Los nativos americanos en los Estados Unidos
| Los nativos americanos de los Estados Unidos (de arriba a la izquierda): |
| Los indios americanos y nativos de Alaska |
Una carrera: 2,5 millones están registrados 
En combinación con uno o más otras razas: 1,6 millones están registrados 
1.37% de la población de los EE.UU.
|Las regiones con poblaciones significativas|
|Principalmente en el oeste de Estados Unidos|
|Grupos étnicos afines|
Nativos americanos en los Estados Unidos son los pueblos indígenas en América del Norte dentro de los límites de la actual continental Estados Unidos , partes de Alaska , y el Estado isla de Hawaii . Se componen de numerosas y distintas tribus americanas nativas y grupos étnicos , muchos de los cuales sobreviven como comunidades políticas intactas. Los términos utilizados para referirse a los indígenas norteamericanos han sido controversiales . De acuerdo con un 1995 EE.UU. Oficina del Censo conjunto de entrevistas domiciliarias, la mayoría de los encuestados con una preferencia expresada refieren a sí mismos como indios americanos o indios, y este término ha sido adoptado por los principales periódicos y algunos grupos de académicos, sin embargo, este término no incluye los nativos de Hawai o los nativos de Alaska , como aleutianos , los Alutiiq , los Cup'ik y Yup'ik y los inuit de los pueblos, que no son indios americanos.
Desde finales del siglo 15, la emigración de los europeos a América, y su importación de africanos como esclavos , ha dado lugar a siglos de conflictos y ajuste entre Antiguo y el Nuevo Mundo las sociedades. Los europeos crearon la mayor parte del registro histórico escrito a principios de los nativos americanos después de la inmigración de los colonos a las Américas.  Muchos de los nativos americanos vivieron como cazadores-recolectores sociedades y le dijo a sus historias por las tradiciones orales. En muchos grupos, las mujeres lleva a cabo el cultivo sofisticado de numerosas variedades de cultivos básicos: maíz, frijol y calabaza. Las culturas indígenas son muy diferentes de los de la agraria , proto-industrial, en su mayoría cristianos inmigrantes del oeste de Eurasia . Muchas culturas nativas fueron matrilineales , las personas ocuparon las tierras para el uso de toda la comunidad, para la caza o la agricultura. Europeos en aquel momento tenía patriarcales culturas y había desarrollado los conceptos de derechos de propiedad individual con respecto a la tierra que eran muy diferentes.
Las diferencias en las culturas entre los americanos nativos y los europeos establecidos inmigrantes, así como los cambios de alianzas entre diferentes naciones de cada cultura a través de los siglos, la tensión causada amplia política, la violencia étnica y los trastornos sociales. Los indios americanos sufrieron gran número de muertes por el contacto con infecciosas enfermedades euroasiáticas, a los que no tenían adquirida la inmunidad . Las epidemias después de contacto con los europeos causó la mayor pérdida de vida de las poblaciones indígenas. Las estimaciones de la población precolombina de lo que hoy constituye los EE.UU. varían de manera significativa, de entre 1 millón a 18 millones.  
Después de las colonias se rebelaron contra Gran Bretaña y estableció los Estados Unidos de América, el presidente George Washington y Henry Knox concibió la idea de "civilizar" a los nativos americanos en la preparación para la asimilación como ciudadanos de Estados Unidos.    [9 ]  La asimilación (ya sea voluntaria como con el Choctaw ,   o forzados) se convirtió en una política coherente a través de las administraciones norteamericanas. Durante el siglo 19, la ideología del destino manifiesto se convirtió en parte integral del movimiento nacionalista americano. La expansión de las poblaciones europeo-americanos hacia el oeste después de la revolución americana dio lugar a una creciente presión sobre tierras de nativos americanos, la guerra entre los grupos, y las crecientes tensiones. En 1830, el Congreso de EE.UU. aprobó la Indian Removal Act , que autoriza al gobierno a reubicar a los nativos americanos de sus tierras dentro de los estados establecidas en tierras al oeste del río Mississippi , con capacidad de expansión europeo-americana.
