Nuevo Testamento

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Saltar a navegación , búsqueda

El Nuevo Testamento ( griego koiné : Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, él Kaine diatheke) es la segunda parte importante del canon cristiano bíblico , la primera parte es el Antiguo Testamento . Aunque los cristianos tienen puntos de vista diferentes de hacer Judios sobre el Antiguo Testamento, es decir, la Escrituras Hebreas -cristianos consideran tanto del Antiguo Testamento y el Nuevo juntos como escritura sagrada . El Nuevo Testamento se refiere esencialmente a proclamar Heilsgeschichte [1] -historia de la salvación, Dios positivas las acciones salvíficas de la historia. [2] El contenido de la oferta del Nuevo Testamento explícitamente con el cristianismo del primer siglo . Por lo tanto, el Nuevo Testamento (en todo o en parte) con frecuencia ha acompañado a la difusión del cristianismo en todo el mundo . Esto refleja y sirve como fuente para la teología cristiana . Ambas lecturas extensas y frases directamente del Nuevo Testamento también se han incorporado (junto con las lecturas del Antiguo Testamento) en las diversas liturgias cristianas . El Nuevo Testamento ha influido no sólo religiosas, filosóficas y políticas movimientos en la cristiandad , sino que también ha dejado una marca indeleble en su literatura , arte y música .

El Nuevo Testamento es una antología , una colección de obras cristianas escritas en el idioma griego común del siglo I, en distintas épocas por diversos autores, que eran a principios discípulos judíos de Jesús de Nazaret . En casi todas las tradiciones cristianas de hoy, el Nuevo Testamento consta de 27 libros. Los textos originales fueron escritos en el primero y quizás el siglo segundo de la era cristiana , generalmente se cree que en griego koiné , que era el idioma común del Mediterráneo Oriental de las conquistas de Alejandro Magno (335-323 aC) hasta la evolución del bizantino griego (c. 600). Todas las obras que con el tiempo se incorporarían en el Nuevo Testamento parece haber sido escrito a más tardar en torno al año 150. [3]

Las colecciones de textos relacionados tales como cartas del apóstol Pablo (una colección importante de lo que debe haber sido hecho ya en el siglo segundo antes de tiempo) [4] y los Evangelios canónicos de Mateo, Marcos, Lucas y Juan (afirmado por Ireneo de Lyon a finales del siglo segundo-como los Cuatro Evangelios) gradualmente se unieron a otras colecciones y obras individuales en diferentes combinaciones para formar varios cánones cristianos de la Biblia . Con el tiempo, algunos libros en disputa , como el Libro de la Revelación y de los menores Epístolas Católicas (General) se introdujeron en los cánones en los que fueron originalmente ausente. Otros trabajos anteriores era que las Escrituras, tal como 1 Clemente , el Pastor de Hermas , y la Diatessaron , fueron excluidos del Nuevo Testamento. El canon del Antiguo Testamento no es completamente uniforme entre todos los principales grupos cristianos, incluyendo a los católicos romanos , protestantes , la Iglesia Ortodoxa Griega , las Iglesias ortodoxas eslavas , y la Iglesia ortodoxa armenia . Sin embargo, el canon de veintisiete libros del Nuevo Testamento, al menos desde la Antigüedad tardía , ha sido casi universalmente reconocido dentro de la cristiandad (ver Desarrollo del canon del Nuevo Testamento ).

El Nuevo Testamento consta de

Contenido

[ edit ] Entre los Testamentos

[ editar ] Historia

El Nuevo Testamento es una historia en curso cuando el lector comienza en su comienzo- Mateo 1:1 . Mucho había tenido lugar durante el período intertestamentario entre el final de lo que los cristianos llamamos el Antiguo Testamento y el comienzo del Nuevo Testamento. El reino de Israel había llegado a su apogeo bajo el rey David mil años antes, pero ya no estaba en existencia como entidad política. En 587 aC, el sur de Reino de Judá , con su capital Jerusalén había sido conquistada por los babilonios que destruyó el Primer Templo y obligó a la población judía en el exilio, conocido como el exilio babilónico . Cincuenta años después, Ciro de Persia permitió la Judios a regresar y construir aún un nuevo templo, el Segundo Templo , único que ha destruido por los romanos en el año 70. Por lo tanto, el lapso de la historia judía desde 515 aC hasta el 70 dC se refiere a menudo como el período del Segundo Templo . Dentro de ella hay cuatro subdivisiones:

[ editar ] Etimología

El término "nuevo testamento" o " nuevo pacto "(Hebreos בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה bərîṯ Hadasa) aparece por primera vez en Jeremías 31:31 (griega Septuaginta καινὴ διαθήκη Kaine diatheke, citado en Hebreos 8:8 ). La misma frase griega que significa "nuevo pacto" se encuentra en otra parte del Nuevo Testamento ( Lucas 22:20 , 1 Corintios 11:25 , 2 Corintios 3:6 , Hebreos 8:8 y Hebreos 9:15 , cf. 2 Corintios 3 : 14 ). En las primeras traducciones de la Biblia al latín , la frase se hizo foedus, "federación", en Jeremías 31:31 , y se hizo testamentum en Hebreos 8:8 y otras instancias de la que proviene el término Inglés "Nuevo Testamento".

Inglés moderno, como el latín, distingue testamento y pacto como traducciones alternativas, y en consecuencia el tratamiento del término διαθήκη diatheke varía en las traducciones inglesas de la Biblia . John Wycliffe 's 1395 la versión es una traducción de la Vulgata Latina y así sigue términos diferentes en Jeremías y Hebreos:

LO! vienen días, dice Jehová el Señor, y deberá lograr un nuevo pacto (foedus de América) con la casa de Israel y con la casa de Judá. [ Jeremías 31:31 ]
Porque él dice reprender, Lo! vienen días, dice el Señor, y os hará perfecto un nuevo testamento (del latín testamentum) en la casa de Israel y la casa de Judá. [ Hebreos 8:8 ]

El uso del Nuevo Testamento para describir una colección de primer y segundo siglo de Escrituras Griegas Cristianas se remonta a Tertuliano (en contra Praxeas 15). [6] En Contra Marción libro 3 (escrita en el siglo tercero temprano, c. AD 208), capítulo 14, él escribe de

el Verbo Divino, que es doblemente afilada con los dos testamentos de la ley y el Evangelio [7]

Y en el libro 4, capítulo 6, escribe que

lo cierto es que todo el objetivo en el que [Marcion] ha trabajado arduamente, incluso en la elaboración de sus antítesis , centros en esto el que se puede establecer una diversidad entre el Antiguo y el Nuevo Testamento, de modo que su propio Cristo puede estar separado del Creador , como pertenecientes a este dios rival, y como ajeno a la ley y los profetas . [8]

Por el siglo cuarto , la existencia, incluso si el contenido no-exactas de ambos un Antiguo Testamento y el Nuevo había sido establecida. Lactancio , escritor cristiano del siglo tercero y cuarto, que escribió en latín, en su temprana cuarto de siglo Divino Institutos, libro 4, capítulo 20, escribió:

Pero toda la escritura se divide en dos Testamentos. Lo que precedió a la llegada y la pasión de Cristo, es decir, la ley y la profetas -que se llama el Antiguo., pero las cosas que estaban escritas después de su resurrección se llaman el Nuevo Testamento Los Judios hacer uso de la Vieja, de la nueva: pero sin embargo, no son discordantes, para el Nuevo es el cumplimiento del Antiguo, y en ambas se encuentra el testador mismo, el Cristo, quien, habiendo padecido la muerte por nosotros, nos ha hecho herederos de su reino eterno, el pueblo de los Judios siendo privados y desheredado. Como el profeta Jeremías testifica al hablar estas cosas: "He aquí que vienen días, dice Jehová, en que haré un nuevo pacto con la casa de Israel ya la casa de Judá, no de acuerdo con el testamento que le hice a su padres, el día que los tomé de la mano para sacarlos de la tierra de Egipto;. porque ellos no permanecieron en mi pacto, y yo las tenerse en cuenta, dice el Señor "[ Jeremías 31:31-32 ] .. . Por lo que Él ha dicho, que haría un nuevo pacto con la casa de Judá, muestra que el Antiguo Testamento que fue dada por Moisés no era perfecto, pero lo que iba a ser dado por Cristo sería completa. [9]

[ editar ] Libros

[ editar ] Autores

Todos los libros del Nuevo Testamento fueron escritos por judíos cristianos , es decir, los discípulos judíos de Cristo, que vivió en el Imperio Romano , y bajo la ocupación romana . [5] : 16

[ editar ] Los Evangelios

Cada uno de los cuatro evangelios del Nuevo Testamento narra la vida, muerte y resurrección de Jesús de Nazaret . Desde el siglo segundo, se les ha denominado "El Evangelio de la ..." o "El Evangelio según ..." seguido por el nombre del supuesto autor. Lo que estas atribuciones reconocidamente temprana pueden implicar sobre las fuentes detrás o la percepción de estos evangelios, que parecen haber sido originalmente composiciones anónimas. [10]

Los tres primeros evangelios mencionados se clasifican como Evangelios Sinópticos . Ellos contienen relatos similares de los acontecimientos de la vida de Jesús y sus enseñanzas, por su interdependencia literaria. El Evangelio de Juan tiene una estructura diferente e incluye historias de varios milagros de Jesús y refranes que no se encuentran en los otros tres.

Estos cuatro evangelios que se incluyeron finalmente en el Nuevo Testamento eran sólo unos pocos entre muchos otros evangelios cristianos primitivos. La existencia de tales textos siquiera se menciona al principio del Evangelio de Lucas. [ Lucas 1:1-4 ] Otros evangelios cristianos primitivos, como los llamados " evangelios judeo-cristianas ", o el Evangelio de Tomás , también ofrecen tanto una ventana en el contexto del cristianismo primitivo y puede proporcionar alguna ayuda en la reconstrucción del Jesús histórico .

