Escocia

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Escocia
Alba
Bandera Royal Standard
Lema: " En Mi Dios me Defens Defiende "( escocés ) un
Himno:
Ninguno ( de jure )
Varios ( de facto ) b
Lugar de Escocia (verde oscuro) - en el continente europeo (verde claro y gris oscuro) - en el Reino Unido (luz verde)
Ubicación de   Escocia    (Verde oscuro)

- En el continente europeo    (Verde claro y gris oscuro)
- En el Reino Unido    (Luz verde)

Capital Edimburgo
55 ° 57'N 3 ° 11'W / 55.950 ° N ° 3.183 W / 55.950, -3.183
La ciudad más grande Glasgow
55 ° 51'N 4 ° 16'O / 55.850 ° N ° 4.267 W / 55.850, -4.267
Idiomas oficiales Scottish Inglés c
Reconocidas las lenguas regionales
Los grupos étnicos (2001 [1] )
  • 88,09% escocés (blanco)
  • 7,37% Otros esterlina (blanco)
  • 2,49% Otros blanco
  • Otros 2,01%
Demonym
Gobierno Gobierno autónomo
dentro de monarquía constitucional e
- Monarca Isabel II
- Primer Ministro Alex Salmond MSP
- El Primer Ministro (Reino Unido) David Cameron MP
Legislatura Parlamento escocés
Establecimiento
Durante la Edad Media , la fecha exacta claro o en litigio . Tradición da 843 CE / AD por rey Kenneth Mac Alpin . [2]
Área
- Total 78.387 kilometros 2
30.414 millas cuadradas
- Agua (%) 1,9
Población
- Censo 2011 5.295.400 [3]
- Densidad 67.5/km 2
174.1/sq mi
PIB (nominal) 2010 estimación
- Total GBP 139 774 000 000 [4]
- Per cápita GBP 26,766 ($ 43,492 USD) ( 21a )
Moneda Libra esterlina ( GBP )
Huso horario GMT ( UTC 0)
- Verano ( DST ) BST ( UTC +1)
Formato de fecha dd / mm / aaaa ( AD / CE )
Unidades en el izquierda
Prefijo telefónico 44
Santo patrón
Dominio Internet . Uk f
una. A menudo se muestra abreviado como "En Defens".
b. Flower of Scotland , Scotland the Brave y escoceses Wha Hae se han utilizado en lugar de un himno oficial (véase el himno nacional de Escocia ).
c. Inglés es el idioma oficial del Reino Unido. [9] Tanto el escocés y el gaélico escocés están oficialmente reconocidas como lenguas autóctonas en la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales o Minoritarias . [10] Bajo el idioma gaélico (Escocia) de 2005 , el Bord na Gàidhlig tiene la tarea de asegurar el gaélico como lengua oficial de Escocia ordena que "el mismo respeto" con el Inglés. [11]
d. Históricamente, el uso de " Scotch "como un adjetivo comparable a" escocés "o" Scots "era común, especialmente fuera de Escocia. Hoy en día, sin embargo, el término se utiliza para describir los productos de Escocia (normalmente comida o bebida relacionada).
e. Escocia cabeza de Estado es el monarca del Reino Unido (actualmente la reina Isabel II, desde 1952). Escocia ha limitado la autonomía dentro del Reino Unido, así como la representación en el Parlamento del Reino Unido. También es una región del Reino Unido electoral para el Parlamento Europeo . Ciertos poderes ejecutivo y legislativo se han transferido a, respectivamente, el Gobierno escocés y el Parlamento escocés en Holyrood , en Edimburgo.
f. También . eu , como parte de la Unión Europea . ISO 3166-1 es GB , pero . gb no se utiliza.

Escocia ( Scottish Gaelic : Alba (gaélico escocés: [Al ˠ apə] ( escuchar ))) es un país que es parte de la Reino Unido . [12] [13] [14] que ocupa el tercio norte de la isla de Gran Bretaña , que comparte una frontera con Inglaterra al sur y limita con el norte mar al este, el Océano Atlántico al norte y al oeste, y el Canal del Norte y el Mar de Irlanda al suroeste. Además de la parte continental, Escocia está compuesta por más de 790 islas [15] incluyendo las Islas del Norte y de las Hébridas .

Edimburgo , la capital del país y la segunda ciudad más grande, es uno de los mayores centros financieros de Europa. [16] Edimburgo era el eje de la Ilustración escocesa del siglo 18, que transformó Escocia en una de las potencias comerciales, intelectuales e industriales de Europa. Glasgow ciudad más grande de Escocia, [17] que una vez fue una de las principales ciudades industriales del mundo y ahora se encuentra en el centro de la Gran Glasgow conurbación . aguas escocesas consisten en un amplio sector [18] del Atlántico Norte y el Mar del Norte, que contiene las mayores reservas de petróleo en la Unión Europea . Esto ha dado a Aberdeen , la tercera ciudad más grande de Escocia, el título de capital del petróleo de Europa. [19]

El Reino de Escocia surgió como un estado soberano e independiente en las Edad Media y continuó existiendo hasta 1707, a pesar de haber estado en una unión personal con los reinos de Inglaterra y de Irlanda desde que James VI de Escocia se subrogó en los tronos ingleses e irlandeses en 1603. El 1 de mayo de 1707, entró en Escocia una incorporación de la unión política con Inglaterra para crear el unido Reino de Gran Bretaña . [20] [21] Esta unión resultó del Tratado de la Unión acordado en 1706 y promulgada por los dos actos de la unión aprobadas por los Parlamentos de ambos países, a pesar de la oposición popular y los disturbios anti-sindicales en Edimburgo, Glasgow y en otros lugares. [22] [23]

Escocia sistema legal sigue siendo separadas de las de Inglaterra y Gales y de Irlanda del Norte y Escocia constituye una clara jurisdicción en público y privado la ley. [24] La existencia continuada de legal , educativo y religioso instituciones distintas de las del resto de la Reino Unido, han contribuido a la continuidad de la cultura escocesa y de la identidad nacional desde la Unión. [25] En 1999, un delegado legislatura, el Parlamento de Escocia , se volvió a reunir con autoridad sobre muchas áreas de los asuntos de interior después de un referéndum en 1997. En 2011, el Partido Nacional Escocés (SNP) obtuvo una mayoría absoluta en el parlamento y tiene la intención de celebrar un referéndum sobre la independencia [26] el 18 de septiembre de 2014. [27]

Escocia es un país miembro del Consejo Británico-Irlandés , [28] la Asamblea Parlamentaria británica-irlandesa y participa también en el de la zona común acuerdo.