Los primeros americanos europeos para encontrar las tribus del interior del oeste eran por lo general los comerciantes de pieles y tramperos. También hubo jesuitas misioneros que trabajan en la zona norte. En Estados Unidos la expansión alcanzó en el oeste de Estados Unidos , los migrantes de los colonos y minero entró en conflicto con el aumento de la Gran Cuenca , Great Plains , y otras tribus occidentales. Estos eran complejas nómadas culturas basadas en la cultura de caballos y de temporada de bisonte de la caza. Llevaron a cabo una fuerte resistencia a las incursiones de los Estados Unidos en las décadas posteriores a la Guerra Civil Americana , en una serie de guerras contra los indios , que eran frecuentes hasta la década de 1890, pero continuó en el siglo 20. La transcontinental del ferrocarril trajo a más no nativos en las tierras tribales en el oeste. Con el tiempo, los EE.UU. obligó a una serie de tratados y cesiones de tierras de las tribus, y estableció reservas para ellos en muchos estados del oeste. Agentes de Estados Unidos alentó a los nativos americanos a adoptar la agricultura de estilo europeo y otras actividades similares, pero europeo-americana de tecnología agrícola de la época fue a menudo inadecuado para las tierras secas de reserva. En 1924, los nativos americanos que no eran ya los ciudadanos de Estados Unidos se concedió la ciudadanía por el Congreso .
Contemporáneo nativos americanos tienen una relación única con los Estados Unidos, ya que pueden ser miembros de las naciones, tribus o bandas con la soberanía y los tratados de derechos . Desde finales de 1960, el activismo de los nativos americanos ha llevado a la construcción de la infraestructura cultural y un reconocimiento más amplio: se han fundado periódicos independientes y los medios de comunicación en línea; FNX, el primer canal de la televisión americana nativa (2011),  las escuelas de la comunidad, colegios tribales , los y los museos tribales y programas de idiomas; Estudios Indígenas programas en las principales universidades, y museos nacionales y estatales. Nativos autores nativos americanos y de Alaska han sido cada vez publicada, trabajan como académicos, políticos, médicos, y en una amplia variedad de ocupaciones. Activismo cultural ha dado lugar a una expansión de los esfuerzos para enseñar y preservar las lenguas indígenas para las generaciones más jóvenes. Sus sociedades y las culturas florezcan dentro de una población más grande de descendientes de inmigrantes (tanto voluntaria como involuntaria): África , Asia , Oriente Medio , Europa , y otros pueblos.
[ editar ] Historia
[ editar ] Pre-Columbian
Aparte de la revolución neolítica , " Neolítico "se utiliza para describir avanzadas culturas de la edad de piedra en Eurasia, África y otras regiones y no se utiliza generalmente para describir las culturas nativas norteamericanas. Los periodos arqueológicos utilizados son las clasificaciones de los períodos arqueológicos y las culturas establecidas en Gordon Willey y Philip Phillips 1958 "Método libro y la teoría en la arqueología americana. Se repartieron el registro arqueológico en las Américas en cinco fases.  , consulte Arqueología de las Américas .
Según la teoría más generalmente aceptada de la liquidación de las Américas , las migraciones de los seres humanos de Eurasia a las Américas se llevó a cabo a través de Beringia , un puente de tierra que conectaba los dos continentes a través de lo que hoy es el estrecho de Bering . El número y composición de las migraciones aún está en debate.  La caída de los niveles del mar asociados a un intenso periodo de glaciación del Cuaternario creó el puente terrestre de Bering que unía Siberia con Alaska sobre 60,000-25,000 años.   El esta última la migración podría haber tenido lugar es de hace 12.000 años, los primeros sigue siendo indeterminado ..   Tres grandes migraciones se produjo, como trazado por los datos lingüísticos y genéticos, y los primeros paleoamericanos pronto se extendió a lo largo de las Américas, la diversificación en varios cientos de las naciones y tribus culturalmente distintas.  En 8000 aC el clima de América del Norte fue muy similar al de hoy. 
La cultura Clovis , una megafauna cultura de caza se identifican principalmente por el uso de estriadas lanza puntos. Los artefactos de esta cultura fueron excavados en 1932 cerca de Clovis, Nuevo México . La cultura Clovis se extendía sobre gran parte de América del Norte y también apareció en América del Sur. El cultivo se identifica por el distintivo punto Clovis , un pedernal en copos lanza puntos con una flauta con muescas, en la que se inserta en un eje. La datación de los materiales de Clovis ha sido por la asociación con huesos de animales y por el uso de la datación por carbono métodos. Nuevos exámenes recientes de los materiales de Clovis con la mejora de los métodos de datación de carbono producido resultados de 11.050 y 10.800 años de radiocarbono BP (aproximadamente 9100 a 8850 aC).
