos los diferentes grupos étnicos , especialmente en el comercio y su interacción con los demás. [15]

En 1462, el área que ahora es Sierra Leona fue visitada por el explorador portugués Pedro de Sintra , quien la nombró Leoa Serra, que significa "Montaña Leona". [16] [17] Sierra Leona después se convirtió en un centro importante del comercio transatlántico de esclavos al 11 de marzo 1792 cuando Freetown fue fundada por la Compañía de Sierra Leona como un hogar para ex esclavos de (o liberado por) el Imperio Británico . [18] En 1808, se convirtió en Freetown británico colonia de la Corona , y en 1896, el interior del el país se convirtió en un ciudadano británico Protectorado . [19] Entre 1991 y 2002, la guerra civil de Sierra Leona devastó el país, dejando más de 50.000 muertos, la mayor parte del país, la infraestructura destruida, y más de dos millones de personas desplazadas en los países vecinos como refugiados .

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia

[ editar ] Historia temprana

Fragmentos de prehistórico cerámica de Kamabai abrigo rocoso
Una ilustración de 1835 de los africanos liberados de llegar a Sierra Leona.
La colonia de Freetown en 1856

Los hallazgos arqueológicos muestran que Sierra Leona ha estado habitada de forma continua durante al menos 2.500 años, [20] habitado por sucesivos movimientos de otras partes de África. [21] El uso del hierro fue introducido en Sierra Leona en el siglo noveno, y en 1000 AD agricultura se practicaba por las tribus costeras. [22] densa selva tropical de Sierra Leona en gran parte protegido de la influencia de cualquier imperios africanos pre-coloniales [23] y de más islámico influencia del imperio de Malí . La fe islámica, sin embargo, llegó a ser común en el siglo 18. [24]

Contactos europeos en Sierra Leona fueron de los primeros en el África occidental . En 1462, el explorador portugués Pedro de Sintra asignan las colinas que rodean lo que hoy es Puerto Freetown, nombrando en forma de formación Serra de Leão ( portugués de la Montaña del León). [17] La traducción italiana de esta formación geográfica es Sierra Leona, que se convirtió en el nombre del país .

Poco después de que los comerciantes portugueses llegaron al puerto y por 1495 una fortaleza que servía de puesto de operaciones se había construido. [25] Los portugueses se unieron a los holandeses y franceses, todos ellos con Sierra Leona como un punto de comercio para los esclavos . [ 26] En 1562, el Inglés se unió a la trata de personas, cuando Sir John Hawkins enviado 300 personas adquiridas esclavizados "por la espada, y en parte por otros medios"-a las nuevas colonias de América. [27]

[ editar ] Los primeros colonias

En 1787 se fundó una colonia en Sierra Leona, en lo que se llamó la " Provincia de la Libertad ". Una serie de "Negro Pobres" llegó a la costa de Sierra Leona el 15 de mayo de 1787, acompañado por algunos ingleses comerciantes . Muchos de los "pobres negro" eran afroamericanos , que habían sido puestos en libertad después de buscar refugio en el ejército británico durante la Revolución Americana , pero también se incluyen otros antillanos, africanos y asiáticos habitantes de Londres. Después de establecer la ciudad de Granville , la enfermedad y la hostilidad de los indígenas eliminado el primer grupo de colonos y destruyeron su liquidación. Un segundo Ciudad Granville fue establecida por 64 colonos restantes. [28]

Bajo el impulso de Thomas Peters , la Compañía de Sierra Leona fue establecido para reubicar a los legitimistas negros , que habían escapado de la esclavitud en los Estados Unidos, buscando protección en el ejército británico durante la Revolución Americana. Se les había dado la tierra en Nueva Escocia y fundó Birchtown , Nueva Escocia pero ante los duros inviernos y el racismo. Dirigido por Thomas Peters y abolicionista británico John Clarkson , 1196 de los legitimistas negros de Nueva Escocia cruzó el Atlántico para construir el segundo (y único permanente) Colonia de Sierra Leona y la solución de Freetown el 11 de marzo de 1792. En Sierra Leona se llamaban los colonos de Nueva Escocia , la de Nueva Escocia, o los colonos. Los colonos construyeron Freetown y se introdujo en North estilos arquitectónicos americanos de la América del Sur , así como la moda occidental y las costumbres americanas. En la década de 1790, los colonos votaron por primera vez en las elecciones, al igual que las mujeres. [29] El Sierra Leona empresa se ​​negó a permitir a los colonos a tomar plena propiedad de la tierra. Algunos de los colonos se rebelaron en 1799. La revuelta fue sólo por la llegada de más de 500 Jamaican Maroons , quienes también llegaron a través de Nova Scotia. En 1800, los cimarrones jamaicanos de la ciudad de Trelawny, Jamaica se resolvieron a través de Nova Scotia.

Después de dieciséis años de funcionamiento de la Colonia, la Compañía de Sierra Leona se formó en el Instituto Africano . La Institución se reunieron en 1807 para lograr más éxito al enfocarse en mejorar la economía local, sino que constantemente se dividió entre aquellos británicos que pretende inspirar a los emprendedores locales y aquellos con interés en la empresa y Babington Macaulay, que tenía el monopolio (británico) sobre Sierra Leona comercio. [30]

A partir de 1808 (después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos en 1807 ), miles de africanos esclavizados fueron liberados anteriormente en Freetown. La mayoría de estos africanos liberados o "recapturados" decidió permanecer en Sierra Leona. Separados de sus viviendas y las tradiciones, los africanos Liberado asimiló los estilos occidentales de los colonos y los cimarrones y construyó un floreciente comercio de flores y perlas en la costa oeste de África. Estos africanos fueron devueltos desde muchas zonas de África, pero principalmente en la costa oeste. Durante el siglo 19 muchos estadounidenses negro, Américo liberianos "refugiados", y particularmente los caribeños emigraron y se establecieron en Freetown la creación de una nueva etnicidad llamada Krio.

[ editar ] Era Colonial

Bai Bureh , líder de la rebelión de 1898 contra el dominio británico

En el siglo 20, Freetown fue la residencia del gobernador británico que también gobernó la Costa de Oro (hoy Ghana ) y Gambia asentamientos. Sierra Leona también sirvió como centro educativo de la British West Africa. Fourah Bay College , fundado en 1827, rápidamente se convirtió en un imán para los africanos de habla Inglés en la Costa Oeste. Durante más de un siglo, fue el único de estilo europeo universidad en el oeste de África subsahariana .

Durante la historia colonial de Sierra Leona, los indígenas montado varias revueltas sin éxito contra el dominio británico. El más notable fue la guerra Impuesto Hut de 1898. La Guerra del Impuesto Hut consistía en un frente del Norte, dirigido por Bai Bureh , y el frente Sur, que se desató en diferentes momentos y por diferentes razones. Combatientes Bureh tenía la ventaja sobre los británicos mucho más poderosas para varios meses de la guerra. Cientos de soldados británicos y cientos de combatientes Bureh fueron asesinados. [31] Bureh Bai fue finalmente capturado el 11 de noviembre de 1898 y enviado al exilio en Costa de Oro, mientras que 96 de sus compañeros fueron ahorcados por los británicos.

British West campaña africana tropas en Freetown, c. 1914-1916. Publicado leyenda: "la fuerza expedicionaria británica se prepara para embarcarse en Freetown para atacar a los alemanes Camerún, el objeto principal del ataque es el puerto de Duala auxiliares tropas nativas fueron utilizadas libremente en la guerra de África.".

La derrota en la guerra Impuesto Hut terminó a gran escala de la resistencia organizada al colonialismo, pero la resistencia continuó durante todo el período colonial en forma de revueltas y disturbios caóticos intermitente laborales. Los disturbios en 1955 y 1956 implicó "decenas de miles" de los nativos en el protectorado. [32]

Un hecho destacable en 1935 fue la concesión de un monopolio sobre mineral minero al Fideicomiso Selección Sierra Leona dirigido por De Beers , que estaba programada para durar 98 años.

En 1924, Sierra Leona se divide en una colonia y protectorado de una, con sistemas políticos distintos y diferentes constitucionalmente definidos para cada uno. El antagonismo entre las dos entidades se intensificaron a un acalorado debate en 1947, cuando se introdujeron propuestas para establecer un sistema político único, tanto para la colonia y el Protectorado. La mayor parte de las propuestas que vinieron del Protectorado. El Krio , dirigido por Isaac Johnson Wallace- , se opuso a las propuestas, el efecto principal de los cuales habría sido para disminuir su poder político. Fue debido a la política astutos de Sir Milton Margai que la élite educada Protectorado fue ganado para unir fuerzas con el jefes supremos ante la intransigencia Krio. Más tarde, Sir Milton utiliza las mismas habilidades para ganarse a los líderes de la oposición y los elementos moderados Krio para el logro de la independencia.