Contenido

[ editar ] Etimología

"Escocia" viene de Scoti , el nombre en latín de los gaélicos . El latín tardío palabra Escocia ("tierra de los gaélicos") fue utilizado inicialmente para referirse a Irlanda. [29] En el siglo 11, a más tardar, Escocia se utilizaba para referirse a (gaélico-parlante) Escocia al norte del río Forth , junto con Albania o Albany, ambos derivados del gaélico Alba . [30] El uso de las palabras y los escoceses Escocia para abarcar todo lo que hoy es Escocia llegó a ser común en los siglos posteriores . [20]

[ editar ] Historia

[ editar ] Historia temprana

Skara Brae , más intacto de Europa neolítica pueblo, ocupado desde aproximadamente 3180 a 2500 antes de Cristo.

Repetidas glaciaciones, que cubrieron la masa terrestre de la actual Escocia, destruyeron cualquier rastro de presencia humana que pudiera haber existido antes del período mesolítico . Se cree que los primeros post-glaciales grupos de cazadores-recolectores llegaron a Escocia alrededor de 12.800 años atrás, cuando la capa de hielo se retiró después de la última glaciación . [31] [32]

Grupos de colonos empezaron a construir las primeras casas permanentes conocidos en suelo escocés alrededor de 9.500 años atrás, y las primeras aldeas alrededor de 6.000 años atrás. El pueblo bien conservado de Skara Brae en el continente de Orkney data de este período. neolítico habitación, sepultura y sitios rituales son especialmente frecuentes y bien conservada en las Islas del Norte y Western Isles , donde la falta de árboles llevó a la mayoría de las estructuras son construida de piedra local. [33]

El descubrimiento en Escocia de una tumba de 4.000 años de edad con tesoros funerarios de Forteviot , cerca de Perth , la capital de un reino picto en los siglos octavo y noveno, no tiene rival en cualquier parte de Gran Bretaña. Contiene los restos de una Edad de Bronce temprana gobernante establecidos en blanco cuarzo piedras y corteza de abedul. También se descubrió por primera vez la edad de bronce temprana personas depositaron flores en sus tumbas. [34] [35]

Escocia puede haber sido parte de una cultura de la Edad del Bronce Tardío comercio marítimo llamado la Edad del Bronce Atlántico que también incluyó otras naciones celtas , y las áreas que se convertirían en Inglaterra, Francia, España y Portugal. [36] [37] [38] [39 ]

En el invierno de 1850, una fuerte tormenta golpeó Escocia causando daños generalizados y más de 200 muertes. [40] En la Bahía de Skaill, la tormenta se despojó a la tierra de una irregular gran montículo , conocido como "Skerrabra". Cuando la tormenta se despejó, los pobladores locales encontraron el contorno de un pueblo, que consiste en una serie de pequeñas casas sin techos. [40] [41] William Watt de Skaill, el local laird , comenzó una excavación de aficionados del sitio, pero después de descubrir cuatro casas de la obra fue abandonada en 1868. [41] El sitio permaneció inalterado hasta 1913, cuando durante un solo fin de semana, el sitio fue saqueado por una parte con palas que se llevaron una cantidad desconocida de objetos . [40] En 1924, otra tormenta barrido parte de una de las casas y se determinó que el sitio debe ser seguro e investigado más en serio. [40] El trabajo fue dado a la Universidad de Edimburgo 's profesor Vere Gordon Childe , quien viajó a Skara Brae, por primera vez en a mediados de 1927. [40]

[ editar ] La influencia romana

El castillo de Edimburgo . Los asentamientos humanos del lugar se remonta hasta el siglo 9 aC, aunque la naturaleza de esta liquidación anticipada no está claro.

El escrito protohistoria de Escocia comenzó con la llegada del Imperio Romano en el sur y centro de Gran Bretaña, cuando los romanos ocuparon lo que ahora es Inglaterra y Gales, que lo administra como una provincia llamada Britannia . Invasiones y ocupaciones romanas del sur de Escocia fueron una serie de breves intervalos.

Según el historiador romano Tácito , el caledonios "pasó a la resistencia armada a gran escala", atacando los fuertes romanos y escaramuzas con sus legiones. En una noche sorpresa-ataque, los caledonios casi acabó con toda legión noveno , hasta que fue salvado por la caballería de Agrícola. [42]

En el año 83-84 el general Cneo Julio Agrícola derrotó a los caledonios en la Batalla de Mons Graupius . Tácito escribió que, antes de la batalla, el líder Caledonian, Calgacus , dio un conmovedor discurso en el que llamó a su pueblo el último "de los libres "y acusó a los romanos de" hacer del mundo un desierto y llamarlo paz "(traducción libre). [42] Después de la victoria romana, fuertes romanos se establecieron brevemente a lo largo del canto Gask cerca de la línea de Highland (sólo Cawdor cerca de Inverness es sabe que se han construido más allá de esa línea). Tres años después de la batalla, los ejércitos romanos se habían retirado al sur de las Tierras Altas . [43]

Los Romanos construyeron el Muro de Adriano para el control de las tribus en ambos lados de la pared, [44] y el Británico Limes se convirtió en la frontera norte del Imperio Romano, aunque el ejército ocupó el Muro de Antonino en las Tierras Bajas Centrales durante dos breves períodos - el último de estos durante la época del emperador Septimio Severo desde 208 hasta 210. [45]

La ocupación militar romano de una parte importante de lo que hoy es el norte de Escocia sólo duró unos 40 años, aunque su influencia en la zona sur del país, ocupado por Brythonic tribus como los Votadini y Damnonii , todavía habría sido considerable entre el primer y quinto siglos. Los galeses plazo Hen Ogledd ("Viejo Norte") es utilizado por los estudiosos para describir lo que hoy es el norte de Inglaterra y el sur de Escocia durante su vivienda por el Brythonic personas que hablan alrededor de 500 dC a 800. [44] Según los escritos de la 9 y 10 siglos, el gaélico reino de Dál Riata fue fundada en el siglo 6 en el oeste de Escocia. [46] [47] La "tradicional" punto de vista es colonos de Irlanda fundaron el reino, trayendo lengua gaélica y la cultura con ellos. Sin embargo, recientemente algunos arqueólogos han argumentado en contra de esta opinión, diciendo que no hay evidencia arqueológica o topónimo de una migración o absorción de una por un pequeño grupo de elites. [48]

[ editar ] Edad Media

Una réplica del picto Hilton de Cadboll Stone .