[ editar ] Hechos de los Apóstoles

Los Hechos de los Apóstoles es una narración del ministerio de los apóstoles después de la muerte y resurrección de Cristo, desde donde se reanuda y funciona como una secuela del Evangelio de Lucas . Examinando estilo, fraseología, y otras pruebas, los eruditos modernos generalmente llega a la conclusión de que los Hechos y el Evangelio de Lucas comparten un mismo autor, conocido como Lucas-Hechos . Esto también es sugerido por la dedicación a " Teófilo "(" Amor de Dios "o" amigo de Dios ") al principio de ambas obras. [ Lucas 1:3 ] [ Hechos 1:1 ]

[ editar ] Epístolas

[ edit ] epístolas paulinas

Las epístolas paulinas son los trece libros del Nuevo Testamento que presentan al apóstol Pablo como su autor. [12] Varias de las cartas son considerados por los estudiosos más modernos para ser pseudepigraphic , es decir, no en realidad escrito por Paul, aunque se le atribuyen en el cartas propias,. Estas cartas fueron escritas a las comunidades cristianas en determinadas ciudades o regiones geográficas, a menudo para hacer frente a los problemas que enfrentan por esa comunidad en particular. Temas destacados incluyen la relación tanto a una mayor " pagano "la sociedad, al judaísmo, y otros cristianos. [13]

[ editar ] epístolas pastorales

Las epístolas pastorales , que se presentan como si estuviese escrita por Pablo, están dirigidas a las personas con cuidado pastoral de las iglesias y discutir temas de la vida cristiana doctrina y liderazgo. A menudo las preocupaciones diferentes a las de las epístolas anteriores.

[ edit ] Hebreos

La carta a los Hebreos se dirige a un público judío que había llegado claramente a creer que Jesús es el Ungido / Nombrado Uno (griego: Χριστος - transcrito en Inglés como "Christos", porque "Cristo", en hebreo: מָשִׁיחַ - transcrito en Inglés como " Mashiaj, Moshiah, mashiah, Mashíaj ", por" El Mesías ", que es el" ungido [uno] "), quien fue predicho en las escrituras del Antiguo Testamento hebreo. El autor analiza el "mejor-ness" del nuevo pacto y el ministerio de Jesús, a través de la alianza mosaica contenida en el Antiguo Testamento [ Heb. 01:01-10:18 ] e insta a los lectores en las implicaciones prácticas de esta convicción hasta el final de la epístola. [ Heb. 10:19-13:25 ] El libro ha sido ampliamente aceptado por la iglesia cristiana como inspirados por Dios y autorizada por lo tanto, a pesar del reconocimiento de la incertidumbre acerca de quién era su autor humano. En cuanto a la autoría, aunque la Carta a los Hebreos no internamente afirman haber sido escrito por el apóstol Pablo , algunas similitudes en la redacción a algunas de las epístolas paulinas se han observado e inferido, y en la antigüedad, determinados círculos empezaron a atribuir a Pablo en un intento de proporcionar el trabajo anónimo de un linaje apostólico explícito. [14] En el siglo tercero, Orígenes escribió la carta, "Los hombres de la antigüedad han transmitido como Pablo, pero que escribió el Dios Epístola sólo sabe". [15 ]

[ edit ] epístolas generales

Las epístolas generales (o "epístolas católicas") compuesta de letras y tratados en forma de cartas escritas a la iglesia en general. El término " católico "( griego : καθολική, katholike), que se utiliza para describir estas cartas en los manuscritos más antiguos que los contienen, aquí simplemente significa "universal". La autoría de varios de ellos está en disputa.

[ editar ] Libro de Apocalipsis

El último libro del Nuevo Testamento es el libro de la Revelación , también conocido como el Apocalipsis de Juan. En el canon del Nuevo Testamento, se considera profético o la literatura apocalíptica . Su autoría se ha atribuido tanto a la de Juan el Apóstol (en cuyo caso, a menudo se piensa que Juan el Apóstol Juan el Evangelista , autor, es decir del Evangelio de Juan ) oa otro designado Juan " Juan de Patmos "después de la isla donde el texto dice que la revelación se recibió (1:9). Algunos atribuyen la fecha writership como alrededor de 96 AD, y otros en torno al 68 dC. [17] La obra se abre con cartas a siete iglesias y, posteriormente, toma la forma de un apocalipsis , un género literario popular en el antiguo judaísmo y el cristianismo. [18]

[ editar ] Libro orden

El orden de los libros del Nuevo Testamento aparecen difiere entre algunas colecciones y tradiciones eclesiásticas. En el Occidente latino, antes de la Vulgata (uno de los primeros del siglo quinto versión latina de la Biblia), los cuatro Evangelios fueron dispuestas en el orden siguiente:. Mateo, Juan, Lucas y Marcos [19] El siríaco Peshitta coloca la mayor epístolas generales (Santiago, 1 Pedro y Juan, 1) inmediatamente después de los Hechos y las epístolas paulinas antes. El orden de una primera edición de las cartas de Pablo se basa en el tamaño de las letras: más larga a la más corta, pero manteniendo 1 y 2 Corintios y Tesalonicenses 1 y 2 juntos. Las epístolas pastorales no eran aparentemente parte del Corpus Paulinum en que esta orden se originó y se insertaron más tarde después de 2 Tesalonicenses y Filemón antes. Hebreos fue incorporado diversas maneras en el Corpus Paulinum ya sea después de 2 Tesalonicenses, después de Filemón (es decir, al final), o después de los romanos.

El Nuevo Testamento de la del siglo 16 la Biblia de Lutero continúa hasta nuestros días, para colocar Hebreos, Santiago, Judas y el Apocalipsis pasado. Esto refleja el pensamiento del reformador Martín Lutero sobre la canonicidad de los libros . [20]

[ edit ] Apócrifos

Los libros que finalmente han encontrado un lugar permanente en el Nuevo Testamento no fueron las únicas obras de la literatura cristiana producida en los primeros siglos del cristianismo. El largo proceso de canonización comenzó temprano, a veces con la recepción tácita de textos tradicionales, a veces con la selección explícita o rechazo de textos particulares como aceptables o inaceptables para el uso en un contexto dado (por ejemplo, no todos los textos que eran aceptables para uso privado se consideraron adecuado para su uso en la liturgia ).

A lo largo de la historia, las obras de la literatura cristiana primitiva que sobrevivieron pero que no llegó a ser parte del Nuevo Testamento han sido diversamente agrupados por teólogos y eruditos. Basándose, aunque redefiniendo, un término antiguo utilizado en el cristianismo primitivo y entre los protestantes cuando se refiere a los libros que se encuentran en la cristiana del Antiguo Testamento , aunque no en la Biblia judía , los eruditos modernos comenzaron a referirse a estas obras de la literatura cristiana primitiva no incluidos en el Nuevo Testamento como "apócrifo", por el cual se entiende no canónica. Ediciones completas de estas obras fueron remitidos a continuación como " apócrifos del Nuevo Testamento ". Por lo general excluidas de tales colecciones publicadas son los siguientes grupos de obras: Los Padres Apostólicos , los apologistas cristianos del siglo segundo, los alejandrinos , Tertuliano , Metodio de Olimpo , Novaciano , Cipriano , martirios y los Padres del Desierto . Casi toda la literatura de otros cristianos de la época, y algunas veces incluso obras compuestas hasta bien entrada la Antigüedad tardía , son relegados a los apócrifos llamado Nuevo Testamento. Estos "apócrifos" obras son sin embargo importantes para el estudio del Nuevo Testamento en que fueron producidos en el mismo contexto antiguo y, a menudo usando el mismo lenguaje que los libros que formarían el Nuevo Testamento. Algunas de estas obras posteriores son dependientes (ya sea directa o indirectamente) a los libros que más tarde llegaría a ser en el Nuevo Testamento o en las ideas expresadas en ellas. Incluso hay un ejemplo de un pseudepigraphical carta compuesta bajo el disfraz de una carta supuestamente perdida del apóstol Pablo, la epístola a la iglesia de Laodicea .

[ editar ] Autoría

[ edit ] Evangelios

La mayoría de los eruditos sostienen la hipótesis de las dos fuentes que afirma que el Evangelio de Marcos fue escrito primero. De acuerdo con la hipótesis, los autores del Evangelio de Mateo y el Evangelio de Lucas usó entonces el Evangelio de Marcos y el hipotético documento Q , además de algunas otras fuentes, para escribir sus evangelios individuales. [21] [22] [23 ] [24] [25] Estos tres evangelios se llaman los evangelios sinópticos porque incluyen muchas de las mismas historias, a menudo en la misma secuencia y, a veces exactamente la misma redacción. Los estudiosos coinciden en que el Evangelio de Juan fue escrito el pasado, mediante el uso de una tradición diferente y el cuerpo del testimonio. Además, la mayoría de los estudiosos coinciden en que el autor de Lucas escribió los Hechos de los Apóstoles. Los estudiosos sostienen que estos libros constituyen dos mitades de una misma obra, Lucas-Hechos .

Evangelista Mathäus und der Engel por Rembrandt

Estrictamente hablando, cada Evangelio (y los Hechos) es anónima. [26] El Evangelio de Juan es algo así como una excepción, aunque el autor simplemente se refiere a sí mismo como "el discípulo a quien Jesús amaba" y dice ser un miembro del círculo íntimo de Jesús . [27] La identidad de cada autor se acordaron en una fecha próxima, sin duda, a más tardar el segundo siglo temprano. Es probable que la cuestión de la autoría de cada evangelio había sido resuelta por lo menos un poco antes, [28] como las primeras fuentes están totalmente de acuerdo sobre la cuestión. [29] De hecho, nadie puso en duda el consenso de principios del siglo segundo hasta que el siglo 18. [29]

Algunos estudiosos mantienen hoy [30] la afirmación tradicional de que el evangelista Lucas , un asociado de St. Paul , que probablemente no era un testigo ocular del ministerio de Jesús, escribió el Evangelio de Lucas y Hechos de los Apóstoles. [29] Los eruditos también se dividen en la afirmación tradicional de que Marcos Evangelista , un asociado de St. Pedro , que podría haber sido un testigo ocular del ministerio de Jesús, escribió el Evangelio de Marcos. [31] Los eruditos están más divididos sobre la demanda tradicional de que Mateo el Apóstol escribió el Evangelio de Mateo [32] [33] y que el apóstol Juan escribió el Evangelio de Juan. [34] [35] [36] conclusiones, sin embargo, es ampliamente divididos sobre esta cuestión y no existe un consenso generalizado. [37] [38]

[ edit ] Lucas-Hechos

El Evangelio de Lucas y los Hechos de los Apóstoles fueron ambos escritos por el mismo autor, y por lo tanto se refiere a los textos Lucan. [39] La evidencia más directa proviene de los prefacios de cada libro. Los dos prefacios fueron dirigidas a Teófilo , y el prólogo de los Hechos de los Apóstoles las referencias "mi libro anterior" sobre el ministerio de Jesús. Por otra parte, existen similitudes lingüísticas y teológicas entre las dos obras, lo que sugiere que tienen un autor común. [40] [41] [42] De acuerdo con Donald Guthrie, la visión tradicional de la autoría lucana está "muy extendida la opinión de que como la mayoría explica satisfactoriamente todos los datos ". [43] mientras que RE Brown dice que la opinión sobre el tema es "divididos" [44] La lista de expertos que mantienen la autoría de Lucas y Hechos de Lucas es larga, y representa a los académicos de una amplia gama de teología opinión. [30]

[ edit ] epístolas paulinas

San Pablo escribiendo sus epístolas, la pintura del siglo 16. La mayoría de los estudiosos creen que Pablo en realidad dictaba sus cartas a una secretaria.