En noviembre de 1951, Margai supervisó la redacción de una nueva constitución, que une el Colonial separado y las legislaturas Protectorado y-lo más importante-sirvió de marco para la descolonización . [33] En 1953, Sierra Leona fue concedido poderes locales ministeriales, y Sir Milton Margai , fue elegido ministro principal de Sierra Leona. [33] La nueva Constitución garantiza Sierra Leona un sistema parlamentario dentro de la Mancomunidad Británica de Naciones . [33] En mayo de 1957, Sierra Leona celebró su primera elección parlamentaria. El SLPP, que entonces era el partido político más popular en la colonia de Sierra Leona, ganó la mayoría de escaños en el Parlamento. Margai fue también reelegido como Primer Ministro por un deslizamiento de tierra.

[ editar ] 1960 Conferencia de la Independencia

El 20 de abril de 1960, Sir Milton Margai llevó a los veinticuatro miembros de la Sierra Leona delegación en las conferencias constitucionales que se llevaron a cabo con la reina Isabel II y el secretario colonial británico Iain Macleod en las negociaciones para la independencia celebrado en la Casa de Lancaster en Londres . [34 ] [35] Todos los veinticuatro miembros de la delegación de Sierra Leona eran políticos prominentes y respetados, incluyendo el propio Sir Milton, su hermano menor, abogado de Sir Albert Margai , el activista sindicalista Siaka Stevens , SLPP fuerte Lamina Sankoh , franca criolla activista Isaac Wallace-Johnson , el Dr. John Karefa-Smart , Jefe Supremo Ella Koblo Gulama , pedagogo Mohamed Sanusi Mustapha , profesor Kande Bureh , abogado Sir Banja Tejan-Sie , ex alcalde de Freetown Eustace Henry Taylor Cummings pedagogo Wurie Amadu y creole diplomático Héctor Reginald Sylvanus Boltman . [36]

Al término de las conversaciones en Londres, Gran Bretaña acordó conceder Sierra Leona Independencia el 27 de abril de 1961. Sin embargo, el activista sindicalista Siaka Stevens era el único delegado que se negó a firmar la declaración de Sierra Leona de Independendence con el argumento de que había sido un secreto pacto de defensa entre Sierra Leona y Gran Bretaña, otro punto de controversia por Stevens era la posición del gobierno de Sierra Leona de que no habría elecciones celebradas antes de la independencia que efectivamente le cerraron las puertas del proceso político de Sierra Leona. [37] A su regreso a Freetown, el 4 de mayo de 1960, Stevens fue expulsado rápidamente de los Partido Nacional del Pueblo (PNP).

El 24 de septiembre de 1960, abiertamente crítico del gobierno del SLPP, Siaka Stevens, formó una alianza con varios políticos prominentes del norte incluyendo Sorie Ibrahim Koroma , Christian Taylor-Kamara Alusine , Mohammed Bash-Taqui , sáb Koroma , Konteh Kawusu , Allieu Badarr Koroma , SA Fofana y Kallay Mucktarru para formar su propio partido político llamado Asamblea Popular de ALL (APC) en oposición al gobierno del SLPP. Stevens aprovechó el descontento con el gobernante SLPP entre algunos políticos prominentes de la parte norte de Sierra Leona para formar la APC, y Stevens utilizó la parte norte de Sierra Leona como su base política.

[ editar ] Independencia

El 27 de abril de 1961, Sir Milton Margai Sierra Leona condujo a la independencia de Gran Bretaña y se convirtió en el primer Primer Ministro . Miles de habitantes de Sierra Leona a través de la nueva nación independiente salieron a las calles en la celebración de la independencia. Sierra Leona mantiene un sistema de gobierno parlamentario y fue miembro de la Mancomunidad Británica de Naciones. El líder del principal APC oppositon, Siaka Stevens, junto con abierto crítico del gobierno del SLPP, Isaac Johnson Wallace-, fueron detenidos y puestos bajo arresto domiciliario en Freetown, junto con otros dieciséis acusados ​​de perturbar la celebración de la independencia. [38] En mayo de 1962, Sierra Leona celebró su primera elección general como una nación independiente. El Partido Popular de Sierra Leona (SLPP) ganó pluralidad de escaños en el parlamento y Sir Milton Margai fue reelegido como primer ministro .

Un aspecto importante del carácter de Sir Milton fue su humildad. No era ni corrupto ni tampoco hizo un derroche de su poder o estatus. Sir Milton gobierno se basó en el imperio de la ley y el concepto de separación de poderes, con multipartidistas instituciones y estructuras políticas representativas bastante viables. Margai utilizó su conservadora ideología para llevar Sierra Leona sin mucho conflicto. Nombró a los funcionarios del gobierno con un ojo claro para satisfacer los diversos grupos étnicos. Margai empleó un estilo de corretaje de la política por compartir el poder político entre los grupos políticos y los jefes supremos de las provincias.

Tras la inesperada muerte de Sir Milton en 1964, su medio hermano , Sir Albert Margai , fue nombrado primer ministro por el parlamento. Liderazgo Sir Albert fue impugnada brevemente por Exteriores de Sierra Leona ministro John Karefa-Smart , quien cuestionó sucesión Sir Albert a la posición de liderazgo SLPP. Karefa-Smart recibido poco apoyo en el Parlamento en su intento de tener Margai apartado de la dirección SLPP. Poco después de Margai fue juramentado como Primer Ministro, inmediatamente despedido a varios funcionarios gubernamentales de alto rango que habían servido bajo el gobierno de su hermano mayor, Sir Milton, como él los veía como una amenaza para su gobierno.

A diferencia de su difunto hermano, Sir Milton, Sir Albert recurrido a la cada vez más autoritarios acciones en respuesta a las protestas y promulgado varias leyes en contra de la oposición del Congreso de Todo el Pueblo (APC), mientras intenta establecer un Estado de partido único . A diferencia de su hermano difunto Milton, Sir Albert se opuso a la herencia colonial de permitir que el país jefes supremos poderes ejecutivos, muchos de los cuales eran aliados clave de su difunto hermano, Sir Milton, y que fue visto como una amenaza para la existencia de las casas reinantes en todo el país. En 1967, estallaron disturbios en Freetown contra las políticas de Sir Albert, en respuesta Margai declaró un estado de emergencia en todo el país. Sir Albert fue acusado de corrupción y de una política de acción afirmativa en favor de su propio Mende grupo étnico [39] A pesar de Sir Albert tenía el apoyo total de las fuerzas de seguridad del país, llamó a unas elecciones libres y justas.

[ editar ] Tres golpes militares, 1967-1968

La APC, con su líder Siaka Stevens , ganó por estrecho margen una mayoría de los escaños en el Parlamento pequeños sobre el SLPP en una reñida elección 1967 Sierra Leona en general y Stevens prestó juramento como primer ministro el 21 de marzo de 1967.

En cuestión de horas después de asumir el cargo, Stevens fue derrocado en un sangriento golpe militar encabezado por el comandante de la Fuerzas Armadas de Sierra Leona, el General de Brigada David Lansana , un aliado cercano de Sir Albert Margai que lo había nombrado para el cargo en 1964. Brigadier Lansana Stevens colocado bajo arresto domiciliario en Freetown e insistió en la determinación de la oficina del Primer Ministro, debería esperar a la elección de los representantes de las tribus de la casa.

El 23 de marzo de 1967, un grupo de altos oficiales militares en el Ejército de Sierra Leona, dirigida por el brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith hizo caso omiso de esta acción de tomar el control del gobierno, arrestando a Brigadier Lansana, y la suspensión de la Constitución. El grupo se constituyó el Consejo Nacional de Reforma (NRC) con el brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith como su presidente y Jefe de Estado del país. [40] El 18 de abril de 1968, un grupo de altos oficiales militares que se hacían llamar la Lucha contra la Corrupción Movimiento Revolucionario dirigido por el general de brigada John Amadu Bangura derrocó al NRC junta . Las juntas ACRM detenido muchos altos miembros del NRC. La constitución fue reintegrado, y el poder fue devuelto a Stevens, quien por fin asumió el cargo de Primer Ministro. . [41]

[ editar ] Estado de partido único

Stevens asumió el poder de nuevo en 1968 con una gran esperanza y ambición. Mucha confianza se colocó sobre él como él defendió la política multipartidista. Stevens había hecho campaña en una plataforma de traer las tribus juntas bajo los principios socialistas. Durante su primera década en el poder, Stevens renegoció parte de lo que él llamó "esquemas" inútiles prefinanciadas contraídas por sus predecesores, tanto Albert Margai del SLPP y Juxon-Smith, de la NRC. Algunas de estas políticas por el SLPP y la NRC se dice que han dejado al país en un estado económicamente desfavorecidas. Stevens reorganizado refinería del país, el hotel propiedad del gobierno Cape Sierra, y una fábrica de cemento. Canceló construcción Juxon-Smith de una iglesia y mezquita en los terrenos de Victoria Park. Stevens comenzaron los esfuerzos que posteriormente acortar la distancia entre las provincias y la ciudad. Las carreteras y los hospitales fueron construidos en las provincias y jefes supremos y los pueblos de provincia se convirtió en una fuerza prominente en Freetown.