El reino de los pictos (con sede en Fortriu en el siglo 6 º) fue el estado que llegó a ser conocido como "Alba" o "Escocia". El desarrollo de "Pictland", de acuerdo con el modelo histórico desarrollado por Peter Heather , fue una respuesta natural al imperialismo romano. [49] Otra vista énfasis puestos en la batalla de Dun Nechtain , y el reinado de Bridei m. Beli (671-693), con un nuevo período de consolidación en el reinado de Óengus mac Fergusa (732-761). [50]

El reino de los pictos como lo fue en el siglo 8, cuando Beda escribía, era en gran medida el mismo que el reino de los escoceses en el reinado de Alejandro I (1107-1124). Sin embargo, en el siglo X, el reino picto fue dominado por lo que podemos reconocer como el gaélico cultura, y había desarrollado una historia tradicional de una conquista de Irlanda por el antecesor de la actual dinastía real, Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth Mac Alpin). [2 ] [51] [52]

De una base de territorio en el este de Escocia al norte del río Forth y al sur del río Oykel , el reino adquirió el control de las tierras situadas al norte y al sur. En el siglo 12, los reyes de Alba habían añadido a sus territorios del Inglés tierras de habla hispana en el señorío sur-este y lograda del gaélico -parlante Galloway y nórdico de habla Caithness , que a finales del siglo 13, el reino había asumido aproximadamente sus fronteras modernas . Sin embargo, los procesos de inicio el cambio cultural y económico en el siglo 12 garantiza Escocia se veía muy diferente en la Edad Media.

El impulso para este cambio fue el reinado de David I y la Revolución davidiana . feudalismo , la reorganización del gobierno y los primeros pueblos legalmente reconocidos (llamados burgos ) se inició en este período. Estas instituciones y la inmigración de caballeros franceses y anglo-francés y eclesiásticos facilitado ósmosis cultural, por lo que la cultura y el idioma de las partes bajas y costeras del territorio original del reino en el este se convirtió, al igual que el recién adquirido sur-este, Inglés de lengua, mientras que el resto del país, conservó el idioma gaélico, además de las Islas del Norte de Orkney y Shetland, que permaneció bajo el dominio nórdico hasta 1468. [53] [54] [55] El estado escocés entró en un gran éxito y estable período comprendido entre los siglos 12 y 14, hubo una relativa paz con Inglaterra, los vínculos comerciales y educativos eran bien desarrollado con el continente y en el apogeo de esta cultura floración Juan Duns Escoto fue uno de los filósofos más importantes e influyentes de Europa.

La Wallace Monument conmemora William Wallace , el héroe escocés del siglo 13.

La muerte de Alejandro III 03 1286, seguido por el de su nieta Margarita, doncella de Noruega , se rompió la línea de sucesión de siglos de antigüedad de los reyes de Escocia y se hizo añicos la edad de 200 años de oro que comenzó con David I. Eduardo I de Inglaterra se le pidió para arbitrar entre los demandantes de la corona escocesa, y organizó un proceso conocido como la Gran Causa de identificar al reclamante más legítimo. John Balliol fue declarado rey en el Gran Palacio del castillo de Berwick el 17 de noviembre 1292 y inaugurado en Scone el 30 de noviembre, santa Día de Andrew . Eduardo I, que había forzado el reconocimiento como Señor Supremo de Escocia , el superior feudal del reino, constantemente socavado la autoridad de Juan. [56] En 1294, Balliol y otros señores de Escocia rechazó las demandas de Edward para servir en su ejército contra los franceses. En cambio, el Parlamento escocés envió emisarios a Francia para negociar una alianza. Escocia y Francia sellaron un tratado el 23 de octubre 1295, que se conocerá como la Auld Alliance (1295-1560). Guerra se produjo y el rey Juan fue depuesto por Edward, que tomó el control personal de Escocia. Andrew Moray y William Wallace inicialmente surgieron como los principales líderes de la resistencia al dominio de Inglés en lo que se conoció como las Guerras de independencia de Escocia (1296-1328). [ 57]

La naturaleza de la lucha cambió significativamente cuando Robert the Bruce, conde de Carrick , mató a su rival John Comyn el 10 de febrero 1306 en Greyfriars Kirk en Dumfries . [58] Fue coronado rey (como Robert I) menos de siete semanas después. Robert luché para restaurar la independencia escocesa como Rey durante más de 20 años, comenzando por ganar Escocia atrás de la pieza de Norman Inglés invasores por pieza. La victoria en la batalla de Bannockburn en 1314 demostró que los escoceses habían recuperado el control de su reino. En 1315, Edward Bruce , hermano del rey, fue nombrado brevemente alto rey de Irlanda durante una invasión escocesa en última instancia fracasada de Irlanda a fin de fortalecer la posición de Escocia en sus guerras contra Inglaterra. En 1320 la primera documentada declaración de la independencia , la Declaración de Arbroath , obtuvo el apoyo de Papa Juan XXII , lo que lleva al reconocimiento legal de la soberanía de la Corona Escocesa Inglés.

Sin embargo, la guerra con Inglaterra continuó durante varias décadas después de la muerte de Bruce. Una guerra civil entre la dinastía Bruce y largo plazo sus rivales Comyn-Balliol duró hasta mediados del siglo 14. Aunque la dinastía Bruce fue un éxito, David II de la falta de un heredero permitido su medio sobrino Roberto II de venir al trono y establecer la dinastía Stewart . [54] [59] Los Stewart gobernó Escocia durante el resto de la Edad Media . El país que gobernaron experimentaron una mayor prosperidad de finales del siglo 14 a través del Renacimiento escocés a la Reforma . La Ley de Educación de 1496 hizo el primer país en Escocia desde Esparta en la Grecia clásica para implementar un sistema de general de la educación pública . [60] Esto a pesar de continuas guerras con Inglaterra, la creciente división entre tierras altas y tierras bajas , y un gran número de minorías reales . [59] [61]
Este período fue el apogeo de la alianza franco-escocesa. La Guardia Escocesa - la Ecossaise Garde - fue fundada en 1418 por Carlos VII de Francia . Los soldados escoceses de la Ecossaise Garde luchó junto a Juana de Arco contra Inglaterra durante la Guerra de los Cien Años . [62] En marzo 1421 una fuerza franco-escocés bajo John Stewart, 2do conde de Buchan , y Gilbert de Lafayette, derrotó a un ejército más grande Inglés en la Batalla de Baugé . Tres años después, en la batalla de Verneuil , los escoceses perdieron alrededor de 6000 hombres, pero la intervención escocés compró tiempo valioso Francia y probablemente salvó al país de la derrota. [ cita requerida ]