Las epístolas paulinas son los trece libros en el Nuevo Testamento tradicionalmente atribuida a Pablo de Tarso . Algunos consideran que la Epístola a los Hebreos anónimo catorceavo epístola paulina. [45]

Siete cartas se clasifican generalmente como "indiscutible", expresando contemporáneo consenso de los expertos que están cerca de la obra de Pablo: Romanos, 1 Corintios, 2 Corintios, Gálatas, Filipenses, 1 Tesalonicenses y Filemón. Seis cartas adicionales que llevan el nombre de Pablo no se benefician de la misma consenso académico: Efesios, Colosenses, 2 Tesalonicenses, 1 Timoteo, 2 Timoteo y Tito. Aunque muchos eruditos defender el punto de vista tradicional, algunos se preguntan si los tres primeros, llamados "Deutero-Pauline Epístolas," son cartas auténticas de Pablo. En cuanto a las tres últimas, las "Epístolas Pastorales", hay muchos estudiosos que sostienen el punto de vista tradicional de estos como los escritos genuinos del apóstol Pablo. [46] Sin embargo, algunos las consideran como pseudoepígrafos . [47] (se podría se refieren a la Epístola a los de Laodicea y la Tercera Epístola a los Corintios , como ejemplos de obras identificadas como seudónimo). Desde los primeros siglos de la iglesia, ha habido un debate acerca de la autoría de la Epístola a los Hebreos anónimo, y si bien algunos teólogos creen hoy que Pablo escribió Hebreos, [48] [49] los estudiosos contemporáneos generalmente rechazan la autoría paulina. [50] Las epístolas todos los temas de acciones comunes, énfasis, vocabulario y estilo, sino que presentan una uniformidad de la doctrina sobre la ley de Moisés , Jesús, la fe, y varios otros temas. Todas estas cartas se adaptan con facilidad a la cronología de los viajes de Pablo descritas en los Hechos de los Apóstoles.

[ editar ] Otras epístolas

El autor de la Epístola de Santiago se identifica en el primer verso de "Santiago, siervo de Dios y del Señor Jesús Cristo. " A partir de mediados del siglo tercero, patrísticos autores citan la epístola escrita por Santiago el Justo . [51] eruditos antiguos y modernos siempre han estado divididos sobre la cuestión de la autoría. Muchos consideran que la epístola a ser escrito en la primera tarde o principios del siglo segundo. [52]

El autor de la Primera Epístola de Pedro se identifica en el primer verso como "Pedro, apóstol de Jesucristo ", y la idea de que la epístola fue escrita por San Pedro está atestiguada por varios Padres de la Iglesia : San Ireneo (140 - 203), Tertuliano (150-222), Clemente de Alejandría (155-215) y Orígenes de Alejandría (185-253). A diferencia de la Segunda Epístola de Pedro , cuya autoría fue objeto de debate en la antigüedad, hubo poco debate acerca de la autoría de Pedro de esta primera epístola hasta el siglo 18. Aunque 2 Pedro internamente pretende ser una obra del apóstol, muchos estudiosos de la Biblia han concluido que Pedro no es el autor. [53] Para una fecha próxima y (generalmente) para la defensa de la autoría del apóstol Pedro a ver Kruger, [54] Zahn, [55] Spitta, [56] Bigg, [57] y Verde. [58]

La Epístola de Judas título está escrito lo siguiente: "Judas, siervo de Jesucristo y hermano de Santiago" ( NVI ). El debate ha continuado durante la identidad del autor como el apóstol, hermano de Jesús, ambos, o ninguno de ellos. [59]

[ edit ] joánica obras

La Primera Epístola de Juan se celebra tradicionalmente para haber sido compuesto por el apóstol Juan (el autor del Evangelio de Juan ), cuando el escritor se encontraba en edad avanzada. El contenido de la epístola, el lenguaje y el estilo conceptual indican que puede haber tenido el mismo autor que el Evangelio de Juan, 2 Juan y 3 Juan. [26] Eusebio afirma que el autor del segundo y John tercero no era Juan el Apóstol un anciano " John ", que se refiere tanto al apóstol a una edad avanzada o un individuo hipotético segundo (" Juan el Viejo "). [60] Los eruditos hoy están divididos sobre la cuestión.

[ edit ] Apocalipsis

El autor del libro de Apocalipsis se identifica varias veces como "Juan". [ Rev. 1:1, 4, 9; 22:08 ] El autor también afirma que él estaba en Patmos . cuando recibió su primera visión [ Rev. 1:9; 4:1-2 ] En consecuencia, el autor del Apocalipsis se refiere a veces como Juan de Patmos . El autor, llamado Juan, que tradicionalmente se ha identificado con el apóstol Juan, a quien el Evangelio de Juan también se le atribuye. La opinión tradicional es que el apóstol Juan -considera que ha escrito el Evangelio y las epístolas de Juan , fue desterrado a la isla de Patmos durante el reinado del emperador romano Domiciano , y allí escribió el Apocalipsis. Justino Mártir (c. 100-165 AD), quien estaba familiarizado con Policarpo , que había sido apadrinado por Juan, hace una alusión posible a este libro, y los créditos de Juan como fuente. [61] Ireneo (c. 115-202) asume como un punto en contra. Según la Enciclopedia Zondervan Pictorial de la Biblia, los eruditos modernos están divididos entre la visión apostólica y varias hipótesis alternativas que se han propuesto en los últimos cien años. [62]

[ editar ] Fechas de composición

Véanse los artículos individuales reservar para más detalles

The earliest works which came to be part of the New Testament are the letters of the Apostle Paul. The Book of Acts is dated to before 64 AD by the majority of scholars. The primary basis of this dating is that the book of Acts, itself, fails to record two significant events: 1) the Apostle Paul's execution and 2) the great Roman fire of 64 AD The general consensus is that this is explicable on the basis that Acts must have been written before these important events actually occurred. Because the Gospel of Luke was the first in a two part series along with the book of Acts, the Gospel of Luke is most often assigned a date of 60-64 AD (always prior to the book of Acts). Many scholars hold that Matthew and Luke were written after the composition of Mark, since Mathew and Luke make use of Mark's content, thus Mark is frequently given the earliest date than either of the other two synoptic gospels; some as far back as 50 AD Some scholars contest these earlier dates on the primary basis that Luke appears to use the same historical approach, language, and material as Josephus. While nearly all scholars agree that this is indicative that 1st century historians employed the same historical processes, there is debate as to who borrowed from whom. Those who hold that Luke borrowed from Josephus' "War of the Jews" (75 AD) assign a range of dates from 75 AD - 105 AD, while those who hold that Josephus' borrowed from Luke maintain a date of 60-64 AD

The earliest of the books of the New Testament was First Thessalonians , an epistle of Paul , written probably in 51, or possibly Galatians in 49 according to one of two theories of its writing. Of the pseudepigraphical epistles, scholars tend to place them somewhere between 70 and 150, with Second Peter usually being the latest. [ citation needed ]

In the 1830s German scholars of the Tübingen school tried to date the books as late as the 3rd century, but the discovery of some New Testament manuscripts and fragments from the 2nd and 3rd centuries, one of which dates as early as 125 ( Papyrus 52 ), disproves a 3rd century date of composition for any book now in the New Testament. Additionally, a letter to the church at Corinth in the name of Clement of Rome in 95 quotes from 10 of the 27 books of the New Testament, and a letter to the church at Philippi in the name of Polycarp in 120 quotes from 16 books. Therefore, some of the books of the New Testament were at least in a first-draft stage, though there is negligible evidence in these quotes or among biblical manuscripts for the existence of different early drafts. Other books were probably not completed until later, assuming they must have been quoted by Clement or Polycarp .

However, John AT Robinson and other scholars argued for a much earlier dating, based on the fact that the New Testament writings make no mention of (1) the Great Fire of Rome (AD 64), one of the most destructive fires in Roman history, which Emperor Nero blamed on the Christians, and led to the first major persecution of believers; (2) the final years and deaths of Paul, who wrote most of the epistles, Peter, whom Catholics recognize as the first pope, and the other apostles; (3) Nero's suicide (AD 68); or (4) the total destruction of the temple in Jerusalem (AD 70), which Robinson thought should certainly have appeared, considering the importance of that event for Jews and Christians of that time. Jesus prophesies its total destruction in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, but the fulfillment of that prophecy never appears anywhere in the New Testament. Therefore, Robinson claimed that every book which would come to form the New Testament was written before AD. 70. [ 63 ]

[ editar ] Idioma

The major languages spoken by both Jews and Greeks in the Holy Land at the time of Jesus were Aramaic and Koine Greek , and also a colloquial dialect of Mishnaic Hebrew . It is generally agreed by most that the historical Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic , as well as Hebrew . [ 64 ] The majority view is that all of the books that would eventually form the New Testament were written in Koine Greek. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] As Christianity spread , these books were later translated into other languages, most notably, Latin , Syriac , and Coptic . However, some of the Church Fathers [ 67 ] imply or claim that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic . Nevertheless, the Gospel of Matthew known today was composed in Greek and is neither directly dependent upon nor a translation of a text in a Semitic language , though the citation of texts from the Old Testament demonstrates that the author of the Gospel of Matthew did know Hebrew. [ 68 ]

[ edit ] Development of the New Testament canon

The process of the canonization of the New Testament was complex and lengthy and in the initial centuries of Early Christianity there was yet no single New Testament canon that was universally recognized. [ 69 ] The process was characterized by a compilation of books that apostolic tradition considered authoritative in worship and teaching, relevant to the historical situations in which they lived, and consonant with the Old Testament. [ 70 ] Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christian communities and the Pauline epistles were circulating, perhaps in collected forms, by the end of the 1st century AD . [ 71 ]

One of the earliest attempts at solidifying a canon was made by Marcion , circa 140 AD, who accepted only a modified version of Luke (the Gospel of Marcion ) and ten of Paul's letters, while rejecting the Old Testament entirely. His canon was increasingly rejected by other groups of Christians, notably the proto-orthodox Christians , as was his theology, Marcionism . Adolf Harnack in Origin of the New Testament (1914) observed that the church gradually formulated its New Testament canon in response to the challenge posed by Marcion. [ 72 ]

Justin Martyr , Irenaeus and Tertullian held the letters of Paul to be on par with the Hebrew scriptures as being divinely inspired, yet others rejected him. Other books were held in high esteem but were gradually relegated to the status of New Testament apocrypha . Justin Martyr, in the mid 2nd century , mentions "memoirs of the apostles" as being read on Sunday alongside the "writings of the prophets" . [ 73 ]

The Muratorian fragment , dated at between 170 and as late as the end of the 4th century (according to the Anchor Bible Dictionary ), may be the earliest known New Testament canon attributed to mainstream Christianity. It is similar, but not identical, to the modern New Testament canon.