Numerosos paleoindios culturas ocuparon América del Norte, con algunos dispuestos en torno a las Grandes Planicies y los Grandes Lagos de los modernos Estados Unidos de América y Canadá , así como las áreas adyacentes al oeste y el suroeste. De acuerdo con las historias orales de muchos de los pueblos indígenas de las Américas, que han estado viviendo en este continente desde su génesis, descrito por una amplia gama de los tradicionales relatos de la creación . Otras tribus tienen historias que narran las migraciones a través de largas extensiones de tierra y un gran río, que se cree ser el de Mississippi .  Los datos genéticos y lingüísticos conectar los pueblos indígenas de este continente con el antiguo asiáticos del noreste. Los datos arqueológicos y lingüísticos ha permitido a los estudiosos a descubrir algunas de las migraciones en las Américas.
La Tradición de Folsom se caracterizaba por el uso de puntos de Folsom , como puntas de proyectil, y las actividades conocidas por matar a los sitios, donde masacre y matanza de los bisontes se llevó a cabo. Herramientas de Folsom se quedaron atrás entre el 9000 aC y el BCE 8000. 
Na-Dene los pueblos de habla entrado en América del Norte comenzando alrededor de 8000 aC, alcanzando el noroeste del Pacífico en 5000 aC,  y desde allí migran a lo largo del la costa del Pacífico y en el interior. Lingüistas, antropólogos y arqueólogos creen que sus antepasados ??compuesto por una migración por separado en América del Norte, a más tardar el primero paleoindios. Ellos emigraron a Alaska y el norte de Canadá, al sur a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico, en el interior de Canadá, y al sur de las Grandes Planicies y el suroeste de Estados Unidos. Ellos fueron los primeros antepasados ??de la Athabasca - la gente habla, incluyendo la actual e histórica de Navajo y el Apache . Ellos construyeron grandes viviendas multifamiliares en sus aldeas, que fueron utilizados en temporada. Las personas no viven allí durante todo el año, pero durante el verano para cazar y pescar, y para recoger los suministros de alimentos para el invierno.  Los Tradición Oshara personas vivieron a partir del 5500 aC al 600 dC. Eran parte de la tradición arcaica del sudoeste centrada en centro-norte de Nuevo México , la cuenca de San Juan , el Rio Grande Valley, al sur de Colorado , y el sureste de Utah .
Desde la década de 1990, los arqueólogos han explorado y con fecha once Media arcaicas sitios en la actual Luisiana y Florida en el que las culturas antiguas construyeron complejos con múltiples movimientos de tierra montículos , eran sociedades de cazadores-recolectores en vez de los agricultores ya establecidos, cree necesario de acuerdo a la teoría de la Revolución Neolítica para sostener esos grandes pueblos durante largos períodos. El primer ejemplo es Watson freno en el norte de Louisiana, cuyo 11-montículo complejo está fechada en 3500 aC, por lo que es la más antigua, fechada en el sitio de las Américas para la construcción de dicho complejo. Se trata de casi 2.000 años más antiguo que el Punto de la pobreza sitio. La construcción de los montículos se prolongó durante 500 años hasta que fue abandonado alrededor de 2800 aC, probablemente debido a las condiciones cambiantes del medio ambiente. 
La cultura de la pobreza Point es un Arcaico Tardío cultura arqueológica que habitó el área de la parte baja del valle del Misisipí y sus alrededores Costa del Golfo. La cultura prosperó a partir de 2200 aC a 700 aC, durante el período Arcaico Tardío.  La evidencia de esta cultura se ha encontrado en más de 100 sitios, desde el complejo principal en Poverty Point, Louisiana a través de una de 100 millas (160 km) ir a la web Jaketown cerca de Belzoni, Mississippi . La pobreza es un punto de 1 milla cuadrada (2,6 km 2) complejo de seis anillos concéntricos de movimiento de tierras más importantes, con montículos de plataformas adicionales en el sitio. Estos objetos muestran los comerciaba con otros nativos americanos ubicados de Georgia a la región de los Grandes Lagos. Este es uno de los sitios de montículos numerosos complejos de las culturas indígenas a lo largo de los valles de Mississippi y Ohio. Eran una de las varias culturas sucesivas a menudo descrito como constructores de montículos .
El período de Woodland de América del Norte precolombina culturas se refiere al período de tiempo de aproximadamente 1000 aC a 1000 dC en la parte oriental de América del Norte. El término "bosque" fue acuñado en la década de 1930 y se refiere a yacimientos prehistóricos datados entre el período arcaico y las culturas del Mississippi . La tradición de Hopewell es el término utilizado para describir los aspectos comunes de la cultura indígena que floreció a lo largo de los ríos en el noreste y medio oeste de Estados Unidos a partir de 200 aC a 500 dC. 