[ editar ] Edad Moderna

En 1502, James IV de Escocia firmó el Tratado de Paz Perpetua con Enrique VII de Inglaterra . También se casó con la hija de Enrique, Margarita Tudor , preparando el escenario para la unión de las coronas . Para Henry, el matrimonio en una de las monarquías más consolidadas de Europa dio legitimidad a la nueva línea Tudor real. [63] Una década más tarde, James tomó la fatídica decisión de invadir Inglaterra en apoyo de Francia bajo los términos de la Alianza Auld . Fue el último monarca británico a morir en la batalla, en la batalla de Flodden . [64] Dentro de una generación, la Alianza Auld fue terminada por el Tratado de Edimburgo . Francia accedió a retirar toda la tierra y las fuerzas navales. En el mismo año, 1560, John Knox se dio cuenta de su objetivo de ver Escocia se convirtió en una nación protestante y el parlamento escocés revocar la autoridad papal en Escocia. [65] María, reina de Escocia , una reina católica y el ex de Francia, se vio obligado a abdicar en 1567. [66]

James VI accedió al trono de Inglaterra e Irlanda (como James I) en 1603.

En 1603, James VI, Rey de Escocia heredó los tronos del reino de Inglaterra y el Reino de Irlanda , y se convirtió en el rey James I de Inglaterra e Irlanda, y dejó Edimburgo a Londres. [67] Con la excepción de un breve período bajo el Protectorado , Escocia seguía siendo un estado independiente, pero no había conflicto considerable entre la corona y los pactantes sobre la forma de gobierno de la iglesia . La Revolución Gloriosa de 1688-89 vio el derrocamiento del rey Jacobo VII de Escocia y II de Inglaterra por el Parlamento Inglés en favor de William y Mary . Todavía en la década de 1690, Escocia experimentado hambre , lo que redujo la población de las regiones del país por lo menos el 20 por ciento. [68]

En 1698, los escoceses intentaron un ambicioso proyecto para asegurar una colonia comercial en el Istmo de Panamá . Casi cada terrateniente escocés que tenían dinero de sobra se dice que ha invertido en el plan de Darien . Su fracaso en bancarrota estos propietarios, pero no los burgos, que se mantuvo efectivo ricos. Sin embargo, la quiebra de los nobles, junto con la amenaza de una invasión Inglés, jugó un papel fundamental en convencer a los escoceses de élite para respaldar una unión con Inglaterra. [69] [70]

El 22 de julio de 1706, el Tratado de la Unión se acordó entre los representantes del Parlamento escocés y el Parlamento de Inglaterra y al año siguiente dos actos de la unión fueron aprobadas por los parlamentos unido para crear el Reino de Gran Bretaña a partir del 1 de mayo de 1707. [21]

[ editar ] siglo 18

Con las tarifas comerciales con Inglaterra abolido, el comercio floreció, especialmente en la América colonial . Los clippers pertenecientes a los Glasgow Lords tabaco eran las naves más rápidas en la ruta a Virginia. Hasta la Guerra de la Independencia en 1776, Glasgow era puerto del mundo del tabaco más importante, dominando el comercio mundial. [71] La disparidad entre la riqueza de las clases mercantiles de las Tierras Bajas de Escocia y los clanes antiguos de la Tierras Altas de Escocia fue creciendo, ampliando siglos de división.

David Morier representación de la batalla de Culloden .

El depuesto Jacobite Stuart demandantes habían seguido siendo popular en las tierras altas y el nordeste, sobre todo entre los no presbiterianos , entre católicos y protestantes episcopales . Sin embargo, dos grandes levantamientos jacobitas lanzados en 1715 y 1745 no se pudo quitar la casa de Hannover del trono británico. La amenaza del movimiento jacobita al Reino Unido y sus monarcas puso fin a la batalla de Culloden , el pasado de Gran Bretaña batalla campal . Esta derrota abrió el camino para grandes mudanzas de las poblaciones indígenas de las tierras altas y las islas, conocidas como las separaciones Highland .

La Ilustración escocesa y la Revolución Industrial hizo Escocia en una potencia intelectual, comercial e industrial [72] , hasta el punto de Voltaire dijo: "Nos dirigimos a Escocia para todas nuestras ideas de la civilización". [73] Con la desaparición del jacobinismo y el advenimiento de la Unión, miles de escoceses, principalmente de las tierras bajas, asumió diversos cargos de poder en la política, la administración pública, el ejército y la marina, el comercio, la economía, las empresas coloniales y otras áreas del naciente Imperio Británico . El historiador Neil Davidson notas "después de 1746 hubo un nuevo nivel de participación de los escoceses en la vida política, en particular fuera de Escocia." Davidson también que "lejos de ser" periférico "a la economía británica, Scotland - o, más precisamente, las tierras bajas - establecer en su esencia". [74]

[ editar ] siglo 19

Kildans Santa que se sienta en la calle del pueblo, 1886.

Escocia llegó a ser conocido en todo el mundo por su excelencia en ingeniería, como lo ejemplifica el Clyde buques construidos y locomotoras construidas en Glasgow. Construcciones prefabricadas de hierro fundidas en Escocia están todavía en uso en la India, América del Sur y Australia. [75] Prominentes científicos, ingenieros y arquitectos de la era industrial, incluido David Dale , Negro José , Thomas Telford , Robert Stevenson , James Watt , James Nasmyth , Robert Adam y John MacAdam .

[ edit ] diáspora escocesa

Inmigrantes escoceses nacidos también jugó un papel de liderazgo en la fundación y los principios de los Estados Unidos ( John Witherspoon , John Paul Jones , Andrew Carnegie , John Muir ), [76] Canadá ( John A. Macdonald , James Murray , Tommy Douglas ), [77 ] Australia ( Lachlan Macquarie , Thomas Brisbane , Andrew Fisher ), [78] y Nueva Zelanda ( James Mckenzie , Peter Fraser ). [79]

[ editar ] A principios de siglo 20

Royal Scots capturados con japonés bandera, Birmania , enero de 1945.

Escocia jugó un papel importante en el esfuerzo británico en la Primera Guerra Mundial . Es especialmente proporcionado mano de obra, barcos, maquinaria, pescado y dinero. [80] Con una población de 4,8 millones en 1911, Escocia envió a más de medio millón de hombres para la guerra, de los cuales más de un cuarto murió en combate o de la enfermedad, y 150.000 resultaron gravemente heridos. [81] El mariscal de campo sir Douglas Haig , comandante británico en el frente occidental.