The oldest clear endorsement of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John being the only legitimate gospels was written circa 180 AD. A four gospel canon (the Tetramorph ) was asserted by Irenaeus, who refers to it directly [ 74 ] [ 75 ] in his polemic Against the Heresies , "It is not possible that the gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the “pillar and ground” of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh." [ 76 ] The books considered to be authoritative by Irenaeus included the four gospels and many of the letters of Paul, although, based on the arguments Irenaeus made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus's time. [ 77 ]

Eusebius , circa 300, gave a detailed list of New Testament writings in his Ecclesiastical History Book 3 , Chapter XXV:

"1... First then must be put the holy quaternion of the gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles... the epistles of Paul... the epistle of John... the epistle of Peter... After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Book of Revelation, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings."
"3 Among the disputed writings, which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the second and third of John, whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. Among the rejected [Kirsopp Lake translation: "not genuine"] writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul , and the so-called Shepherd , and the Apocalypse of Peter , and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas , and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles ; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John , if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews ... And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books."
"6... such books as the Gospels of Peter , of Thomas , of Matthias , or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and John and the other apostles... they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. Wherefore they are not to be placed even among the rejected writings, but are all of them to be cast aside as absurd and impious."

The Book of Revelation is counted as both accepted (Kirsopp Lake translation: "Recognized") and disputed, which has caused some confusion over what exactly Eusebius meant by doing so. From other writings of the church fathers, it was disputed with several canon lists rejecting its canonicity. EH 3.3.5 adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the church of Rome, on the ground that it was not written by Paul." EH 4.29.6 mentions the Diatessaron : "But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some. But they say that he ventured to paraphrase certain words of the apostle Paul, in order to improve their style."

By the early 200s, Origen may have been using the same twenty-seven books as in the Catholic New Testament canon, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of the Letter to the Hebrews, Epistle of James, II Peter, II John and III John and the Book of Revelation, [ 78 ] known as the Antilegomena . Likewise, the Muratorian fragment is evidence that, perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to the twenty-seven book NT canon, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. [ 79 ] Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings are claimed to have been accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century . [ 80 ]

Origen was largely responsible for the collection of usage information regarding the texts which became the New Testament. The information used to create the late-4th-century Easter Letter , which declared accepted Christian writings, was probably based on the Ecclesiastical History [HE] of Eusebius of Caesarea , wherein he uses the information passed on to him by Origen to create both his list at HE 3:25 and Origen's list at HE 6:25. Eusebius got his information about what texts were then accepted and what were then disputed , by the third-century churches throughout the known world , a great deal of which Origen knew of firsthand from his extensive travels, from the library and writings of Origen. [ 81 ] In fact, Origen would have possibly included in his list of "inspired writings" other texts which were kept out by the likes of Eusebius, including the Epistle of Barnabas , Shepherd of Hermas , and 1 Clement . Notwithstanding these facts, "Origen is not the originator of the idea of biblical canon, but he certainly gives the philosophical and literary-interpretative underpinnings for the whole notion." [ 82 ]

In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius , Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of the books that would become the twenty-seven-book NT canon, [ 83 ] and he used the word "canonized" ( kanonizomena ) in regards to them. [ 84 ] The first council that accepted the present canon of the New Testament may have been the Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa (AD 393); the acts of this council, however, are lost. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Councils of Carthage in 397 and 419. [ 85 ] These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine , who regarded the canon as already closed. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] Pope Damasus I 's Council of Rome in 382, if the Decretum Gelasianum is correctly associated with it, issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above, [ 83 ] or, if not, the list is at least a 6th-century compilation. [ 88 ] Likewise, Damasus' commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. [ 89 ] In c. 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse . Christian scholars assert that, when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church." [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ]

The New Testament canon as it is now was first listed by St. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria , in 367, in a letter written to his churches in Egypt, Festal Letter 39 . Also cited is the Council of Rome , but not without controversy. That canon gained wider and wider recognition until it was accepted at the Third Council of Carthage in 397 and 419. [ 93 ] Even this council did not settle the matter, however. Certain books, referred to as Antilegomena , continued to be questioned, especially James and Revelation . Even as late as the 16th century, the Reformer Martin Luther questioned (but in the end did not reject) the Epistle of James , the Epistle of Jude , the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Book of Revelation . To this day, German-language Luther Bibles are printed with these four books at the end of the canon, rather than in their traditional order as in other editions of the Bible. In light of this questioning of the canon of Scripture by Protestants in the 16th century, the (Roman Catholic) Council of Trent reaffirmed the traditional western canon (ie, the canon accepted at the 4th-century Council of Rome and Council of Carthage ), thus making the Canon of Trent and the Vulgate Bible dogma in the Catholic Church. Later, Pope Pius XI on 2 June 1927 decreed the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute and Pope Pius XII on 3 September 1943 decreed the Divino Afflante Spiritu which allowed translations based on other versions than just the Latin Vulgate , notably in English the New American Bible .

Thus, some claim that, from the 4th century , there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon (as it is today), [ 94 ] and that, by the 5th century , the Eastern Church , with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon. [ 95 ] Nonetheless, full dogmatic articulations of the canon were not made until the Canon of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism , the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England , the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism , and the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Greek Orthodox .

On the question of NT Canon formation generally, New Testament scholar Lee Martin McDonald has written that: [ 96 ]

Although a number of Christians have thought that church councils determined what books were to be included in the biblical canons, a more accurate reflection of the matter is that the councils recognized or acknowledged those books that had already obtained prominence from usage among the various early Christian communities.

Christian scholars assert that when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church". [ 91 ] [ 92 ]

Some synods of the 4th century published lists of canonical books (eg Hippo and Carthage ). The existing 27-book canon of the New Testament was reconfirmed (for Roman Catholicism ) in the 16th century with the Council of Trent (also called the Tridentine Council) of 1546, [ 97 ] the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England , the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism , and the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for Eastern Orthodoxy . Although these councils did include statements about the canon, when it came to the New Testament they were only reaffirming the existing canon, including the Antilegomena .

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia article on the Canon of the New Testament : "The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history. The Canon of the New Testament, like that of the Old, is the result of a development, of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters, both within and without the Church, and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations, and which did not reach its final term until the dogmatic definition of the Tridentine Council ."

In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople . Athanasius ( Apol. Const. 4 ) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans . Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus may be examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus , these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. [ 98 ] There is no evidence among the canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon .

[ edit ] Early manuscripts

Papyrus Bodmer VIII, at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, showing 1 and 2 Peter
Codex Regius (L or 019 ) , an 8th century Greek manuscript of the New Testament with strong affinities to Codex Vaticanus

Like other literature from antiquity , the text of the New Testament was (prior to the advent of the printing press ) preserved and transmitted in manuscripts . Manuscripts containing at least a part of the New Testament number in the thousands. The earliest of these (like manuscripts containing other literature) are often very fragmentarily preserved. Some of these fragments have even been thought to date as early as the 2nd century (ie, Papyrus 90 , Papyrus 98 , Papyrus 104 , and famously Rylands Library Papyrus P52 , though the early date of the latter has recently been called into question). [ 99 ] For each subsequent century, more and more manuscripts survive that contain a portion or all of the books that were held to be part of the New Testament at that time (for example, the New Testament of the 4th-century Codex Sinaiticus , once a complete Bible, contains the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas ), though occasionally these manuscripts contain other works as well (eg, Papyrus 72 and the Crosby-Schøyen Codex). The date at which a manuscript was written, however, does not necessarily reflect the date of the form of text it contains. That is, later manuscripts can, and occasionally do, contain older forms of text or older readings.

Some of the more important manuscripts containing an early text of books of the New Testament are:

[ edit ] Textual variation

Textual criticism deals with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts . Ancient scribes made errors or alterations (such as including non-authentic additions ). [ 100 ] The New Testament has been preserved in more than 5,800 Greek manuscripts, 10,000 Latin manuscripts and 9,300 manuscripts in various other ancient languages including Syriac , Slavic , Ethiopic and Armenian . Even if the original Greek versions were lost, the entire New Testament could still be assembled from the translations. [ 101 ] In addition, there are so many quotes from the New Testament in early church documents and commentaries that the entire New Testament could also be assembled from these alone. [ 101 ] Not all biblical manuscripts come from orthodox Christian writers. For example, the Gnostic writings of Valentinus come from the 2nd century AD, and these Christians were regarded as heretics by the mainstream church. [ 102 ] The sheer number of witnesses presents unique difficulties, but it also gives scholars a better idea of how close modern Bibles are to the original versions. [ 102 ] On noting the large number of surviving ancient manuscripts, Bruce Metzger sums up the view on the issue by saying "The more often you have copies that agree with each other, especially if they emerge from different geographical areas, the more you can cross-check them to figure out what the original document was like. The only way they'd agree would be where they went back genealogically in a family tree that represents the descent of the manuscripts. [ 101 ]