APC político mitin en la ciudad norteña de Kabala fuera de la casa de los partidarios del rival SLPP en 1968

Bajo la presión de varios intentos de golpe, real y percibida, la regla de Stevens se hizo cada vez más autoritario , y se deterioró su relación con algunos de sus incondicionales. Se quitó el partido SLPP de la política de competencia en las elecciones generales, algunos creyeron, a través del uso de la violencia y la intimidación. Para mantener el apoyo de los militares, Stevens mantuvo el popular Juan Amadu Bangura como el jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sierra Leona.

Tras el retorno a un gobierno civil, las elecciones parciales se llevaron a cabo (a partir de otoño de 1968) y un gabinete totalmente APC fue designado. Calma no se restableció completamente. En noviembre de 1968, los disturbios en las provincias Stevens llevó a declarar el estado de emergencia en todo el país. Muchos oficiales de alto rango en el Ejército de Sierra Leona quedamos muy decepcionados con las políticas de Stevens, pero ninguno pudo hacer frente a Stevens. El general de brigada Bangura, que había restituido Stevens como primer ministro, fue ampliamente considerado como la única persona que podría poner freno a Stevens. El ejército se dedicó a Bangura, y se creía, en algunos sectores, que lo convirtió en potencialmente peligroso Stevens. En enero de 1970, Bangura fue arrestado y acusado de conspiración y conspiración para cometer un golpe de estado contra el gobierno de Stevens. Tras un juicio que duró unos meses, Bangura fue declarado culpable y condenado a muerte . El 29 de marzo de 1970, el brigadier Bangura fue ejecutado por colgar en Freetown.

En un movimiento sorprendente, Stevens más tarde nombró a un joven oficial subalterno Joseph Saidu Momoh como el comandante de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sierra Leona. El 23 de marzo de 1971, un grupo de soldados leales al ejecutado Bangura Brigada realizó un motín en la capital, Freetown, y en algunas otras partes del país, en la oposición del gobierno de Stevens. Varios soldados fueron detenidos por su participación en el motín, incluyendo el cabo Foday Sankoh que fue condenado y encarcelado durante siete años en Freetown prisión del camino de Pademba .

En abril de 1971, una nueva constitución fue adoptada en virtud republicana que Stevens se convirtió en presidente. En el 1972 las elecciones parciales del SLPP oposición se quejó de intimidación y obstrucción de procedimiento por la APC y de la milicia. Estos problemas llegaron a ser tan grave que el SLPP boicoteó la elección general de 1973 ;., como resultado de la APC ganó 84 de los 85 escaños elegidos [42] Un presunto complot para derrocar al presidente Stevens fracasado en 1974 y sus líderes fueron ejecutados. En marzo de 1976, Stevens fue elegido sin oposición para un segundo mandato de cinco años como presidente. El 19 de julio de 1975, 14 superior del ejército y funcionarios del gobierno, incluyendo el brigadier David Lansana, el ex ministro Mohamed Sorie Forna, el general de brigada Ibrahim Bash Taqi y el teniente Habib Lansana Kamara fueron ejecutados después de ser condenado por supuestamente intentar un golpe de Estado para derrocar el gobierno del presidente de Stevens.

En 1977, una manifestación de estudiantes en todo el país contra el gobierno interrumpió Sierra Leona política. Sin embargo, la demostración fue rápidamente por el ejército y personal especial Stevens, División de Seguridad (SSD) de fuerza , un fuertemente armado paramilitar fuerza que había creado para protegerlo y mantener su control del poder. [43] Los oficiales fueron SSD muy leal a Stevens y fueron desplegados en Sierra Leona para sofocar cualquier rebelión contra el gobierno de Stevens. elección general fue llamado más tarde ese año en el que la corrupción era endémica de nuevo, la APC ganó 74 escaños y el SLPP 15. En 1978, la APC dominante parlamento aprobó una nueva Constitución, convirtiendo al país en un estado de partido único . El constitition 1978 hizo la APC el único partido político legal en Sierra Leona. [44] Este movimiento llevó a la otra gran manifestación contra el gobierno en muchas partes del país, pero de nuevo fue reprimida por el ejército y las fuerzas de Stevens SSD. Stevens es generalmente criticado por los métodos dictatoriales y la corrupción del gobierno, pero con una nota positiva, redujo la polarización étnica en el gobierno mediante la incorporación de los miembros de los diversos grupos étnicos en su gobierno de APC en todo dominante.

Siaka Stevens retiró de la política en noviembre de 1985 después de haber estado en el poder durante dieciocho años. La APC nombró un nuevo candidato presidencial para suceder a Stevens en su conferencia delegado último celebrado en Freetown en noviembre de 1985. Él era el general de división Joseph Saidu Momoh , el comandante de la República de Sierra Leona y las Fuerzas Armadas elección de Stevens como su sucesor. Como jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sierra Leona, el mayor general Momoh era muy leal a Stevens que lo había nombrado para el puesto. Al igual que Stevens, Momoh era también un miembro del grupo de minoría étnica Limba.

Momoh fue elegido Presidente como el único candidato impugna y prestó juramento como el segundo presidente de Sierra Leona el 28 de noviembre de 1985 en Freetown. Una elección parlamentaria de un partido entre los miembros de APC se celebró en mayo de 1986. Fuertes vínculos con el presidente Momoh con el ejército y sus ataques verbales contra la corrupción le valió el apoyo que tanto necesitan inicial entre los habitantes de Sierra Leona. Con la falta de caras nuevas en el nuevo gabinete del presidente Momoh APC y el regreso de muchas de las viejas caras del gobierno Stevens, pronto surgieron las críticas que Momoh fue simplemente perpetuar el estado de Stevens. El siguiente par de años bajo la administración Momoh se caracterizaron por la corrupción, que Momoh desactivada por despido de varios ministros del gabinete. Para formalizar su guerra contra la corrupción, el presidente Momoh anunció un " Código de Conducta para Dirigentes políticos y servidores públicos. " Después de un supuesto intento de derrocar al presidente Momoh en marzo de 1987 más de 60 funcionarios gubernamentales de alto rango fueron detenidos, entre ellos el vicepresidente Francisco Minah , quien fue destituido de su cargo, condenado por planear el golpe de Estado, y ejecutado por colgar en 1989 junto con otros cinco .

[ edit ] Multi-Partido de la Constitución y del Frente Unido Revolucionario rebelión (1991 a 2001)

Una escuela en Koindu destruido durante la Guerra Civil , un total de 1.270 escuelas primarias fueron destruidas en la guerra. [45]

En octubre de 1990, debido a la creciente presión de dentro y fuera del país para la reforma política y económica, el presidente Momoh crear una comisión de revisión constitucional para evaluar la 1978 constitución de un solo partido. Basándose en las recomendaciones de la comisión de una constitución re-establecimiento de un sistema multipartidista fue aprobado por el Parlamento exclusivo APC, por mayoría de 60%, llegando a ser efectivo el 1 de octubre de 1991. Hubo gran sospecha de que el presidente Momoh no se tomaba en serio su promesa de reforma política, como regla APC continuaron siendo cada vez más marcada por los abusos de poder.

La brutal guerra civil que estaba pasando en la vecina Liberia desempeñó un papel importante en el estallido del conflicto en Sierra Leona. Charles Taylor -entonces líder del Frente Patriótico Nacional de Liberia , presuntamente ayudó a formar el Frente Revolucionario Unido (FRU) , bajo el mando del ex ejército de Sierra Leona cabo Foday Sankoh Saybana , un Temne étnica de Tonkolili Distrito en el norte de Sierra Leona. Sankoh fue un británico corporal entrenado ejército anterior que había sufrido también la formación de guerrillas en Libia. Objetivo de Taylor fue para el RUF para atacar las bases de Nigeria dominado tropas de paz en Sierra Leona, que se oponen a su movimiento rebelde en Liberia.