La guerra fue testigo del surgimiento de un movimiento radical llamado " Clydeside Red ", dirigido por sindicalistas militantes. Anteriormente un liberal fortaleza, los distritos industriales cambió a Trabajo para 1922, con una base entre los irlandeses católicos barrios obreros. Las mujeres son especialmente activos en la construcción de la solidaridad vecinal en asuntos de vivienda. Sin embargo, los "Reds" operado dentro del Partido Laborista y tuvo poca influencia en el Parlamento y el estado de ánimo cambió a la desesperación pasiva de finales de 1920. [82]

La industria de la construcción naval se expandió un tercio y la prosperidad esperada renovación, sino una depresión grave golpe a la economía en 1922 y no se recuperó completamente hasta 1939. Los años de entreguerras se caracterizó por un estancamiento económico en las zonas rurales y urbanas, y el alto desempleo. [83] De hecho, la guerra trajo consigo profundas dislocaciones sociales, culturales, económicas y políticas. Pensativo escoceses ponderó su declinación, ya que los principales indicadores sociales, como la mala salud, mala vivienda y desempleo de larga duración en masa, señaló el estancamiento social y económico de terminal en el mejor, o incluso una espiral descendente. Servicio en el extranjero en nombre del Imperio perdido su atractivo para los jóvenes ambiciosos, que dejó Escocia para siempre. La fuerte dependencia de la industria pesada y la minería obsoleta era un problema central, y nadie se ofreció soluciones viables. La desesperación se refleja lo que Finlay (1994) describe como una sensación generalizada de desesperanza que prepararon los líderes locales comerciales y políticos a aceptar una nueva ortodoxia de la planificación económica del gobierno centralizado cuando llegó durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial . [84]

La Segunda Guerra Mundial trajo prosperidad renovada, a pesar de intensos bombardeos de las ciudades por parte de la Luftwaffe. Vio la invención del radar por Robert Watson-Watt , que fue muy valiosa en la batalla de Gran Bretaña como en el liderazgo en la RAF Fighter Command de Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding . [85]

[ editar ] Desde 1945

Después de 1945, la situación económica de Escocia empeoró progresivamente debido a la competencia extranjera, la industria ineficiente y conflictos laborales. [86] Sólo en las últimas décadas ha disfrutado el país en una especie de renacimiento cultural y económico. Los factores económicos que contribuyen a esta recuperación son una industria renaciente de servicios financieros, fabricación de productos electrónicos , (véase Silicon Glen ), [87] y el petróleo del Mar del Norte y del gas. [88] La introducción en 1989 por el gobierno de Margaret Thatcher de la carga de la Comunidad ( ampliamente conocido como el Poll Tax) un año antes que el resto del Reino Unido, ha contribuido a un creciente movimiento de un retorno a un control directo sobre los asuntos internos de Escocia. [89] Después de un referéndum sobre las propuestas de traspaso de competencias en el año 1997 , la Ley de Escocia de 1998 [ 90] fue aprobada por el Parlamento del Reino Unido para establecer un delegado del Parlamento Escocés y del Gobierno escocés responsable de la mayoría de las leyes específicas a Escocia. [91]

[ editar ] Gobierno y política

La cámara de debates del Scottish Parliament Building .

Escocia jefe de Estado es el monarca del Reino Unido , actualmente la Reina Isabel II (desde 1952). El título de Isabel II causó controversia en torno a la época de la coronación de la reina, ya que nunca había sido un Isabel I de Escocia. Un caso legal, MacCormick v Señor Advocate (1953 SC 396), fue llevado a cuestionar el derecho de la reina Isabel II del título se en Escocia, con el argumento de hacerlo sería una violación del artículo 1 del Tratado de la Unión.

El Procurador ganó el caso. Se decidió futuros monarcas británicos se numeran de acuerdo a sus predecesores ya sea en inglés o escocés, si esta última cifra es mayor. [92] Por lo tanto, cualquier futuro James King James estaría estilo VIII (desde el último rey escocés James era James VII (también James II de Inglaterra, etc)), mientras que el próximo Henry King sería el rey Enrique IX en el Reino Unido a pesar del hecho no ha habido reyes escoceses del nombre.

Escocia cuenta con parcial autonomía dentro del Reino Unido, así como la representación en el Parlamento del Reino Unido. Poderes ejecutivo y legislativo se han transferido a, respectivamente, el Gobierno escocés y el Parlamento escocés en Holyrood , en Edimburgo. El Parlamento del Reino Unido retiene el poder sobre una lista de conjunto de áreas expresamente especificados en la Ley de Escocia de 1998 como asuntos reservados , incluyendo, por ejemplo, los niveles de UK impuestos , seguridad social , defensa , relaciones internacionales y de radiodifusión . [93]

The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland, as well as limited power to vary income tax . Former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, in a BBC Scotland interview, indicated the Scottish Parliament could be given more tax-raising powers. [ 94 ]

The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to Westminster by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered to be more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom. For instance, the costs of a university education, and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places. [ 95 ]

The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature comprising 129 Members , 73 of whom represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system , serving for a four-year period. The Queen appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament , (MSP), on the nomination of the Parliament, to be First Minister . Other Ministers are also appointed by the First Minister and serve at his/her discretion, together they make up the Scottish Government , the executive arm of government. [ 96 ]

Bute House , official residence of the First Minister of Scotland , located within 6 Charlotte Square , Edinburgh .

In the 2011 election , the Scottish National Party (SNP) formed a majority government after winning 69 of the 129 seat Parliament; This was the first majority government since the modern post-devolutionary Scottish Parliament was established in 1999. The leader of the SNP, Alex Salmond , continued as First Minister. The Labour Party continued as the largest opposition party, with the Conservative Party , the Liberal Democrats , and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament. Margo MacDonald is the only independent MSP sitting in Parliament. The next Scottish Parliament general election will be held on 5 May 2016. The Scotland Bill , put forward by the Calman Commission and cleared by the UK House of Commons , proposes devolving more power to Scotland. The bill has yet to be put into legislation. The Scottish National Party, who did not take part in the consultation, believe the bill does not devolve enough powers to the Scottish Parliament. [ 97 ]

Scotland representative office for the European Union located in Brussels

Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies . The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government. [ 98 ] The Scotland office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland , who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom , the current incumbent being Michael Moore .

[ edit ] Administrative subdivisions

Historical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom , stewartry , earldom , burgh , parish, county and regions and districts . These names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors.

Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. For local government , there have been 32 council areas since 1996, [ 99 ] whose councils are unitary authorities responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area.

For the Scottish Parliament , there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies . The Scottish fire brigades and police forces are still based on the system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.

City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent . [ 100 ] There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen , Dundee , Edinburgh , Glasgow , Inverness , Stirling and Perth . [ 101 ]

[ edit ] Scotland within the UK

Welcome sign on the A1 at the Scottish border, with writing in Gaelic as well as English.