A similar type of textual criticism is applied to other ancient texts. [ 103 ] There are far fewer witnesses to classical texts than to the Bible, and unlike the New Testament where the earliest witnesses are often within a couple decades of the original, the earliest existing manuscripts of most classical texts were written about a millennium after their composition. For example, the earliest surviving copies of parts of the Roman historian Tacitus' main work, the Annals of Imperial Rome (written in 116 AD), come from a single manuscript written in 850 AD, although for other parts of his work, the earliest copies come from the 11th century, while other parts of his work have been lost. [ 101 ] The earliest copies of The Jewish War by Josephus (originally composed in the 1st century AD), in contrast, come from nine manuscripts written in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. [ 101 ] After the Bible, the next best preserved ancient work is Homer's Iliad , with 650 copies originating about 1,000 years after the original copy. [ 101 ] Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War (written in the 50s BC) survives in nine copies written in the 8th century. [ 104 ] Thucydides' history of the Peloponesian War and Herodotus' history of the Persian War (both written in the 5th century BC) survives in about eight early copies, the oldest ones dating from the 10th century AD. [ 104 ] Biblical scholar FF Bruce has said "the evidence for our New Testament writings is ever so much greater than the evidence for many writings of classical authors, the authenticity of which no one dreams of questioning...It is a curious fact that historians have often been much readier to trust the New Testament records than have many theologians." [ 105 ]

In attempting to determine the original text of the New Testament books, some modern textual critics have identified sections as additions of material, centuries after the gospel was written. These are called interpolations . In modern translations of the Bible, the results of textual criticism have led to certain verses, words and phrases being left out or marked as not original. According to Bart D. Ehrman , "These scribal additions are often found in late medieval manuscripts of the New Testament, but not in the manuscripts of the earlier centuries." [ 106 ] Most modern Bibles have footnotes to indicate passages that have disputed source documents. Bible Commentaries also discuss these, sometimes in great detail. While many variations have been discovered between early copies of biblical texts, almost all have no importance, as they are variations in spelling, punctuation, or grammar. Also, many of these variants are so particular to the Greek language that they would not appear in translations into other languages. For example, order of words (ie "man bites dog" versus "dog bites man") often does not matter in Greek, so textual variants that flip the order of words often have no consequences. [ 101 ] Outside of these unimportant variants, there are a couple variants of some importance, although even these are minor and can be left out of modern Bibles without affecting any matter of theology or interpretation. The two most commonly cited examples are the last verses of the Gospel of Mark [ 107 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ] and the story of the adulterous woman in the Gospel of John . [ 110 ] [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Some critics also believe the explicit reference to the Trinity in 1 John to have been a later addition. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] According to Norman Geisler and William Nix, "The New Testament, then, has not only survived in more manuscripts than any other book from antiquity, but it has survived in a purer form than any other great book—a form that is 99.5% pure" [ 115 ]

Rossano Gospels , 6th century, a representative of Byzantine text

The often referred to Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, a book written to prove the validity of the New Testament, says: ” A study of 150 Greek [manuscripts] of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30,000 different readings... It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the New Testament in which the [manuscript] is wholly uniform.” [ 116 ] Most of the variation took place within the first three Christian centuries. By the 4th century, textual "families" or types of text become discernable among New Testament manuscripts . A "text-type" is the name given to a family of texts with similar readings due to common ancestors and mutual correction. Many early manuscripts, however, contain individual readings from several different earlier forms of text. Modern texual critics have identified the following text-types among textual witnesses to the New Testament: The Alexandrian text-type is usually considered to generally preserve many early readings. It is represented, eg, by Codex Vaticanus , Codex Sinaiticus and the Bodmer Papyri . The Western text-type is generally longer and can be paraphrastic, but can also preserve early readings. The Western version of the Acts of the Apostles is, notably, 8.5% longer than the Alexandrian form of the text. Examples of the Western text are found in Codex Bezae , Codex Claromontanus , Codex Washingtonianus , the Old Latin (ie, Latin translations made prior to the Vulgate ), as well as in quotations by Marcion , Tatian , Irenaeus , Tertullian and Cyprian . A text-type referred to as the " Caesarean text-type " and thought to have included witnesses such as Codex Koridethi and minuscule 565, can today be described neither as "Caesarean" nor as a text-type as was previously thought. However, the Gospel of Mark in Papyrus 45 , Codex Washingtonianus and in Family 13 does indeed reflect a distinct type of text. Increasing standardization of distinct (and once local) text-types eventually gave rise to the Byzantine text-type . Since most manuscripts of the New Testament do not derive from the first several centuries, that is, they were copied after the rise of the Byzantine text-type, this form of text is found the majority of extant manuscripts and is therefore often called the "Majority Text." As with all of the other (earlier) text-types, the Byzantine can also occasionally preserve early readings.

[ edit ] Establishing a critical text

The textual variation among manuscript copies of books in the New Testament prompted attempts to discern the earliest form of text already in antiquity (eg, by the 3rd century Christian author Origen ). The efforts began in earnest again during the Renaissance , which saw a revival of the study of ancient Greek texts. During this period, modern textual criticism was born. In this context, Christian humanists such as Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus promoted a return to the original Greek of the New Testament. This was the beginning of modern New Testament textual criticism , which over subsequent centuries would increasingly incorporate more and more manuscripts, in more languages (ie, versions of the New Testament), as well as citations of the New Testament by ancient authors and the New Testament text in lectionaries in order to reconstruct the earliest recoverable form of the New Testament text and the history of changes to it. [ 117 ]

[ edit ] Relationship to earlier and contemporaneous literature

The books which later came to form the New Testament, like other Christian literature of the period, originated in a literary context that reveals relationships not only to other Christian writings, but also to Graeco-Roman and Jewish works. Of singular importance is the extensive use of and interaction with the Jewish Bible and what would become the Christian Old Testament . Both implicit and explicit citations, as well as countless allusions, appear throughout the books of the New Testament, from the Gospels and Acts, to the Epistles, to the Apocalypse. [ 118 ] Other early Jewish and Graeco-Roman literature, though far less utilized, is also cited in books that would come to form the New Testament.

[ edit ] Early versions

The first translations (usually called "versions") of the New Testament were made beginning already at the end of 2nd century. The earliest versions of the New Testament are the translations into the Syriac , Latin , and Coptic languages. [ 119 ] These three versions were made directly from the Greek, and are frequently cited in the apparatuses of modern critical editions.

[ edit ] Syriac

Syriac was spoken in Syria , and Mesopotamia , and with dialect in Israel , where it was known as Aramaic . Several Syriac translations were made and have come to us. Most of the Old Syriac, however, as well as the Philoxonian version have been lost.

Tatian , the Assyrian, created the Diatessaron , a gospel harmony written in Syriac around AD 170 and the earliest form of the gospel not only in Syriac but probably also in Armenian.

In the 19th century, manuscript evidence was discovered for an "Old Syriac" version of the four distinct (ie, not harmonized) gospels. These "separated" (Syriac: da-Mepharreshe ) gospels, though old, have been shown to be later than the Diatessaron. The Old Syriac gospels are fragmentarily preserved in two manuscripts: the 5th-century Curetonian Syriac and the Sinaitic Syriac from the 4th or 5th century. No Old Syriac manuscripts of other portions of the New Testament survive, though Old Syriac readings, eg from the Pauline Epistles , can be discerned in citations made by Eastern fathers and in later Syriac versions. The Old Syriac version is a representative of the Western text-type . The Peshitta version was prepared in the beginning of the 5th century. It contains only 22 books (neither the Minor Catholic Epistles of 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, nor the Book of Revelation were part of this translation).

The Philoxenian probably was produced in 508 for Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabung . [ 120 ]

[ editar ] América

The Gospels were likely translated into Latin as early as the last quarter of the 2nd century in North Africa ( Afra ). Not much later, there were also European Latin translations ( Itala ). There are about 80 Old Latin mansucripts. The Vetus Latina (“Old Latin”) versions often contain readings with a Western type of text. (For the avoidance of confusion, these texts were written in Late Latin , not the early version of the Latin language known as Old Latin , pre 75 BC.)

The bewildering diversity of the Old Latin versions prompted Jerome to prepare another translation into Latin — the Vulgate . In many respects it was merely a revision of the Old Latin. There are currently around 8,000 manuscripts of the Vulgate.

[ edit ] Coptic

There are several dialects of the Coptic language: Bohairic (northern dialect), Fayyumic , Sahidic (southern dialect), Akhmimic , and others. The first translation was made by at least the 3rd century into the Sahidic dialect (cop sa ). This translation represents a mixed text, mostly Alexandrian , though also with Western readings. [ 121 ]

A Bohairic translation was made later, but existed already in the 4th century. Though the translation makes less use of Greek words than the Sahidic, it does employ some Greek grammar (eg, in word-order and the use of particles such as the syntactic construction μεν — δε). For this reason, the Bohairic translation can be helpful in the reconstruction of the early Greek text of the New Testament. [ 91 ]

[ edit ] Other ancient translations

BL Add. MS 59874 with Ethiopic Gospel of Matthew

The continued spread of Christianity, and the foundation of national churches, led to the translation of the Bible—often beginning with books from the New Testament—into a variety of other languages at a relatively early date: Armenian , Georgian , Ethiopic , Persian , Soghdian , and eventually Gothic , Old Church Slavonic , Arabic , and Nubian . [ 122 ]

[ editar ] Traducciones Modernas

Historically, throughout the Christian world and in the context of Christian missionary activity , the New Testament (or portions thereof) has been that part of the Christian Bible first translated into the vernacular . The production of such translations grew out of the insertion of vernacular glosses in biblical texts, as well as out of the production of biblical paraphrases and poetic renditions of stories from the life of Christ (eg, the Heliand ).

The 16th century saw the rise of Protestantism and an explosion of translations of the New (and Old) Testament into the vernacular . Notable are those of Martin Luther (1522), Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (1523), the Froschau Bible (1525–1529, revised in 1574), William Tyndale (1526, revised in 1534, 1535 and 1536), the Brest Bible (1563), and the Authorized Version (also called the "King James Version") (1611). Most of these translations relied (though not always exclusively) upon one of the printed editions of the Greek New Testament edited by Erasmus , a form of this Greek text emerged as the standard and is known as the Textus Receptus . This text, based on a handful of manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type , was the basis for other translations from the Greek until the latter part of the 19th century.

Translations of the New Testament made since the appearance of better critical editions of the Greek text (notably those of Tischendorf , Westcott and Hort , and von Soden ) have largely used them as their base text . Unlike the Textus Receptus , these have a pronounced Alexandrian character. Standard critical editions are those of Souter , Vogels, Bover, Merk, and Nestle-Aland (the text, though not the full critical apparatus of which is reproduced in the United Bible Societies ' "Greek New Testament"). Notable translations of the New Testament based on these most recent critical editions include the Revised Standard Version (1946, revised in 1971), La Bible de Jérusalem (1961, revised in 1973 and 2000), the Einheitsübersetzung (1970, final edition 1979), the New American Bible (1970, revised in 1986), the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible (1988, revised in 2004), and the New Revised Standard Version (1989).