El 29 de abril de 1992, un joven de 25 años de edad, capitán Valentine Strasser lideró siete oficiales subalternos en el ejército de Sierra Leona que incluía el teniente Sahr arena , el teniente Salomón Musa , el teniente Tom Nyuma , el capitán Julius Maada Bio y el capitán Komba Mondeh que puso en marcha un golpe de Estado militar , which sent president Momoh into exile in Guinea and the young soldiers established the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) with Strasser as its chairman and Head of State of the country. The NPRC Junta immediately suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, limited freedom of speech and freedom of the press and enacted a rule-by-decree policy, in which soldiers were granted unlimited powers of administrative detention without charge or trial, and challenges against such detentions in court were precluded.

The NPRC Junta maintained relations with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and strengthened support for Sierra Leone-based ECOMOG troops fighting in Liberia. In December 1992, an alleged coup attempt against the NPRC administration of Strasser, aimed at freeing the detained Colonel Yahya Kanu, Colonel Kahota MS Dumbuya and former inspector general of police Bambay Kamara was foiled. Seargent Mohamed Lamin Bangura , and some junior army officers were identified as being behind the coup plot. The coup plot led to the execution of seventeen soldiers, including Seargent Mohamed Lamin Bangura, Colonel Yahya Kanu and Lieutenant Colonel Kahota MS Dumbuya . Several prominent members of the Momoh government who had been in detention at the Pa Demba Road prison, including former inspector general of police Bambay Kamara were also executed. [ 46 ] On 5 July 1994 the deputy NPRC leader Lieutenant Solomon Musu was arrested and sent into exile after he was accused of planning a coup to topple Strasser. Strasser replaced Musa as deputy NPRC chairman with Captain Julius Maada Bio, who was instantly promoted by Strasser to Brigadier .

The NPRC proved to be nearly as ineffectual as the Momoh-led APC government in repelling the RUF. More and more of the country fell to RUF fighters, and by 1994 they held much of the diamond-rich Eastern Province and were at the edge of Freetown. In response, the NPRC hired several hundred mercenaries from the private firm Executive Outcomes . Within a month they had driven RUF fighters back to enclaves along Sierra Leone's borders, and cleared the RUF from the Kono diamond producing areas of Sierra Leone

On 16 January 1996 after about four years in power, Strasser was arrested in a coup by his fellow NPRC soldiers, led by his deputy Brigadier Julis Maada Bio. Strasser was immediately flown into exile in a military helicopter to Conakry , Guinea . In his first public broadcast to the nation following the 1996 coup, Brigadier Bio stated that his support for returning Sierra Leone to a democratically elected civilian government and his commitment to ending the civil war were his motivations for the coup. [ 47 ] Promises of a return to civilian rule were fulfilled by Bio, who handed power over to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah , of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), after the conclusion of elections in early 1996. President Kabbah took power with a great promise of ending the civil war. President Kabbah open dialogue with the RUF and invited RUF leader Foday Sankoh for peace negotiation.

On 25 May 1997, seventeen soldiers in the Sierra Leone army led by Corporal Tamba Gborie , loyal to the detained Major General Johnny Paul Koroma , launched a military coup which sent President Kabbah into exile in Guinea and they established the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). Corporal Gborie quickly went to the SLBS FM 99.9 headquarters in Freetown to announce the coup to a shocked nation and to alert all soldiers across the country to report for guard duty. The soldiers immediately released Koroma from prison and installed him as their chairman and Head of State. Koroma suspended the constitution, banned demonstrations, shut down all private radio stations in the country and invited the RUF to join the new junta government, with its leader Foday Sankoh as the Vice-Chairman of the new AFRC-RUF coalition junta government. Within days, Freetown was overwhelmed by the presence of the RUF combatants who came to the city in their thousands. The Kamajors, a group of traditional fighters mostly from the Mende ethnic group under the command of deputy Defence Minister Samuel Hinga Norman , remained loyal to President Kabbah and defended the Southern part of Sierra Leone from the soldiers.

[ edit ] Kabbah's government and the end of civil war

After 10 months in office, the junta was overthrown by the Nigeria-led ECOMOG forces, and the democratically elected government of president Kabbah was reinstated in March 1998. On 12 October 1998 twenty five soldiers in the Sierra Leone army, including Corporal Tamba Gborie , Brigadier Hassan Karim Conteh , Colonel Abdul Karim Sesay and Major Kula Samba were executed after they were convicted at a court martial in Freetown for orchestrating the 1997 coup that overthrew President Kabbah. [ 48 ]

In October 1999, the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to help restore order and disarm the rebels. The first of the 6,000-member force began arriving in December, and the UN Security Council voted in February 2000 to increase the force to 11,000, and later to 13,000. But in May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, Sankoh 's forces clashed with the UN troops, and some 500 peacekeepers were taken hostage as the peace accord effectively collapsed. The hostage crisis resulted in more fighting between the RUF and the government as UN troops launched Operation Khukri to end the siege. The Operation was successful with Indian and British Special Forces being the main contingents.

The situation in the country deteriorated to such an extent that British troops were deployed in Operation Palliser , originally simply to evacuate foreign nationals. However, the British exceeded their original mandate, and took full military action to finally defeat the rebels and restore order. The British were the catalyst for the ceasefire that ended the civil war. Elements of the British Army , together with administrators and politicians, remain in Sierra Leone to this day, helping train the armed forces, improve the infrastructure of the country and administer financial and material aid. Tony Blair , the Prime Minister of Britain at the time of the British intervention, is regarded as a hero by the people of Sierra Leone, many of whom are keen for more British involvement. [ citation needed ] Sierra Leoneans have been described as "The World's Most Resilient People". [ 49 ]

Between 1991 and 2001, about 50,000 people were killed in Sierra Leone's civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes and many became refugees in Guinea and Liberia . In 2001, UN forces moved into rebel-held areas and began to disarm rebel soldiers. By January 2002, the war was declared over. In May 2002, Kabbah was re-elected president by a landslide. By 2004, the disarmament process was complete. Also in 2004, a UN-backed war crimes court began holding trials of senior leaders from both sides of the war. In December 2005, UN peacekeeping forces pulled out of Sierra Leone.

In August 2007, Sierra Leone held presidential and parliamentary elections. However, no presidential candidate won the 50% plus one vote majority stipulated in the constitution on the first round of voting. A runoff election was held in September 2007, and Ernest Bai Koroma , the candidate of the main opposition APC, was elected president.

[ edit ] Geography and climate

Satellite image of Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is located on the west coast of Africa, lying mostly between latitudes and 10°N (a small area is south of 7°), and longitudes 10° and 14°W . The country is bordered by Guinea to the north and northeast, Liberia to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. [ 50 ]

Sierra Leone has a total area of 71,740 km 2 (27,699 sq mi), divided into a land area of 71,620 km 2 (27,653 sq mi) and water of 120 km 2 (46 sq mi). [ 14 ] The country has four distinct geographical regions. In eastern Sierra Leone the plateau is interspersed with high mountains , where Mount Bintumani reaches 1,948 m (6,391 ft), the highest point in the country. The upper part of the drainage basin of the Moa River is located in the south of this region.

The centre of the country is a region of lowland plains , containing forests, bush and farmland , [ 50 ] that occupies about 43% of Sierra Leone's land area. The northern section of this has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic ecoregion , while the south is rain-forested plains and farmland. In the west Sierra Leone has some 400 km (249 mi) of Atlantic coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources and attractive tourist potential. The coast has areas of low-lying Guinean mangroves swamp. The national capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula , situated next to the Sierra Leone Harbour, the world's third largest natural harbour.