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. The late Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". [ 102 ] The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate.

In 2007, the Scottish Government established a " National Conversation " on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism , or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Scottish Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies. [ 103 ] In August 2009 the SNP proposed a referendum bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. Immediate opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] These plans were put on hold by the Scottish National Party until after the 2011 Scottish Parliament elections. [ 106 ] With the outcome of the May 2011 elections allowing an SNP majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland is to be held on the 18 September 2014, with the Scottish Government having launched its consultation on 25 January 2012. [ 107 ]

[ edit ] Law and criminal justice

Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law , [ 108 ] combining features of both uncodified civil law , dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis , and common law with medieval sources . The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales . [ 109 ] Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland , based on old Norse law . Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s. [ 110 ]

Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil , criminal and heraldic . The supreme civil court is the Court of Session , although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (or before 1 October 2009, the House of Lords ). The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session is housed at Parliament House , in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket . The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most of the cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. [ 111 ] District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.

For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for a period in being the only legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament , which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts : " guilty ", " not guilty " and " not proven ". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal with no possibility of retrial . [ 112 ] Many laws differ between Scotland and the rest of Britain , whereas many terms differ. Manslaughter , in England and Wales , becomes culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson becomes wilful fireraising. Procedure also differs. Scots juries consist of fifteen, not twelve jurors, as is more common in English-speaking countries .

The civil legal system has however attracted much recent criticism from a senior Scottish Judge who referred to it as being "Victorian" and antiquated. [ 113 ] The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners. [ 114 ] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government.

[ edit ] Geography and natural history

The island of Little Cumbrae with the Isle of Arran in the background

The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe . The total area is 78,772 km 2 (30,414 sq mi), [ 115 ] comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the southwestern peninsula of Kintyre ; [ 116 ] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes , 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.

The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England [ 117 ] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. [ 21 ] Important exceptions include the Isle of Man , which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland , which were acquired from Norway in 1472; [ 115 ] and Berwick-upon-Tweed , lost to England in 1482.

The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch . [ 118 ] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis , in Lochaber , while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay , flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi). [ 119 ] [ 120 ]

[ edit ] Geology and geomorphology

Relief map of Scotland.

The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation . From a geological perspective the country has three main sub-divisions.

The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which runs from Arran to Stonehaven . This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian , which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny . It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins .

A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands, which are divided into four main groups: Shetland , Orkney , and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides . There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness . Some parts of the coastline consist of machair , a low lying dune pasture land.

The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are to be found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism , Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.

The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar . [ 121 ] [ 122 ] [ 123 ] The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft). [ 20 ] [ 124 ] [ 125 ] [ 126 ] The Southern Uplands is home to the UK's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level). [ 123 ]

[ editar ] Clima

Tiree , one of the sunniest locations in Scotland.

The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic , and tends to be very changeable. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic , and as such has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, for example Labrador , southern Scandinavia , the Moscow region in Russia , or the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia . However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−16.96 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains , on 11 February 1895. [ 127 ] Winter maxima average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F) . The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.22 °F) at Greycrook , Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003. [ 128 ]

In general, the west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea . Tiree , in the Inner Hebrides , is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975. [ 128 ] Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest place, with annual rainfall exceeding 3,000 mm (118.1 in). [ 129 ] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31.5 in) annually. [ 130 ] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar experiences an average of 59 snow days per year, [ 131 ] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per annum. [ 130 ]

[ editar ] Flora y fauna

A Mountain hare ( Lepus timidus ) photographed in Findhorn Valley, May 2004.

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx , brown bear , wolf , elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets . [ 132 ] The golden eagle is something of a national icon. [ 133 ]

On the high mountain tops species including ptarmigan , mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months. [ 134 ] Remnants of the native Scots pine forest exist [ 135 ] and within these areas the Scottish crossbill , the UK's only endemic bird species and vertebrate , can be found alongside capercaillie , wildcat , red squirrel and pine marten . [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ] In recent years various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s, [ 139 ] [ 140 ] and more recently there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar . [ 141 ] [ 142 ]

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals. [ 143 ] The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne , Argyll in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance. [ 147 ] [ 148 ]

[ editar ] Economía e infraestructura

A drilling rig located in the North Sea .

Scotland has a western style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries . Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland.

De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service -oriented economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland and the sixth largest financial centre in Europe in terms of funds under management, behind London, Paris, Frankfurt , Zurich and Amsterdam , [ 149 ] with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of the Halifax Bank of Scotland ); the Government owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life .

A windfarm pictured in Tangy , on the west side of Kintyre . Renewable energy commercialisation is an important part of the Scottish economy.

In 2005, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were provisionally estimated to be £17.5 billion, of which 70% (£12.2 billion) were attributable to manufacturing. [ 150 ] Scotland's primary exports include whisky , electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets. [ 150 ] Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £137.5 billion for the calendar year 2009. [ 4 ] If Scotland became independent, it would hold 90% of the UK's current oil and gas reserves if they were split geographically using a median line from the English-Scottish border. If the reserves were to be split by population, that figure would be reduced to 9%. [ 151 ]

Despite only making up 8.4% of the UK population, Scotland generates 9.6% of UK revenues and receives 9.3% back from Westminster . [ 152 ]

Tourism is widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment. [ 153 ]

As of December 2012, the unemployment rate in Scotland stood at 7.6%, below the UK average of 7.8%. [ 154 ]

[ editar ] Moneda

Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes : the Bank of Scotland ; the Royal Bank of Scotland ; and the Clydesdale Bank . The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £3.5 billion. [ 155 ]

[ editar ] Transporte

A Loganair Twin Otter at Barra Airport , the only airport in the world that uses a beach as a runway for scheduled services. [ 156 ]

Scotland has five main international airports ( Glasgow , Edinburgh , Aberdeen , Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness ), which together serve 150 international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights . [ 157 ] GIP operates Edinburgh airport and BAA Operates,(Aberdeen and Glasgow International), and Highland and Islands Airports operates 11 regional airports, including Inverness, which serve the more remote locations. [ 158 ] Infratil operates Glasgow Prestwick.

The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland . The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas. Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and many islands . These ferries are mostly run by Caledonian MacBrayne , but some are operated by local councils. Other ferry routes, served by multiple companies, connect to Northern Ireland , Belgium, Norway, the Faroe Islands and also Iceland . Network Rail Infrastructure Limited owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland. [ 159 ] Scotland's rail network has around 340 railway stations and 3000 kilometres of track. Over 62 million passenger journeys are made each year. [ 160 ]

Edinburgh Airport is one of Scotland's busiest airports.