[ edit ] Authority

Though all Christian churches accept the New Testament as Scripture, they differ in their understanding of the nature, extent, and relevance of its authority. Views of the authoritativeness of the New Testament often depend on the concept of inspiration , which relates to the role of God in the formation of the New Testament. Generally, the greater the role of God in one's doctrine of inspiration, the more one accepts the doctrine of biblical inerrancy and/or authoritativeness of the Bible. One possible source of confusion is that these terms are difficult to define, because many people use them interchangeably or with very different meanings. This article will use the terms in the following manner:

  • Infallibility relates to the absolute correctness of the Bible in matters of doctrine.
  • Inerrancy relates to the absolute correctness of the Bible in factual assertions (including historical and scientific assertions).
  • Authoritativeness relates to the correctness of the Bible in questions of practice in morality.

The self-witness of the Bible to its inspiration demands a commitment to its unity. The ultimate basis for unity is contained in the claim of divine inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 that "all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness" (KJV). The term "inspiration" renders the Greek word theopneustos . This term only occurs here in the New Testament and literally means "God-breathed" (the chosen translation of the NIV). [ 123 ]

All of these concepts depend for their meaning on the supposition that the text of Bible has been properly interpreted, with consideration for the intention of the text, whether literal history , allegory or poetry , etc. Especially the doctrine of inerrancy is variously understood according to the weight given by the interpreter to scientific investigations of the world.

[ edit ] Unity in diversity

The notion of unity in diversity of Scripture claims that the Bible presents a noncontradictory and consistent message concerning God and redemptive history. The fact of diversity is observed in comparing the diversity of time, culture, authors' perspectives, literary genre, and the theological themes. [ 123 ]

Studies from many theologians considering the "unity in diversity" to be found in the New Testament (and the Bible as a whole) have been collected and summarized by New Testament theologian Frank Stagg . He describes them as some basic presuppositions, tenants, and concerns which are common among the New Testament writers, giving to the New Testament its "unity in diversity":

  1. The reality of God is never argued but is always assumed are affirmed
  2. Jesus Christ is absolutely central: he is Lord and Savior, the one in whom God not only acted but in whom he came
  3. The Holy Spirit came anew with Jesus Christ.
  4. The Christian faith and life are a calling, rooted in divine election.
  5. The plight of everyone as sinner means that each person is completely dependent upon the mercy and grace of God
  6. Salvation is both God's gift and his demand through Jesus Christ, to be received by faith
  7. The death and resurrection of Jesus are at the heart of the total event of which he was the center
  8. God creates a people of his own, designated and described by varied terminology and analogies
  9. History must be understood eschatologically, being brought along toward its ultimate goal when the kingdom of God, already present in Christ, is brought to its complete triumph
  10. In Christ, all of God's work of creation, revelation, and redemption is brought to fulfillment [ 2 ]

[ edit ] Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and classical Anglicanism

For the Roman Catholic Church , there are two modes of Revelation: Scripture and Tradition . Both of them are interpreted by the teachings of the Church. The Roman Catholic view is expressed clearly in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1997):

§ 82: As a result the Church, to whom the transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honoured with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence.
§ 107: The inspired books teach the truth. Since therefore all that the inspired authors or sacred writers affirm should be regarded as affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, wished to see confided to the Sacred Scriptures.

In Catholic terminology the teaching office is called the Magisterium . The Catholic view should not be confused with the two-source theory. As the Catechism states in §§ 80 and 81, Revelation has "one common source ... two distinct modes of transmission." [ 124 ]

The Eastern Orthodox churches do not accept this two-source theory; rather, they hold that there is a single source of revelation, Holy Tradition, of which Scripture is the most important part. [ 125 ]

Traditional Anglicans believe that "Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation," (Article VI), but also that the Catholic Creeds "ought thoroughly to be received and believed" (Article VIII), and that the Church "hath authority in Controversies of Faith" and is "a witness and keeper of Holy Writ" (Article XX). [ 126 ] Classical Anglicanism, therefore, like Orthodoxy, holds that Holy Tradition is the only safe guardian against perversion and innovation in the interpretation of Scripture; in the famous words of Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells: "As for my religion, I dye in the holy catholic and apostolic faith professed by the whole Church before the disunion of East and West, more particularly in the communion of the Church of England, as it stands distinguished from all Papal and Puritan innovations, and as it adheres to the doctrine of the Cross."

[ edit ] protestantismo

Following the doctrine of sola scriptura , Protestants believe that their traditions of faith, practice and interpretations carry forward what the scriptures teach, and so tradition is not a source of authority in itself. Their traditions derive authority from the Bible, and are therefore always open to reëvaluation. This openness to doctrinal revision has extended in Liberal Protestant traditions even to the reevaluation of the doctrine of Scripture upon which the Reformation was founded, and members of these traditions may even question whether the Bible is infallible in doctrine, inerrant in historical and other factual statements, and whether it has uniquely divine authority. However, the adjustments made by modern Protestants to their doctrine of scripture vary widely.

[ edit ] American evangelical and fundamentalist Protestantism

Certain American conservatives, fundamentalists and evangelicals believe that the scriptures are both human and divine in origin: human in their manner of composition, but divine in that their source is God, the Holy Spirit, who governed the writers of scripture in such a way that they recorded nothing at all contrary to the truth. [ citation needed ] Fundamentalists accept the enduring authority and the infallibility of the Bible. [ citation needed ] In the United States this particularly applies to issues such as abortion , evolution , and homosexuality . Both fundamentalists and evangelicals profess belief in the inerrancy of the Bible.

Within the US, the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (1978) is a statement, articulating evangelical views on this issue. Paragraph four of its summary states: "Being wholly and verbally God-given, Scripture is without error or fault in all its teaching, no less in what it states about God's acts in creation, about the events of world history, and about its own literary origins under God, than in its witness to God's saving grace in individual lives." [ 127 ]

[ edit ] American mainline and liberal Protestantism

Mainline American Protestant denominations, including the United Methodist Church , Presbyterian Church USA , The Episcopal Church , and Evangelical Lutheran Church in America , do not teach the doctrine of inerrancy as set forth in the Chicago Statement. All of these churches have more ancient doctrinal statements asserting the authority of scripture, but may interpret these statements in such a way as to allow for a very broad range of teaching—from evangelicalism to skepticism. It is not an impediment to ordination in these denominations to teach that the scriptures contain errors, or that the authors follow a more or less unenlightened ethics that, however appropriate it may have seemed in the authors' time, moderns would be very wrong to follow blindly. For example, ordination of women is universally accepted in the mainline churches, abortion is condemned as a grievous social tragedy but not always a personal sin or a crime against an unborn person, and homosexuality is recognized as a genetic propensity or morally neutral preference that should be neither encouraged nor condemned. In North America, the most contentious of these issues among these churches at the present time is how far the ordination of gay men and lesbians should be accepted.

Officials of the Presbyterian Church USA report: "We acknowledge the role of scriptural authority in the Presbyterian Church, but Presbyterians generally do not believe in biblical inerrancy. Presbyterians do not insist that every detail of chronology or sequence or prescientific description in scripture be true in literal form. Our confessions do teach biblical infallibility. Infallibility affirms the entire truthfulness of scripture without depending on every exact detail." [ 128 ]

Those who hold a more liberal view of the Bible as a human witness to the glory of God, the work of fallible humans who wrote from a limited experience unusual only for the insight they have gained through their inspired struggle to know God in the midst of a troubled world. Therefore, they tend not to accept such doctrines as inerrancy. These churches also tend to retain the social activism of their evangelical forebears of the 19th century, placing particular emphasis on those teachings of scripture that teach compassion for the poor and concern for social justice . The message of personal salvation is, generally speaking, of the good that comes to oneself and the world through following the New Testament's Golden Rule admonition to love others without hypocrisy or prejudice. Toward these ends, the "spirit" of the New Testament, more than the letter, is infallible and authoritative.

There are some movements that believe the Bible contains the teachings of Jesus but who reject the churches that were formed following its publication. These people believe all individuals can communicate directly with God and therefore do not need guidance or doctrines from a church. These people are known as Christian anarchists .

[ editar ] Judaísmo Mesiánico

Messianic Judaism generally holds the same view of New Testament authority as evangelical Protestants. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Latter-day Saints

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or Mormons ) "revere the Bible [ie, both Old and New Testaments] as the word of God." Latter-day Saints also believe the " Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ [to be] a companion volume of scripture to the Bible,...[confirming] and [testifying] of the truthfulness of the messages in the Bible." To Latter-day Saints, "the Bible and the Book of Mormon complement each other, both providing a witness that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and the Redeemer of the world." [ 129 ]

[ edit ] Jehovah's Witnesses

The Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses accepts the New Testament as infallible, and as divinely-inspired Scripture, with equal authority as the Hebrew Scriptures. They view it as the written revelation and good news of the Messiah , the Ransom Sacrifice , and the Kingdom of God . They generally call the New Testament the "Christian Greek Scriptures", and see only the "covenants" as "old" or "new", but not any part of the actual Scriptures themselves. [ 130 ]

[ edit ] In the liturgy

A Byzantine lectionary, Codex Harleianus ( l 150 ), AD 995, text of John 1:18.

Despite the wide variety among Christian liturgies , texts from the New Testament play a role in almost all forms of Christian worship . In addition to some language derived from the New Testament in the liturgy itself (eg, the Trisagion may be based on Apocalypse 4:8, and the beginning of the "Hymn of Praise" draws upon Luke 2:14), the reading of extended passages from the New Testament is a practice common to almost all Christian worship , liturgical or not. These readings are most often part of an established lectionary (ie, selected texts to be read at church services on specific days), and (together with an Old Testament reading and a Psalm ) include a non-gospel reading from the New Testament and culminate with a Gospel reading . No readings from the Book of Revelation , however, are included in the standard lectionary of the Eastern Orthodox churches .

Central to the Christian liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist or "Holy Communion". The Words of Institution that begin this rite are drawn directly from 1 Corinthians 11:23-26. In addition, the communal recitation of the Lord's Prayer (in the form found in the Gospel of Matthew 6:9-13) is also a standard feature of Christian worship .