The climate is tropical , with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, and a dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan , when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert and the night-time temperature can be as low as 16 °C (60.8 °F ). The average temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) and varies from around 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 36 °C (96.8 °F) during the year. [ 51 ] [ 52 ]

[ editar ] Medio ambiente

Human activities claimed to be responsible or contributing to land degradation in Sierra Leone include unsustainable agricultural land use, poor soil and water management practices, deforestation, removal of natural vegetation, fuelwood consumption and to a lesser extent overgrazing and urbanization. [ 53 ]

Deforestation , both for commercial timber and to make room for agriculture, is the major concern and represents an enormous loss of natural economic wealth to the nation. [ 54 ] Mining and slash and burn for land conversion – such as cattle grazing – dramatically diminished forested land in Sierra Leone since the 1980s. It is listed among countries of concern for emissions, as having Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (LFHD). [ 55 ] There are concerns that heavy logging continues in the Tama-Tonkoli Forest Reserve in the north, they have extended their operations to Nimini, Kono District, Eastern Province; Jui, Western Rural District, Western Area; Loma Mountains National Park, Koinadougu, Northern Province; and with plans to start operations in the Kambui Forest reserve in the Kenema District, Eastern Province. [ 55 ]

Habitat degradation for the African Wild Dog , Lycaon pictus , has been decreased, such that this canid is deemed to have been extirpated in Sierra Leone. [ 56 ]

Until 2002, Sierra Leone lacked a forest management system due to the civil war that caused tens of thousands of deaths. Deforestation rates have increased 7.3% since the end of the civil war. [ 57 ] On paper, 55 protected areas covered 4.5% of Sierra Leone as of 2003. The country has 2,090 known species of higher plants, 147 mammals , 626 birds , 67 reptiles , 35 amphibians , and 99 fish species. [ 57 ]

The Environmental Justice Foundation has documented how the number of illegal fishing vessels in Sierra Leone's waters has multiplied in recent years. The amount of illegal fishing has significantly depleted fish stocks, depriving local fishing communities of an important resource for survival. The situation is particularly serious as fishing provides the only source of income for many communities in a country still recovering from over a decade of civil war. [ 58 ]

In June 2005, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and Bird Life International agreed to support a conservation- sustainable development project in the Gola Forest in south eastern Sierra Leone, [ 59 ] an important surviving fragment of rainforest in Sierra Leone.

[ editar ] Gobierno y política

Ernest Bai Koroma , current president of Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature . The current system of government in Sierra Leone, established under the 1991 Constitution, is modelled on the following structure of government: the Legislature , the Executive and the Judiciary . [ 60 ]

Within the confines of the 1991 Constitution, supreme legislative powers are vested in Parliament , which is the law making body of the nation. Supreme executive authority rests in the president and members of his cabinet and judicial power with the judiciary of which the Chief Justice is head.

The president is the head of state , the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces and the Sierra Leone Police . The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers, which must be approved by the Parliament. The president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two five-year terms. The president is the highest and most influential position within the government of Sierra Leone.

To be elected president of Sierra Leone, a candidate must gain at least 55% of the vote. If no candidate gets 55%, there is to be a second-round runoff between the top two candidates.

The current president of Sierra Leone is Ernest Bai Koroma , who was sworn in on 17 September 2007, shortly after being declared the winner of a tense run-off election over the incumbent Vice president , Solomon Berewa of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP). [ 61 ] He was subsequently re-elected to a second 5-year term on the 17th of November 2012, winning more than 58% of the vote, and eclipsing the 55% necessary to avoid a runoff .

Next to the president is the Vice president , who is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Sierra Leone Government. As designated by the Sierra Leone Constitution, the vice president is to become the new president of Sierra Leone upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president by parliament and to assume the Presidency temporarily while the president is otherwise temporarily unable to fulfil his or her duties. The vice president is elected jointly with the president as his or her running mate . Sierra Leone's current vice president is Samuel Sam-Sumana , sworn in on 17 September 2007.

The Sierra Leone Supreme Court in the capital Freetown , the highest and most powerful court in the country

The Parliament of Sierra Leone is unicameral , with 124 seats. Each of the country's fourteen districts is represented in parliament. 112 members are elected concurrently with the presidential elections; the other 12 seats are filled by paramount chiefs from each of the country's 12 administrative districts .

The current parliament in the August 2007 Parliamentary elections is made up of three political parties. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on 11 August 2007. The All People's Congress (APC), won 59 of 112 parliamentary seats; the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) won 43; and the People's Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC) won 10. To be qualified as Member of Parliament, the person must be a citizen of Sierra Leone, must be at least 21 years old, must be able to speak, read and write the English language with a degree of proficiency to enable him to actively take part in proceedings in Parliament; and must not have any criminal conviction. [ 60 ]

Since independence in 1961, Sierra Leone's politics has been dominated by two major political parties, the SLPP and the ruling APC, although other minor political parties have also existed but with no significant supports. The next election is scheduled for 17 November 2012. [ 62 ]

The judicial power of Sierra Leone is vested in the judiciary , headed by the Chief Justice and comprising the Sierra Leone Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country and its ruling therefore cannot be appealed; High Court of Justice; the Court of Appeal; the magistrate courts; and traditional courts in rural villages. The president appoints and parliament approves Justices for the three courts. The Judiciary have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters throughout the country. The current Chief Justice is Umu Hawa Tejan Jalloh , who was appointed by President Ernest Bai Koroma and took office on 25 January 2008 upon her confirmation by parliament. She is the first woman in the history of Sierra Leone to hold such position. [ 63 ]

[ editar ] Relaciones Exteriores

Embassy of Sierra Leone in Washington, DC

The Sierra Leone Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, headed by Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Joseph Bandabla Dauda is responsible for foreign policy of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone has diplomatic relations that include China, Libya , Iran , and Cuba . Sierra Leone has good relations with the West , including the United States and has maintained historical ties with the United Kingdom and other former British colonies through membership of the Commonwealth of Nations . [ 64 ] The United Kingdom has played a major role in providing aid to the former colony, together with administrative help and military training since intervening to end the Civil War in 2000.

Former President Siaka Stevens ' government had sought closer relations with other West African countries under the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) a policy continued by the current. Sierra Leone, along with Liberia and Guinea form the Mano River Union (MRU) primarily designed to implement development projects and promote regional economic integration between the three countries. [ 65 ]

Sierra Leone is also a member of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, the African Union , the African Development Bank (AFDB), the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). [ 66 ] Sierra Leone is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US military (as covered under Article 98).

The Office of National Security plays an important security coordination role, including in the leadup to the 2007 elections. [ 67 ]

[ edit ] Provinces and districts

The 12 districts and 2 areas of Sierra Leone

The Republic of Sierra Leone is composed of four regions the Northern Province , Southern Province , the Eastern Province and the Western Area . The first three provinces are further divided into 12 districts, and the districts are further divided into 149 chiefdoms. The Local Government Act 2004 designated units of government called localities each of which would have a directly elected local district council to exercise authority and carry out functions at a local level. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] There are 13 district councils, one for each of the 12 districts and one for the Western Area Rural, and six municipalities each with a council, Freetown , Bo , Bonthe , Kenema , Koidu and Makeni . [ 68 ]

Distrito Capital Area km 2 Provincia Población
(2004 census) [ 70 ]
Población
(2010 estimates)
Bombali District Makeni 7,985 Del norte
Provincia
408,390 434,319 [ 71 ]
Koinadugu District Kabala 12,121 265,758 251,091 [ 72 ]
Port Loko District Port Loko 5,719 455,746 500,992 [ 72 ]
Tonkolili District Magburaka 7.003 347,197 385,322 [ 73 ]
Kambia District Kambia 3.108 270,462 313,765 [ 74 ]
Kenema District Kenema 6,053 Oriental
Provincia
497,948 545,327 [ 75 ]
Kono District Koidu Town 5,641 335,401 352,328 [ 76 ]
Kailahun District Kailahun 3,859 358,190 409,520 [ 76 ]
Bo District Bo 5,473.6 [ 77 ] Del sur
Provincia
463,668 561,524 [ 78 ]
Bonthe District Mattru Jong 3,468 129,947 140,845 [ 79 ]
Pujehun District Pujehun 4,105 228,392 252,390 [ 80 ]
Moyamba District Moyamba 6,902 260,910 252,390 [ 80 ]
Western Area Urban District Freetown 3,568 Occidental
Área
1,272,873 1,473,873
Western Area Rural District Waterloo 4,175 174,249 205,400


[ editar ] Economía

Diamond miners in Kono District .

Sierra Leone is slowly emerging from a protracted civil war and is showing signs of a successful transition. Investor and consumer confidence continue to rise, adding impetus to the country's economic recovery. There is greater freedom of movement and the successful re-habitation and resettlement of residential areas.

Rich in minerals, Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. The country is among the top ten diamond producing nations. Mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is a major producer of gem-quality diamonds. Though rich in diamonds, it has historically struggled to manage their exploitation and export .

Annual production of Sierra Leone's diamond estimates range between US$250 million–$300 million. Some of that is smuggled , where it is possibly used for money laundering or financing illicit activities. Formal exports have dramatically improved since the civil war with efforts to improve the management of them having some success. In October 2000, a UN-approved certification system for exporting diamonds from the country was put in place and led to a dramatic increase in legal exports. In 2001, the government created a mining community development fund ( DACDF ), which returns a portion of diamond export taxes to diamond mining communities. The fund was created to raise local communities' stake in the legal diamond trade.