Scotland's rail network is managed by Transport Scotland . [ 161 ] The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by First ScotRail . During the time of British Rail the West Coast Main Line from London Euston to Glasgow Central was electrified in the early 1970s followed by the East Coast Main Line in the late 1980s. British Rail created the ScotRail brand. When British Rail existed many railway lines in Strathclyde were electrified with Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive being at the forefront with the acclaimed: "The Largest electrified rail network outside London." Some parts of the network are electrified, but there are no electrified lines in the Highlands, Angus, Aberdeenshire, the cities of Dundee or Aberdeen, or Perth & Kinross, and none of the Islands have a rail link.

In addition, Glasgow has had a small integrated subway system since 1896. Completely gutted and modernised between 1977 and 1980, its 15 stations serve just under 40,000 passengers per day. There are plans to extensively refurbish the system in time for the 2014 Commonwealth Games .

The East Coast Main Line crosses the Firth of Forth by the Forth Bridge . Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark". [ 162 ]

[ editar ] Demografía

Scottish population by ethnic group - All People (2001) [ 1 ]
% De
total Population
% minority
ethnic population
Base
White Scottish 88,09 n / a 4,459,071
Other White British 7,38 n / a 373,685
White Irish 0.98 n / a 49,428
Any other White background 1,54 n / a 78,150
Paquistaní 0,63 31.27 31.793
Indio 0,30 14,79 15,037
Bangladeshi 0,04 1,95 1.981
Chino 0,32 16,04 16,310
Other South Asian 0,12 3.09 6,196
Caribe 0,04 1,75 1.778
Africano 0,10 5,03 5,118
Black Scottish
(or any other Black background)
0,02 1,11 1.129
Any Mixed Background 0,25 12,55 12.764
Any other background 0,19 9,41 9.571
All minority ethnic population 2.01 100
All population 100,00 n / a 5,062,011

The population of Scotland in the 2001 Census was 5,062,011. This has risen to 5,295,400, the highest ever, according to the first results of the 2011 Census. [ 3 ] This would make Scotland the 113th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. With a population of just over 584,000, this honour falls to Glasgow . The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population. [ 163 ]

The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located. Glasgow is to the west, while Edinburgh and Dundee lie on the east coast, with Perth (its city status restored in 2012) lying 20 miles upstream on the River Tay from Dundee. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen , on the east coast to the north. The Highlands are sparsely populated, although the city of Inverness has experienced rapid growth in recent years.

In general, only the more accessible and larger islands retain human populations. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry. [ 164 ] [ 165 ] Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were created between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride , Glenrothes , Livingston , Cumbernauld , and Irvine . [ 166 ]

Scotland population cartogram . The size of councils is in proportion to their population; the darker the colour, the bigger the actual area served by a council.

Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee small South Asian communities. [ 167 ] As of 2001, there were an estimated 31,793 Pakistanis living in Scotland, making them the single largest non-White ethnic group. [ 1 ] Since the recent Enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and it is estimated that between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles now live there. [ 168 ]

Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots , and Scottish Gaelic . Almost all Scots speak Scottish English , and in 1996, the General Register Office for Scotland estimated that 30% of the population are fluent in Scots . [ 169 ] Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles , where a large proportion of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population. [ 170 ] The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 – 7% of the population – in 1881 to 60,000 today. [ 171 ]

There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent. [ 172 ] Ulster 's Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent, [ 173 ] and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the US [ 174 ] [ 175 ] In Canada, the Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million people. [ 176 ] About 20% of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland. [ 177 ]

In August 2012, the Scottish population had reached an all time high, reaching 5.25 million people. [ 178 ] The reason given was that in Scotland births were out numbering the number of Scottish deaths, and due to immigrants coming into Scotland from overseas. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales , Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland. [ 178 ]

[ editar ] Educación

The University of Glasgow 's main building.

The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from the rest of United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education . [ 180 ] Scotland was the first country since Sparta in classical Greece to implement a system of general public education . [ 60 ] Schooling was made compulsory for the first time in Scotland with the Education Act of 1496 ; then, in 1561, the Church of Scotland set out a national programme for spiritual reform, including a school in every parish. Education continued to be a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872) . [ 181 ]

The " Curriculum for Excellence " provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18. [ 182 ] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); today, children in Scotland study Standard Grades , or more recently Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and 16. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access , Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead. [ 183 ]

There are fifteen Scottish universities , some of which are amongst the oldest in the world . [ 184 ] [ 185 ] These include the University of St Andrews , the University of Glasgow , the University of Aberdeen , the University of Edinburgh , Heriot-Watt University , the Robert Gordon University , and the University of Dundee —many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK. [ 186 ] [ 187 ] Proportionally, Scotland has more universities in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 than any other nation in the world. [ 188 ] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees.

Scotland's Universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 Colleges. Colleges offer National Certificates, Higher National Certificates and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs.

Scotland's regulatory body for qualifications is SQA Accreditation. Scotland's Qualifications are mapped on the SCQF (Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework). The SCQF provides a language to help understand the complexity and size of qualifications, ranging from Access 1 (SCQF Level 1) to Doctorates (SCQF Level 12).{ http://www.scqf.org.uk/}

[ editar ] Religión

Iona Abbey , an early centre of Christianity in Scotland.

Just over two-thirds (67%) of the Scottish population reported having a religion in 2001, with Christianity representing all but 2% of these. [ 191 ] By contrast, 28% of the population reported having no religious adherence.

Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the national church (the Church of Scotland , also known as The Kirk ) has been Protestant and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government, and enjoys independence from the state. [ 20 ] About 12% of the population are currently members of the Church of Scotland, with 40% claiming affinity. The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland having a local congregation.

Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population, 19% claiming that faith, particularly in the west. [ 192 ] After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism in Scotland continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra , and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland , various other Presbyterian offshoots, and the Scottish Episcopal Church .

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 40,000, which is less than 0.9% of the population), [ 193 ] and there are also significant Jewish , Hindu and Sikh communities, especially in Glasgow. [ 193 ] The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir , which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, includes the largest Buddhist temple in western Europe. [ 194 ]

[ editar ] Salud

Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland , Scotland's public health care system. This was founded by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England and Wales. However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service . [ 195 ]

In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants. In addition, there are also more than 12,000 doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances. These fees and allowances have been removed as of May 2010, prescriptions are entirely free, (dentists and opticians are chargeable if the household you stay in is making over a certain amount) (the amount is within the region of £30,000 per annum) [ 196 ]

Healthcare policy and funding is the responsibility of the Scottish Government 's Health Directorates . The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing is Alex Neil and the Director-General (DG) Health and Chief Executive, NHS Scotland is Derek Feeley. [ 197 ]

[ editar ] Militar

Soldiers of the five regular battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland .

Scotland currently spends £3.3 billion on defence. In an independent Scotland the costs could be reduced from the current figure to around £1.8 billion, assuming a reduced global role and an absence of nuclear weapons. [ 198 ] Although Scotland has a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces , with the notable exception of the Atholl Highlanders , Europe's only legal private army. In 2006, the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland . Other distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards , the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the Scottish Transport Regiment , a Territorial Army Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps .

Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments, with mixed public feelings. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] [ 201 ] Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines . [ 202 ] Today, Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde , 25 miles (40 kilometres) north west of Glasgow, is the base for the four Trident -armed Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines that comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent . Scapa Flow was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy until 1956.

Two frontline Royal Air Force bases are also located in Scotland. These are RAF Leuchars and RAF Lossiemouth , the last of which is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom. A third, RAF Kinloss will be closed as an RAF unit in 2013–14. RAF Leuchars is due to be turned into an army barracks, ending the RAF's connection in Fife . [ 203 ]

The only open-air live depleted uranium weapons test range in the British Isles is located near Dundrennan . [ 204 ] As a result, over 7,000 radioactive munitions lie on the seabed of the Solway Firth . [ 205 ]

[ editar ] Cultura

A Pipe Major playing the Great Highland Bagpipe

Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe , a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands , featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. Today, there are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles including Runrig , Boards of Canada , Cocteau Twins , Franz Ferdinand , Susan Boyle , Emeli Sande , Texas , The View , The Fratellis , Twin Atlantic and Biffy Clyro . Other Scottish musicians include Paolo Nutini and Calvin Harris [ 206 ]

Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature . [ 207 ] Later medieval literature included works in Latin, [ 208 ] Gaelic, [ 209 ] Old English [ 210 ] and French. [ 211 ] The first surviving major text in Early Scots is the 14th century poet John Barbour 's epic Brus , focusing on the life of Robert I, [ 212 ] and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works. [ 213 ] In the 16th century the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry, [ 214 ] but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. [ 215 ] Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson , whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment. [ 216 ] It was also a major influence on Robert Burns , considered by many to be the national poet, [ 217 ] and Walter Scott , whose Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century. [ 218 ] Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson , Arthur Conan Doyle , JM Barrie and George MacDonald . [ 219 ] In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language as a medium for serious literature. [ 220 ] Members of the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets including Edwin Morgan , who would be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004. [ 221 ] From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh . [ 220 ] Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy , who was named as the first Scot to be UK Poet Laureate in May 2009. [ 222 ]

Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland , a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation , the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television stations , and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal , amongst others. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language . BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV . National newspapers such as the Daily Record , The Herald , and The Scotsman are all produced in Scotland. [ 223 ] Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north. [ 223 ] Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival , which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980. [ 224 ]

As one of the Celtic nations , Scotland and Scottish culture is represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient ( Brittany ), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival ( Portarlington , Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] [ 230 ] [ 231 ]

[ editar ] Deporte

Sport is an important element in Scottish culture, with the country hosting many of its own national sporting competitions. It enjoys independent representation at many international sporting events including the FIFA World Cup , the Rugby Union World Cup , the Rugby League World Cup , the Cricket World Cup and the Commonwealth Games , but not at the Olympic Games where Scottish athletes are part of the Great Britain team . Scotland has its own national governing bodies , such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world) [ 232 ] and the Scottish Rugby Union . Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries with the earliest reference dating back to 1424. [ 233 ] Association football is now the most popular sport and the Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national trophy. [ 234 ]

Scotland contested the first ever international football game in 1872, a 0–0 draw against England. The match took place at Hamilton Crescent , Glasgow, home of the West of Scotland Cricket Club . Scottish clubs have been successful in European competitions with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen also winning the UEFA Super Cup in 1983. Dundee United have also made it to a European final, reaching the UEFA Cup Final in 1987, but losing on aggregate 2-1 to IFK Göteborg . The Fife town of St. Andrews is known internationally as the Home of golf [ 235 ] and to many golfers the Old Course , an ancient links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. [ 236 ] There are many other famous golf courses in Scotland , including Carnoustie , Gleneagles , Muirfield , and Royal Troon . Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games , curling and shinty . In boxing , Scotland has had 13 world champions: Alex Arthur , Ken Buchanan , Ricky Burns , Pat Clinton , Scott Harrison , Johnny Hill , Tancy Lee , Benny Lynch , Walter McGowan , Jackie Peterson , Murray Sutherland , Jim Watt and Paul Weir . Ricky Burns is the current WBO lightweight world champion.

Scotland has competed at every Commonwealth Games since 1930 and have won 356 medals in total—91 Gold, 104 Silver and 161 Bronze. [ 237 ] Edinburgh played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986 , and Glasgow will do so in 2014 . [ 238 ]

[ editar ] Símbolos nacionales

The thistle , Scotland's floral emblem .

The national flag of Scotland , known as the Saltire or St. Andrew's Cross, dates from the 9th century, and is thus the oldest national flag still in use. Since 1606 the Saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag . There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle , the nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The Thistle o' Scotland ), 6 April 1320 statement of political independence the Declaration of Arbroath , the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan and the Lion Rampant flag. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] [ 241 ] Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose , for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans. [ 242 ]

Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland , [ 243 ] Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and as of 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes. [ 244 ] Other less popular candidates for the National Anthem of Scotland include Scotland the Brave , Highland Cathedral , Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That .

St Andrew's Day , 30 November, is the national day , although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland. Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 , designating the day to be an official bank holiday . [ 245 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

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[ editar ] Otras lecturas

  • Brown, Dauvit, (1999) Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to Medieval European Change , Cambridge University Press , pp. 135–53
  • Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371 , Edinburgh University Press., pp. 157–254
  • Devine, TM [1999] (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1
  • Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism". Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars . Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1-85182-486-1 .  
  • Flom, George Tobias . Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian ( Columbia University Press , New York. 1900)
  • Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries". In Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297 . Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 1-85182-516-9 .  
  • MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650 . Oxford University Press .
  • Pope, Robert (ed.), Religion and National Identity: Wales and Scotland, c.1700–2000 ( University of Wales Press , 2001)
  • Sharp, LW The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland , (Cambridge University PhD thesis , 1927), pp. 102–325;
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh , The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History , Yale, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2

[ editar ] Enlaces externos