[ editar ] En las artes

Gaudenzio Ferrari 's Stories of the Life and Passion of Christ , fresco, 1513, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Varallo Sesia, Italy. Depicting the life of Jesus

Most of the influence of the New Testament upon the arts has come from the Gospels and the Book of Revelation . [ citation needed ] Literary expansion of the narratives of Jesus' birth found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke began already in the 2nd century and the portrayal of the Nativity has continued in various art forms to this day. The earliest Christian art would often depict scenes from the New Testament such as the raising of Lazarus , the baptism of Jesus or the motif of the " Good Shepherd ". Biblical paraphrases and poetic renditions of stories from the life of Christ (eg, the Heliand ) became popular in the middle ages , as did the portrayal of the arrest , trial and execution of Jesus in Passion plays . Indeed, the Passion became a central theme in Christian art and music . The ministry and Passion of Jesus, as portrayed in one or more of the New Testament Gospels , has also been a theme in film, almost since the inception of the medium (eg, "La Passion", France, 1903).

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

  1. ^ Heilsgeschichte : an interpretation of history emphasizing God's saving acts and viewing Jesus Christ as central in redemption
  2. ^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology . Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7
  3. ^ See the standard New Testament introductions listed below under "Further reading": Goodspeed, Kümmel, Duling and Perrin, Koester, Conzelmann and Lindemann, Brown, and Ehrman.
  4. ^ See, eg, Clabeaux, JJ: A Lost Edition of the Letters of Paul: A Reassessment of the Text of the Pauline Corpus Attested by Marcion . Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 21; Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1989
  5. ^ a b Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament: A historical, literary, and theological survey. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7
  6. ^ The Broadman Bible Commentary: General articles. Matthew. Mark Clifton J. Allen, Broadman Press - 1969 "Tertullian was apparently the first to use the term New Testament in the sense of a collection of books (Against Praxeas XV)."
  7. ^ "Tertullian (Robert-Donaldson)" . Earlychristianwritings.com. 2 February 2006 . http://earlychristianwritings.com/text/tertullian123.html . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  8. ^ [1] See also book 4, chapters 1, 2, and 14. However, his meaning in chapter 22 is less clear, and in chapters 9 and 40 he uses the term to mean "new covenant".
  9. ^ "ANF07. Fathers of the Third and Fourth Centuries: Lactantius, Venantius, Asterius, Victorinus, Dionysius, Apostolic Teaching and Constitutions, Homily | Christian Classics Ethereal Library" . Ccel.org . http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-07/anf07-07.htm#P1533_624437 . Consultado el 29 de diciembre de 2008.
  10. ^ On the traditional ascriptions and anonymous authorship, see the standard New Testament introductions listed below under "Further reading": Goodspeed, Kümmel, Duling and Perrin, Koester, Conzelmann and Lindemann, Brown, and Ehrman.
  11. ^ See Fitzmyer, Joseph A.: The Gospel according to Luke , 2 volumes. Anchor Bible Commentary; New York: Doubleday, 1981 and 1985, vol. 1, pp. 35-53.
  12. ^ Joseph Barber Lightfoot in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians writes: "At this point [ Gal 6:11 ] the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis , and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name ( 2 Thess 2:2 ; 3:17 ) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries... In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin ), that his handwriting may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."
  13. ^ See especially Roetzel, Calvin J.: The Letters of Paul: Conversations in Context , fifth edition. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2009.
  14. ^ Attridge, Harold W. : Hebrews . Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989, pp. 1-6.
  15. ^ "Eusebius Church History Book VI Ch 25 v14" . Newadvent.org . http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250106.htm . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  16. ^ Fornberg, Tord: An Early Church in a Pluralistic Society: A Study of 2 Peter . Coniectanea biblica, New Testament Series 9; Lund: Gleerup, 1977.
  17. ^ Robert Mounce . The Book of Revelation, pg. 15-16. Cambridge: Eerdman's. Books.google.com
  18. ^ For a detailed study of the Apocalypse of John, see Aune, David E.: Revelation , 3 volumes. Word Biblical Commentary; Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997-1998.
  19. ^ The Gospels are in this order in many Old Latin manuscripts, as well as in the Greek manuscripts Codex Bezae and Codex Washingtonianus .
  20. ^ [2] [ dead link ] ; see also [3] ; see also Antilegomena
  21. ^ Peter, Kirby (2001-2007). "Early Christian Writings: Gospel of Mark" . http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html . Retrieved 15 January 2008 .
  22. ^ Achtemeier, Paul J. (1991–). "The Gospel of Mark". The Anchor Bible Dictonary . 4 . New York, New York: Doubleday. p. 545. ISBN 0-385-19362-9 .
  23. ^ MG Easton, Easton's Bible Dictionary (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996, c1897), "Luke, Gospel According To"
  24. ^ Meier, John P. (1991). A Marginal Jew . 2 . New York, New York: Doubleday. pp. 955–6. ISBN 0-385-46993-4 .
  25. ^ Helms, Randel (1997). Who Wrote the Gospels? . Altadena, California: Millennium Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-9655047-2-7 .
  26. ^ a b Harris, Stephen L. , Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  27. ^ Harris, Stephen L. , Understanding the Bible . Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" p. 302-310
  28. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 114.
  29. ^ a b c Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), pp. 37-40.
  30. ^ a b To list just some: IH Marshall, Acts (1980), pp. 44-45; FF Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (1952), pp. 1-6; CSC Williams, The Acts of the Apostles , in Black's New Testament Commentary (1957); W. Michaelis, Einleitung , pp. 61-64; Bo Reicke, Glaube und Leben Der Urgenmeinde (1957), pp. 6-7; FV Filson, Three Crucial Decades (1963), p. 10; M. Dibelius, Studies in the Acts of the Apostles (1956); RM Grant, A Historical Introduction to the New Testament (1963), pp. 134-135; B. Gärtner, The Aeropagus Speech and Natural Revelation (1955), WL Knox, Sources of the Synoptic Gospels ; RR Williams, The Acts of the Apostles ; EM Blaiklock, The Acts of the Apostles , in Tyndale New Testament Commentary (1959), W. Grundmann, Das Evangelium nach Lukas , p. 39.
  31. ^ Bernd Kollmann, Joseph Barnabas (Liturgical Press, 2004), page 30.
  32. ^ DRW Wood, New Bible Dictionary (InterVarsity Press, 1996), 739.
  33. ^ Schaff "On the tradition that Matthew wrote a Hebrew gospel, see above, chap. 24, note 5. Our Greek Gospel of Matthew was certainly in existence at the time Papias wrote, for it is quoted in the epistle of Barnabas"
  34. ^ "Fonck, Leopold. "Gospel of St. John." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 9 June 2009" . Newadvent.org . http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08438a.htm . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  35. ^ "John, Gospel of." Cruz, FL, ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. Nueva York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  36. ^ "''Gospel According to John'', Encyclopædia Britannica" . Britannica.com . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/304610/Gospel-According-to-John . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  37. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament . New York: Anchor Bible. p. 164. ISBN 0-385-24767-2 .
  38. ^ Kirby, Peter. "Gospel of Mark" earlychristianwritings.com'.' Retrieved 30 January 2010.
  39. ^ Horrell, DG, An Introduction to the study of Paul, T&T Clark, 2006, 2nd Ed.,p.7; cf. WL Knox, The Acts of the Apostles (1948), p. 2-15 for detailed arguments that still stand.
  40. ^ on linguistics, see A. Kenny, A stylometric Study of the New Testament (1986).
  41. ^ Udo Schnelle . The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings , p. 259.
  42. ^ FF Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (1952), p2.
  43. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), says the traditional view is “widely held as the view which most satisfactorily explains all the data.” p. 119,
  44. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament . New York: Anchor Bible. pp. 267–8. ISBN 0-385-24767-2 .
  45. ^ Although Hebrews was almost certainly not written by Paul, it has been a part of the Pauline corpus "from the beginning of extant MS production" (Wallace, Daniel B. "Hebrews: Introduction, Argument, and Outline.") http://web.archive.org/web/20031011120719/http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/hebotl.htm
  46. ^ Guthrie lists: ohlenberg, Lock, Meinertz, Thornell, Schlatter, Spicq, Jeremias , Simpson, Kelly, and Fee", p. 622
  47. ^ Ehrman 2004:385
  48. ^ Who Wrote Hebrews? A Case for Pauline Authorship, Pat II - apologus wordpress - October 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  49. ^ The Writer of Hebrews - Ligonier Ministries. 2012.
  50. ^ Ehrman 2004:411
  51. ^ Epistle of St. James , 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia Online
  52. ^ "Epistle of James" . Earlychristianwritings.com. 2 February 2006 . http://earlychristianwritings.com/james.html . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  53. ^ What are they saying about the Catholic Epistles?, Philip B. Harner, p. 49 [4]
  54. ^ Kruger, MJ, (1999) " The Authenticity of 2 Peter ," [ dead link ] Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.4, p.645-671
  55. ^ eg ST Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament II p. 250
  56. ^ F. Spitta, Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (1885)
  57. ^ C. Bigg, 'The Epistles of St Peter and St Jude', in International Critical Commentary
  58. ^ EMB Green, 2 Peter Reconsidered (1961) and other works.
  59. ^ Bauckham,RJ (1986), Word Biblical Commentary, Vol.50, Word (UK) Ltd. p.14f
  60. ^ Eusebius: The Church History
  61. ^ St. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho Chapter lxxxi.
  62. ^ Merrill C. Tenney, gen. ed. "Revelation, Book of the." Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Vol. 5 (QZ). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009.
  63. ^ Robinson, John AT: Redating the New Testament . Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976.
  64. ^ Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary . Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN 0-8028-2402-1 . "It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Israel in the 1st century AD. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem (Matt. 26:73)."
  65. ^ Metzger B. The Text of the New Testament. Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. Cuarta Edición. Bruce M. Metzger and Bart D. Ehrman
  66. ^ Aland, K. and Aland, B. The text of the New Testament (9780802840981)
  67. ^ Koester, Helmut: Introduction to the New Testament . Philadelphia, 1982, volume 2, p. 172.
  68. ^ Davies, WD and Allison, Dale C.: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on The Gospel according to Saint Matthew , 3 volumes. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1988-1997, see volume 1, pp. 33-58.
  69. ^ Eusebius, Church History , (III xxv 5)
  70. ^ See Gamble, Harry Y.: The New Testament Canon: Its Making and Meaning . Guides to Biblical Scholarship; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.
  71. ^ Three forms are postulated, from The Canon Debate , chapter 18, page 300, note 21, attributed to Harry Y. Gamble: "(1) Marcion's collection that begins with Galatians and ends with Philemon; (2) Papyrus 46, dated about 200, that follows the order that became established except for reversing Ephesians and Galatians; and (3) the letters to seven churches, treating those to the same church as one letter and basing the order on length, so that Corinthians is first and Colossians (perhaps including Philemon) is last."
  72. ^ "Origin of the New Testament | Christian Classics Ethereal Library" . Ccel.org. 22 July 2005 . http://www.ccel.org/ccel/harnack/origin_nt.v.vi.html . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  73. ^ cf. Justin Martyr, First Apology 67.3.
  74. ^ Ferguson, Everett. "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon," in The Canon Debate . eds. LM McDonald & JA Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) pp. 301.
  75. ^ cf. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.11.8.
  76. ^ "III.XI.8" . Ccel.org. 2005-07-13 . http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.xii.html . Retrieved 2012-09-07 .
  77. ^ McDonald & Sanders, page 277
  78. ^ Both points taken from Mark A. Noll's Turning Points , (Baker Academic, 1997) pp 36–37
  79. ^ HJ De Jonge, "The New Testament Canon," in The Biblical Canons . eds. de Jonge & JM Auwers (Leuven University Press, 2003) p. 315
  80. ^ PR Ackroyd and CF Evans, eds. (1970). The Cambridge History of the Bible (volume 1) . Cambridge University Press. p. 308.
  81. ^ CG Bateman, Origen's Role in the Formation of the New Testament Canon, 2010 .
  82. ^ McGuckin, John A. "Origen as Literary Critic in the Alexandrian Tradition.” 121-37 in vol. 1 of 'Origeniana octava: Origen and the Alexandrian Tradition.' Papers of the 8th International Origen Congress (Pisa, 27–31 August 2001). Edited by L. Perrone. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium 164. 2 vols. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2003.
  83. ^ a b Lindberg, Carter (2006). A Brief History of Christianity . Blackwell Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 1-4051-1078-3 .
  84. ^ Brakke, David. "Canon Formation and Social Conflict in Fourth Century Egypt: Athanasius of Alexandria's Thirty Ninth Festal Letter," in Harvard Theological Review 87 (1994) pp. 395–419
  85. ^ McDonald & Sanders' The Canon Debate , Appendix D-2, note 19: " Revelation was added later in 419 at the subsequent synod of Carthage."
  86. ^ Ferguson, Everett. "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon," in The Canon Debate . eds. LM McDonald & JA Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320; FF Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 230
  87. ^ cf. Augustine, De Civitate Dei 22.8
  88. ^ Bruce, FF (1988). The Canon of Scripture . Intervarsity Press. p. 234.
  89. ^ Bruce, FF (1988). The Canon of Scripture . Intervarsity Press. p. 225.
  90. ^ Ferguson, Everett. "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon," in The Canon Debate . eds. LM McDonald & JA Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320
  91. ^ a b c Metzger, Bruce (1987). The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origins, Development, and Significance . Oxford: Clarendon. pp. 237–238.
  92. ^ a b Bruce, FF (1988). The Canon of Scripture . Intervarsity Press. p. 97.
  93. ^ The Book of Revelation wasn't added till the 419 Synod of Carthage according to McDonald and Sanders: The Canon Debate , Appendix D-2, page 595, note 19.
  94. ^ Bruce, FF (1988). The Canon of Scripture . Intervarsity Press. p. 215.
  95. ^ PR Ackroyd and CF Evans, eds. (1970). The Cambridge History of the Bible (volume 1) . Cambridge University Press. p. 305.
  96. ^ McDonald, Lee M.: The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon . Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1995, p. 116
  97. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. : The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 246. ISBN 0-19-826954-4 , writes, "Finally on 8 April 1546, by a vote of 24 to 15, with 16 abstensions, the Council issued a decree ( De Canonicis Scripturis ) in which, for the first time in the history of the church, the question of the contents of the Bible was made an absolute article of faith and confirmed by an anathema."
  98. ^ The Canon Debate , pages 414-415, for the entire paragraph
  99. ^ For the initial dating of P52, see Roberts, CH (Ed.): An Unpublished Fragment of the Fourth Gospel in the John Rylands Library . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1935, and Bell, H. Idris and Skeat, TC: Fragments of an Unknown Gospel and Other Early Christian Papyri . London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1935. Though see now Nongbri, Brent: "The Use and Abuse of P52: Papyrological Pitfalls in the Dating of the Fourth Gospel." Harvard Theological Review 98 (2005) 23-52 and Martinez, David G.: "The Papyri and Early Christianity," in Bagnall, Roger S. (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 590-623.
  100. ^ Ehrman, Misquoting Jesus (2005), p. 46
  101. ^ a b c d e f g Strobel, Lee. ”The Case for Christ”. 1998. Chapter three, when quoting biblical scholar Bruce Metzger
  102. ^ a b Bruce, FF (1981). P 14. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?. InterVarsity Press
  103. ^ Habib 2005, p. 239
  104. ^ a b Bruce, FF (1981). P 11. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?. InterVarsity Press
  105. ^ Bruce, FF (1981). P 9-10. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?. InterVarsity Press
  106. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. . Misquoting Jesus : The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why . HarperCollins, 2005, p. 265. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
  107. ^ Guy D. Nave, The role and function of repentance in Luke-Acts, p. 194
  108. ^ John Shelby Spong, "The Continuing Christian Need for Judaism", Christian Century 26 September 1979, p. 918. see http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1256
  109. ^ Feminist companion to the New Testament and early Christian writings, Volume 5, by Amy-Jill Levine, Marianne Blickenstaff, pg. 175
  110. ^ "NETBible: John 7" . Bible.org . http://net.bible.org/bible.php?book=Joh&chapter=7#n139 . Retrieved 17 October 2009 . See note 139 on that page.
  111. ^ Keith, Chris (2008). "Recent and Previous Research on the Pericope Adulterae (John 7.53—8.11)". Currents in Biblical Research 6 (3): 377–404. doi : 10.1177/1476993X07084793 .
  112. ^ 'Pericope adulterae', in FL Cross (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church , (New York: Oxford University Press , 2005).
  113. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 166
  114. ^ Bruce Metzger A Textual Commentary on the New Testament , Second Edition, 1994, German Bible Society
  115. ^ Bruce Metzger , A Textual Commentary on the New Testament , Second Edition, 1994, German Bible Society, p. 367
  116. ^ MM Parvis, vol. 4, pp. 594-595
  117. ^ See Metzger, Bruce M. and Ehrman, Bart D. : The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration , fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  118. ^ See, eg, Stendahl, Krister: The School of St. Matthew and Its Use of the Old Testament . Uppsala and Lund, 1954; Marcus, Joel: The Way of the Lord: Christological Exegesis of the Old Testament in the Gospel of Mark . Edinburgh, 1993; Smith, D. Moody: "The Use of the Old Testament in the New," in The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays: Studies in Honor of William Franklin Stinespring . Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1972, pp. 3-65; Juel, Donald: Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the Old Testament in Early Christianity . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988; and Barr, James: Old and New in Interpretation: A Study of the Two Testaments . London: SCM, 1966.
  119. ^ Arthur Võõbus Early Versions of the New Testament . Stockholm, 1954, pp. 1-128, 211-240.
  120. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. : The Early Versions of the New Testament . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977, pp. 3-98.
  121. ^ Vööbus, Arthur: Early Versions of the New Testament . Stockholm, 1954, pp. 216-229.
  122. ^ On the Armenian, Georgian, Ethiopic, Arabic, and Gothic, see Arthur Vööbus, Early Versions of the New Testament (Stockholm, 1954), pp. 133-210, 243-309.
  123. ^ a b Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Scripture, Unity and Diversity of'". Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1997. Online: Accessed 13 Jan 2013
  124. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part 1, Section 1, Chapter 2, Article 2, "The Transmission of Divine Revelation" , Second Edition (1997)
  125. ^ Ware, Kallistos (Timothy). "Holy Tradition: The Source of the Orthodox Faith" , from The Orthodox Church
  126. ^ "The Thirty-Nine Articles" . Anglicansonline.org . http://anglicansonline.org/basics/thirty-nine_articles.html . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  127. ^ "The Chicago Statement of Biblical Inerrancy" . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  128. ^ "Homosexual ordination vote widens gap between Presbyterian factions," ReligionToday , 2001-JUN-20
  129. ^ ""The Holy Bible", ''The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints''" . Lds.org . http://www.lds.org/topic/bible/ . Consultado el 19 de noviembre de 2010.
  130. ^ "Equipped For Every Good Work" - Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Inc. - International Bible Students Association, Brooklyn, NY, 1946 - pgs 12-13.