Sierra Leone is also known for its blood diamonds that were mined and sold to diamond conglomerates during the civil war , to buy the weapons that fueled its atrocities. [ 81 ] In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rate slowed because of a decline in the mining sector and increasing corruption among government officials.

Percentage of GDP by sector (2007) [ 82 ]
Posición Sector Porcentaje
of GDP
1 Agricultura 58,5
2 Otros servicios 10,4
3 Trade and tourism 9,5
4 Comercio al por mayor y al por menor 9.0
5 Mining and quarrying 4,5
6 Government Services 4.0
7 Manufacturing and handicrafts 2,0
8 Construcción 1,7
9 Electricity and water 0,4

By the 1990s economic activity was declining and economic infrastructure had become seriously degraded. Over the next decade much of the formal economy was destroyed in the country's civil war. Since the end of hostilities in January 2002, massive infusions of outside assistance have helped Sierra Leone begin to recover. Much of the recovery will depend on the success of the government's efforts to limit corruption by officials, which many feel was the chief cause for the civil war. A key indicator of success will be the effectiveness of government management of its diamond sector.

Sierra Leone has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile , a titanium ore used as paint pigment and welding rod coatings. Sierra Rutile Limited , owned by a consortium of United States and European investors, began commercial mining operations near the city of Bonthe , in the Southern Province, in early 1979. It was then the largest non-petroleum US investment in West Africa. The export of 88,000 tons realized $75 million in export earnings in 1990. In 1990, the company and the government made a new agreement on the terms of the company's concession in Sierra Leone. Rutile and bauxite mining operations were suspended when rebels invaded the mining sites in 1995, but exports resumed in 2005. The new Mines and Minerals Act was passed by Parliament in November 2009, which aimed to improve concessions management in the Ministry of Mineral Resources . Sierra Leone is an EITI candidate country. In January 2012, the government launched the GoSL Online Repository, which makes public all mining licenses and related payments recorded.

About two-thirds of the population engages in subsistence agriculture , which accounts for 52.5% of national income. The government is trying to increase food and cash crop production and upgrade small farmer skills. The government works with several foreign donors to operate integrated rural development and agricultural projects.

Despite its successes and development, the Sierra Leone economy still faces significant challenges. There is high unemployment , particularly among the youth and ex-combatants. Authorities have been slow to implement reforms in the civil service, and the pace of the privatisation programme is also slacking and donors have urged its advancement.

The currency is the leone . The central bank of the country is the Bank of Sierra Leone which is in the capital, Freetown. The country operates a floating exchange rate system, and foreign currencies can be exchanged at any of the commercial banks, recognised foreign exchange bureaux and most hotels . Credit card use is limited in Sierra Leone, though they may be used at some hotels and restaurants . There are a few internationally linked automated teller machines that accept Visa cards in Freetown operated by ProCredit Bank.

[ editar ] Demografía

A woman in the village of Njama in Kailahun District

Sierra Leone had an estimated 2010 population of 5,245,695 and growth rate of 2.216% a year. [ 14 ] The country's population is mostly young, with an estimated 41.7% under 15, and rural, with an estimated 62% of people living outside the cities. [ 14 ] As a result of migration to cities the population is becoming more urban with an estimated rate of urbanisation growth of 2.9% a year. [ 14 ] [ 83 ] Population density varies greatly with the country. The Western Area Urban District , including Freetown, the capital and largest city, has a population density of 1,224 persons per square km whereas the largest district Koinadugu has a density of 21.4 persons per square km. [ 83 ]

Although English is the official language , [ 84 ] spoken at schools, government administration and the media, Krio (derived from English and several indigenous African languages, the language of the Sierra Leone Krio people ), is the most widely spoken language in virtually all parts of Sierra Leone. The Krio language is spoken by 90% of the country's population [ 14 ] [ 85 ] and unites all the different ethnic groups , especially in their trade and interaction with each other. [ 15 ] According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 , published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , Sierra Leone had a population of 8,700 refugees and asylum seekers at the end of 2007. Nearly 20,000 Liberian refugees voluntarily returned to Liberia over the course of 2007. Of the refugees remaining in Sierra Leone nearly all were Liberian. [ 86 ]


The populations quoted above for the five largest cities are from the 2004 census. Other figures are estimates from the source cited. Different sources give different estimates. Some claim that Magburaka should be included in the above list, but one source estimates the population at only 14,915, [ 88 ] whilst another puts it as high as 85,313. [ 89 ] "Pandebu-Tokpombu" is presumably the extended town of Torgbonbu which had a population of 10,716 in the 2004 census, though "Gbendembu" had a larger population of 12,139 in that census. In the 2004 census, Waterloo had a population of 34,079.

[ editar ] Religión

[1]
Sierra Leone religious sects [ 90 ]
Religión Por ciento
Islam
71%
Cristianismo
27%
African indigenous
2%

Followers of Islam constitute the majority of the population, while Christians form a significant minority. Muslims are estimated to comprise 60% of Sierra Leone's population according to the US Department of State, [ 91 ] while 20 to 30% are reported to be followers of Christianity, and 5 to 10% of the population practice indigenous animist beliefs. The 2007 UNHCR 's "Report on International Religious Freedom in Sierra Leone" [ 90 ] estimated 60% Muslim, 20 to 30% Christian and 5 to 10% other beliefs, with many citizens practising a mixture of Islam and traditional indigenous religious beliefs or Christianity and traditional indigenous beliefs. The Pew Research Center estimates the Muslim population at 71.3% (4,059,000). [ 92 ] Muslims predominate in all of the country's three provinces and the Western Area , though formerly they were concentrated in the north with the south being mainly Christian.

The constitution of Sierra Leone provides for freedom of religion and the government generally protects this right and does not tolerate its abuse. [ citation needed ]

[ editar ] Grupos étnicos

Ethnic groups of Sierra Leone
Mende
Temne
Limba
Loko
Fula
Mandingo
Creole
Sherbro
Kuranko
Kono
Susu
Kissi
Yalunka
Oku
Vai
Kru

Sierra Leone is home to about sixteen ethnic groups , each with its own language. The largest and most influential are the Temne at about 35% and the Mende at about 31%. The Temne predominate in the Northern Sierra Leone and the Areas around the capital of Sierra Leone . The Mende likewise predominate in the South -Eastern Sierra Leone (with the exception of Kono District). The Temne are predominantly Muslims, while the Mende are about equal in numbers between Muslims and Christians. Sierra Leone's national politics centres on the competition between the north-west, dominated by the Temne, and the south-east dominated by the Mende [2] . The Mende, who are believed to be descendants of the Mane , were originally in the Liberian hinterland. They began moving into Sierra Leone slowly and peacefully in the eighteenth century. The Temne are thought to have come from Futa Jallon , which is in present-day Guinea . Sierra Leone's current president Ernest Bai Koroma is an ethnic Temne.

The third-largest ethnic group are the Limba at about 8% of the population. The Limba are native people of Sierra Leone. They have no tradition of origin and it is believed that they have lived in Sierra Leone since it was discovered. The Limba are primarily found in Northern Sierra Leone, particularly in Bombali , Kambia and Koinadugu District . Since Independence to present, the Limba have traditionally been very influential in Sierra Leone's politics, along with the Mende.

The fourth largest ethnic group are the Fula at around 7% of the population (descendants of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Fulani settlers from the Fouta Djalon region of Guinea); they live primarily in the northeast and the western area of Sierra Leone. The Fula are primarily traders and many live in middle class homes. Because of their trading, the Fulas are found in virtually all parts of the country.

The other ethnic groups are the Mandingo (also known as Mandika) (they are the descendants of Mandika traders from Guinea, who migrated to Sierra Leone during the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth century). The Mandika are predominantly found in the east and the northern part of the country, and they are the largest inhabitant of the large towns, most notably Karina , in Bombali Distric in the north, and Kabal and Falaba in Koinadugu District in the north and Yengema , Kono District in the east of the country. Sierra Leone's third president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah is an ethnic Mandingo.

After the Mandika, are the Kono , who live primarily in Kono District in Eastern Sierra Leone. The Kono are descendants from Guinea and they are primarily farmers and diamond miners. Sierra Leone's current Vice President Alhaji Samuel Sam-Sumana is an ethnic Kono.

The small but significant Creole (descendants of freed African American , West Indian an Liberated African slaves landed in Freetown between 1787 and about 1885) make up about 4% of the population and they are primarily found in the capital city of Freetown and its surrounding Western Area . Creole culture is unlike that of virtually all other ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, and it is typical of Western culture and ideals. The Krios have traditionally dominated Sierra Leone's judiciacy and Freetown's city council and they have traditionally been influential in the civil service .

The much smaller Oku people , who are often considered a branch of the Krio people, with whom they share similar culture and history and are usually known as the Krio Muslims due to the fact that the Oku are predominantly Muslims. The Oku are found primarily in the capital Freetown and its surrounding Western Area , particularly in the neighbourhood's of Fourah Bay and Foulah Town . A significant numbers of Oku can be found in the city of Waterloo in the Western Area. Notable Oku include One of Sierra Leone's Independent leader and former government minister Mohamed Sanusi Mustapha ; and former Commissioner of Sierra Leone Anti-Corruption Commission Abdul Tejan-Cole .

Other minority ethnic groups are the Kuranko , who are related to the Mandingo. The Kuranko are believed to have begun arriving in Sierra Leone from Guinea in about 1600 and settle in the north, particularly in Koinadugu District . The Kuranko are primarily farmers and they have traditionally held several senior positions in the Military. The Loko in the north are native people of Sierra Leone and they are believed to have lived in Sierra Leone since it was discovered. The Susu and Yalunka are traders and are primarily found in the far north in Kambia and Koinadugu District close to the border with Guinea. The Susu and Yalunka are related people and they are both descendants from Guinea.

The Kissi are further inland in South-Eastern Sierra Leone, and they predominante in the large town of Koindu and its surrounding arears in Kailahun District. The much smaller Vai and Kru are primarily found in Kailahun and Pujehun District around the border with Liberia . Kru predominante in the neighbood of Kroubay in the capital Freetown.

On the coast in Bonthe District in the south are the Sherbro , who are native people of Sierra Leone and have settled in Sherbro Island since it was founded. the Sherbro are primarily fisherman and farmers and they are predominantly found in Bonthe District.

A small numbers of Sierra Leoneans are of partial or full Lebanese ancestry and they are locally known as Sierra Leonean-Lebanese. The Sierra Leonean-Lebanese community are primarily traders and they mostly live in middle class household in the urban areas, primarily in Freetown , Bo , Kenema , Koidu Town and Makeni .

[ editar ] Educación

A secondary school class in Pendembu , Kailahun District .
Second grade class in Koidu Town .

Education in Sierra Leone is legally required for all children for six years at primary level (Class P1-P6) and three years in junior secondary education , [ 93 ] but a shortage of schools and teachers has made implementation impossible. [ 45 ] Two thirds of the adult population of the country are illiterate. [ 94 ] The Sierra Leone Civil War resulted in the destruction of 1,270 primary schools, and in 2001, 67% of all school-age children were out of school. [ 45 ] The situation has improved considerably since then with primary school enrollment doubling between 2001 and 2005 and the reconstruction of many schools since the end of the war. [ 95 ] Students at primary schools are usually 6 to 12 years old, and in secondary schools 13 to 18. Primary education is free and compulsory in government-sponsored public schools .

The Kailahun Government Hospital at its reopening in 2004.

The country has three universities : Fourah Bay College , founded in 1827 (the oldest university in West Africa), [ 96 ] University of Makeni (established initially in September 2005 as The Fatima Institute, the college was granted university status in August 2009, and assumed the name University of Makeni, or UNIMAK), and Njala University , primarily located in Bo District . Njala University was established as the Njala Agricultural Experimental Station in 1910 and became a university in 2005. [ 97 ] Teacher training colleges and religious seminaries are found in many parts of the country.

[ editar ] Salud

Health care is provided by the government and others. Since April 2010, the government has instituted the Free Health Care Initiative which commits to free services for pregnant and lactating women and children under 5. This policy has been supported by increased aid from the United Kingdom and is recognised as a progressive move that other African countries may follow. [ 98 ] Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 56.55 years in 2012. [ 99 ] Estimates for infant mortality in Sierra Leone are among the highest in the world; for every 1,000 live births, approximately 77 children do not survive to their first birthday. [ 100 ] The maternal death rates are also among the highest in the world, at 890 deaths per 100,000 live births. [ 101 ] The country suffers from epidemic outbreaks of diseases including yellow fever , cholera , lassa fever and meningitis . [ 102 ] [ 103 ] The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the population is 1.6%, higher than the world average of 1% but lower than the average of 6.1% in Sub-Saharan Africa . [ 104 ]

During the Civil War (1991–2002) many soldiers took part in atrocities and many children were forced to fight. This left them traumatized with an estimated 400.000 people (by 2009) being mentally ill. Also thousands of former child soldiers have fallen into substance abuse as they try to blunt their memories. Neurological health care is still not a service offered in the country five years after the Civil War ended in 2002. [ 105 ] Mental healthcare in the country is almost non existing with many patients trying to cure themselves with the help of traditional healers. [ 106 ]

[ editar ] Militar

The Military of Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), are the unified armed forces of Sierra Leone responsible for the territorial security of Sierra Leone's border and defending the national interests of Sierra Leone within the framework of its international obligations. The armed forces were formed after independence in 1961, on the basis of elements of the former British Royal West African Frontier Force present in the country. The Sierra Leone Armed Forces currently consists of around 15,500 personnel, comprising the largest Sierra Leone Army, [ 107 ] the Sierra Leone Navy and the Sierra Leone Air Wing. [ 108 ] The president of Sierra Leone is the Commander in Chief of the military, with the Minister of Defence responsible for defence policy and the formulation of the armed forces. The current Sierra Leone Defence Minister is Ret . Major Alfred Paolo Conteh . The Military of Sierra Leone also has a Chief of the Defence Staff who is a uniformed military official responsible for the administration and the operational control of the Sierra Leone military. [ 109 ] Brigadier General Alfred Nelson-Williams who was appointed by president Koroma succeeded the retired Major General Edward Sam M'boma on 12 September 2008 as the Chief of Defence Staff of the Military. [ 110 ]

Before Sierra Leone gained independence in 1961 the military was known as the Royal Sierra Leone Military Force. The military seized control in 1968, bringing the National Reformation Council into power. On 19 April 1971, when Sierra Leone became a republic , the Royal Sierra Leone Military Forces were renamed the Republic of Sierra Leone Military Force (RSLMF). [ 111 ] The RSLMF remained a single service organization until 1979, when the Sierra Leone Navy was established. It then remained largely unchanged for 16 years until in 1995 when Defence Headquarters was established and the Sierra Leone Air Wing formed. This gave the need for the RSLMF to be renamed the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone (AFRSL).

[ editar ] Las fuerzas del orden

Law enforcement in Sierra Leone is primarily the responsibility of the Sierra Leone Police (SLP). Sierra Leone Police was established by the British colony back in 1894 and is one of the oldest police forces in West Africa . The key mission of the Sierra Leone Police include to prevent crime , to protect life and property , to detect and prosecute offenders, to maintain public order , to ensure safety and security , to enhance access to justice . The Sierra Leone Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police , the professional head of the Sierra Leone Police force and is appointed by the President of Sierra Leone . Each one of Sierra Leone's 14 districts is headed by a District Police commissioner who is the professional head of their respective district. The Districts Police Commissioners report directly to the Inspector General of Police at the Sierra Leone Police headquarters in Freetown . The current Inspector General of Police is Brima Acha Kamara who was appointed to the position by former president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah .

[ editar ] Transporte

The road from Kenema to Kailahun District .

There are a number of systems of transport in Sierra Leone, which has a road, air and water infrastructure, including a network of highways and several airports. There are 11,300 kilometres of highways in Sierra Leone, of which 904 km (562 mi) [ 14 ] are paved (about 8% of the roads). Sierra Leone highways are linked to Conakry , Guinea , and Monrovia , Liberia . Sierra Leone has the largest natural harbour on the African continent, allowing international shipping through the Queen Elizabeth II Quay in the Cline Town area of eastern Freetown or through Government Wharf in central Freetown. There are 800 km (497 mi) of waterways in Sierra Leone, of which 600 km (373 mi) are navigable year-round. Major port cities are Bonthe , Freetown , Sherbro Island and Pepel .