[ editar ] Otras lecturas

  • Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament . Anchor Bible Reference Library; New York: Doubleday.
  • Bultmann, Rudolf (1951–1955). Theology of the New Testament , English translation, 2 volumes. New York: Scribner.
  • von Campenhausen, Hans (1972). The Formation of the Christian Bible , English translation. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
  • Conzelmann, Hans and Lindemann, Andreas (1999). Interpreting the New Testament: An Introduction to the Principles and Methods of New Testament Exegesis , English translation. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson.
  • Dormeyer, Detlev (1998). The New Testament among the Writings of Antiquity , English translation. Sheffield.
  • Duling, Dennis C. and Perrin, Norman (1993). The New Testament: Proclamation and Parenesis, Myth and History , 3d edition. New York: Harcourt Brace.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2011). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings , 5th edition. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
  • Goodspeed, Edgar J. (1937). An Introduction to the New Testament . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Levine, Amy-Jill and Brettler, Marc Z. , editors, The Jewish Annotated New Testament , Oxford University Press, USA, (15 November 2011), hardcover, 700 pages, ISBN 0195297709 ISBN 978-0195297706
  • Koester, Helmut (1995 and 2000). Introduction to the New Testament , 2d edition, 2 volumes. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Kümmel, Werner Georg (1996). Introduction to the New Testament , revised and enlarged English translation. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
  • Mack, Burton L. (1995). Who Wrote the New Testament? . San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.
  • Neill, Stephen and Wright, Tom (1988). The Interpretation of the New Testametnt, 1861-1986 , new edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Schnelle, Udo (1998). The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings , English translation. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
  • Zahn, Theodor (1910). Introduction to the New Testament , English translation, 3 volumes. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.

[ editar ] Enlaces externos

[ editar ] Referencias generales

[ edit ] Development and authorship

  • The Gospels in the official canon, and some that were not included in the Bible
  • Dating the New Testament A compilation of the dates ascribed by various scholars to the composition of the New Testament documents, accompanied by an odd statistical average of the dates

[ editar ] Griego