There are ten regional airports in Sierra Leone, and one international airport . The Lungi International Airport located in the coastal town of Lungi in Northern Sierra Leone is the primary airport for domestic and international travel to or from Sierra Leone. Passengers cross the river to Aberdeen Heliports in Freetown by hovercraft , ferry or a helicopter . Helicopters are also available from the airport to other major cities in the country. The airport has paved runways longer than 3,047m. The other airports have unpaved runways, and seven have runways 914 to 1,523 metres long; the remaining two have shorter runways. This country appears on the EU list of prohibited countries with regard to the certification of airlines. This means that no airline which is Sierra Leone registered may operate services of any kind within the European Union. This is due to substandard safety standards. [ 112 ]

[ edit ] Drinking water supply

Water supply in Sierra Leone is characterized by limited access to safe drinking water. Despite efforts by the government and numerous non-governmental organizations, access has not much improved since the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War in 2002, stagnating at about 50% and even declining in rural areas. [ 113 ] In the capital Freetown , taps often run dry. It is hoped that a new dam in Orugu, for which China committed financing in 2009, will alleviate water scarcity. [ 114 ]

According to a national survey ( Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey ) carried out in 2006, 84% of the urban population and 32% of the rural population had access to an improved water source . Those with access in rural areas were served almost exclusively by protected wells. The 68% of the rural population without access to an improved water source relied on surface water (50%), unprotected wells (9%) and unprotected springs (9%). Only 20% of the urban population and 1% of the rural population had access to piped drinking water in their home. Compared to the 2000 survey access has increased in urban areas, but has declined in rural areas, possibly because facilities have broken down because of a lack of maintenance. [ 113 ] [ 115 ]

With a new decentralization policy, embodied in the Local Government Act of 2004, responsibility for water supply in areas outside the capital was passed from the central government to local councils. In Freetown the Guma Valley Water Company remains in charge of water supply.

[ edit ] Food and customs

Rice is the staple food of Sierra Leone and is consumed at virtually every meal daily. The rice is prepared in numerous ways, and topped with a variety of sauces made from some of Sierra Leone's favorite toppings, including potato leaves, cassava leaves, crain crain , okra soup, fried fish and groundnut stew. [ 116 ]

Along the street of towns and cities one can find foods consisting of fruit, vegetables and snacks such as fresh mangoes , oranges, pineapple, fried plantains , ginger beer , fried potato, fried cassava with pepper sauce; small bags of popcorn or peanuts, bread, roasted corn, or skewers of grilled meat or shrimp.

Poyo is a popular Sierra Leonean drink. It is a sweet, lightly fermented palm wine , [ 117 ] and is found in bars in towns and villages across the country. Poyo bars are areas of lively informal debate about politics, football , entertainment and other issues.

[ editar ] Cultura

[ editar ] Artes

The arts in Sierra Leone are a mixture of tradition and hybrid African and western styles. [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ]

[ editar ] Deportes

Sierra Leonean football star Sheriff Suma just after a Leone Stars training session on 4 September 2008 at the National Stadium in Freetown .

Football is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. Children, youth and adult are frequently seen playing street football across Sierra Leone. There are organised youth and adult football tournaments across the country, and there are various primary and secondary schools with football teams across Sierra Leone.

The Sierra Leone national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars , represents the country in international competitions. It has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup but participated in the 1994 and 1996 African Cup of Nations . When the national football team, the Leone Stars, have a match, Sierra Leoneans across the country come together united in support of the national team and people rush to their local radio and television stations to follow the live match. The country's national television network, The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) broadcasts the national football team live match, along with many local radio stations across the country. When the Leone Stars win an important match, many youth across the county rush to the street to celebrate. Many of the Sierra Leone national team footballers play their clubs football in Europe, though virtually all of them started professional football in the Sierra Leone National Premier League . Many of the national team footballers are celebrities across Sierra Leone and they are often well known by most of the country's general population. Some well known Sierra Leonean international footballers include Mohamed Kallon , Mohamed Bangura , Rodney Strasser , Ibrahim Teteh Bangura , Alhassan Bangura , Sheriff Suma , Mohamed Kamara , Umaru Bangura , Julius Wobay and Kei Kamara .

The Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top professional football league in Sierra Leone and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Football Association . Fourteen clubs from across the country compete in the Sierra Leone Premier League. The two biggest and most successful football clubs are East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool . East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool have an intense rivalry and when they play each other the national stadium in Freetown is often sold out and supporters of both clubs often clash with each other before and after the game. There is a huge police present inside and outside the national stadium during a match between the two great rivals to prevent a clash. Many Sierra Leonean youth follow the local football league.

Many Sierra Leonean youth, children and adult follow the major football leagues in Europe, particularly the English Premier League , Italian Serie A , Spanish La Liga , German Bundesliga and French Ligue 1 . The Sierra Leone cricket team represents Sierra Leone in international cricket competitions, and is among the best in West Africa . It became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council in 2002. It made its international debut at the 2004 African Affiliates Championship, where it finished last of eight teams. But at the equivalent tournament in 2006, Division Three of the African region of the World Cricket League, it finished as runner-up to Mozambique , and just missed a promotion to Division Two.

In 2009 the Sierra Leone Under-19 team finished second in the African Under-19 Championship in Zambia, thus qualifying for the Under-19 World Cup qualifying tournament with nine other teams. [ 121 ] However, the team was unable to obtain Canadian visas to play in the tournament, which was held in Toronto. [ 122 ]

Basketball is not a very popular sport in Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international men's basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation.

[ editar ] Medios

Radio listener in Kailahun

Media in Sierra Leone began with the introduction of the first printing press in Africa at the start of the 19th century. A strong journalistic tradition developed with the creation of a number of newspapers. In the 1860s, the country became a journalist hub for Africa, with professionals travelling to the country from across the continent. At the end of the 19th century, the industry went into decline, and when radio was introduced in the 1930s, it became the primary communication media in the country. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) was created by the government in 1934 making it the earliest English language radio broadcaster service in West Africa. The service began broadcasting television in 1963, with coverage extended to all the districts in the country in 1978.

Print media is not widely read in Sierra Leone, especially outside Freetown , partially due to the low levels of literacy in the country. [ 123 ] In 2007 there were 15 daily newspapers in the country, as well as those published weekly. [ 124 ] Among newspaper readership, young people are likely to read newspapers weekly and older people daily. The majority of newspapers are privately run and are often critical of the government. The standard of print journalism tends to be low due to lack of training, and people trust the information published in newspapers less than that found on the radio. [ 123 ]

Isata Mahoi shown editing radio programmes in Talking Drum studio Freetown ; she is also an actress in Sierra Leone radio soap opera Atunda Ayenda

Radio is the most-popular and most-trusted media in Sierra Leone, with 85% of people having access to a radio and 72% of people in the country listening to the radio daily. [ 123 ] These levels do vary between areas of the country, with the Western Area having the highest levels and Kailahun the lowest. Stations mainly consist of local commercial stations with a limited broadcast range, combined with a few stations with national coverage. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) runs one of the most popular stations in the country, broadcasting programs in a range of languages. Content includes news of UN activities and human rights information, as well as music and news. The UN missions will withdraw in 2008 and the UN Radio's future is uncertain. There is also a government station run by the SLBS that transmits on FM and short-wave. FM relays of BBC World Service , Radio France Internationale and Voice of America are also broadcast.

Outside the capital Freetown television is not watched by a great many people. There are two national, free terrestrial television stations in Sierra Leone, one run by the government SLBS and the other a private station, ABC Television-Africa (ABC). In 2007, a pay-per-view service was also introduced by GTV as part of a pan-African television service in addition to the nine-year-old sub-Saharan Digital satellite television service (DStv) originating from Multichoice Africa in South Africa. Internet access in Sierra Leone has been sparse but is on the increase, especially since the introduction of wireless services across the country. There are nine internet service providers (ISPs) operating in the country. Freetown has a city wide wireless network and internet cafes and other businesses offering internet access. Problems experienced with access to the Internet include an intermittent electricity supply and a slow connection speed in the country outside Freetown.

The Sierra Leone constitution guarantees freedom of speech , and freedom of the press ; however, the government maintains strong control of media, and at times restricts these rights in practice. Some subjects are seen as taboo by society and members of the political elite; imprisonment and violence have been used by the political establishment against journalists. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] Under legislation enacted in 1980, all newspapers must register with the Ministry of Information and pay sizeable registration fees. The Criminal Libel Law, including Seditious Libel Law of 1965, is used to control what is published in the media. [ 126 ] In 2006, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah committed to reforming the laws governing the press and media to create a freer system for journalists to work in. [ 126 ] As of 2012, Sierra Leone is ranked 63rd on Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index . [ 127 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

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[ editar ] Las referencias de libros

[ editar ] Fuentes primarias

[ editar ] Fuentes secundarias

  • Levinson, Robby (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook . Phoenix: Oryx Press. ISBN 1-57356-019-7 .

[ editar ] Enlaces externos

Gobierno
Información general
News media
Turismo
Telecomunicación
Otro