La tradición Hopewell no era una sola cultura o la sociedad, pero muy disperso conjunto de poblaciones relacionadas, que fueron conectadas por una red común de las rutas comerciales,  conocido como el Sistema de Intercambio de Hopewell. En su mayor medida, el sistema de intercambio de Hopewell se desarrolló entre el sureste de Estados Unidos en los del sureste de Canadá orillas del Lago Ontario . Dentro de esta área, las sociedades participaron en un alto grado de intercambio, la mayoría de la actividad se llevó a cabo a lo largo de los cursos de agua que servían de sus principales rutas de transporte. El sistema de Hopewell cotizados materiales de todo los Estados Unidos.
Coles Creek la cultura es una cultura arqueológica del Bajo Mississippi Valley en el sur de la actual Estados Unidos. El período marcó un cambio significativo en la historia cultural de la zona. La población aumentó de forma espectacular. Hay una fuerte evidencia de una creciente complejidad cultural y política, sobre todo por el final de la secuencia Coles Creek. Aunque muchos de los rasgos clásicos de cacicazgos sociedades no se manifestaron, sin embargo, por el 1000 de nuestra era la formación de simples élite sistemas políticos había comenzado. Coles Creek sitios se encuentran en Arkansas , Louisiana , Oklahoma , Mississippi y Tejas . Se considera a la ancestral cultura de Plaquemine .
Hohokam es uno de los cuatro principales tradiciones arqueológicos prehistóricos de la actual suroeste de Estados Unidos .  Vivir como simples campesinos, que cultivaban el maíz y el frijol. Los Hohokam principios fundó una serie de pequeñas aldeas a lo largo de la mitad del río Gila . Las comunidades se encuentra cerca de la tierra cultivable bueno, con la agricultura de secano común en los primeros años de este período.  Wells , por lo general menos de 10 pies (3 m) de profundidad, fueron excavados de abastecimiento de agua doméstica en un 300 CE y 500 CE.  Los primeros hogares Hohokam fueron construidos de ramas dobladas en forma semicircular y cubierta con ramas y cañas. La última capa se aplica en gran medida el barro y otros materiales a la mano. 
La cultura Mississippi , que se extendía a lo largo de valles de Ohio y Mississippi y los sitios de construcción en todo el sureste, ha creado los más grandes movimientos de tierra en América del Norte al norte de México, sobre todo en Cahokia , en un afluente del río Mississippi en la actual Illinois. Su diez pisos Montículo Monjes tiene una circunferencia más grande que la Pirámide del Sol en Teotihuacán o la Gran Pirámide de Egipto . Las 6 millas cuadradas (16 km 2) de la ciudad complejos se basa en la cosmología de la cultura, sino que incluyó a más de 100 montículos, ubicados en apoyo de su sofisticado conocimiento de astronomía , y construido con el conocimiento de diferentes tipos de suelo. Se incluyó una Woodhenge , cuyo sagrado cedro postes fueron colocados para conmemorar el verano y de invierno solsticio de otoño y primavera y los equinoccios . La sociedad comenzó a construir en este sitio alrededor de 950 dC, y alcanzó su pico de población de 1250 CE de 20.000-30.000 personas, que no fue igualado por cualquier ciudad en la que hoy es Estados Unidos hasta después de 1800. Cahokia fue una región importante cacicazgo , con jefaturas comerciales y tributarios situados en una amplia gama de áreas de frontera de los Grandes Lagos en el Golfo de México . En el siglo XVI, los primeros exploradores españoles encontraron pueblos del Mississippi en el interior de la actual Carolina del Norte y el sudeste del país.
Sofisticadas sociedades precolombinas sedentarias se desarrollaron en América del Norte. La cultura Mississippi desarrolló el Complejo Ceremonial del sudeste , el nombre que los arqueólogos han dado a la similitud estilística regional de los artefactos , la iconografía , las ceremonias y mitología . El aumento de la compleja cultura se basa en la adopción de la gente de maíz, la agricultura, el desarrollo de las densidades de población mayores, y la jefatura a nivel de organización social compleja a partir de 1200 la CE de 1650 la CE.   Contrariamente a la creencia popular, este desarrollo parece que no han tenido vínculos directos con Mesoamérica . Los pueblos desarrollaron una sociedad independiente, sofisticada y estratificado, después de que el cultivo del maíz permitió la acumulación de excedentes de los cultivos para apoyar una mayor densidad de población. Esto a su vez condujo al desarrollo de conocimientos especializados entre algunos de los pueblos. El Complejo Ceremonial representa un componente importante de la religión de los pueblos del Mississippi, y es uno de los principales medios por los que se entiende su religión. 
La Haudenosaunee ( Iroqueses Sociedad de Naciones o "Gente de la Casa Larga"), entonces con sede en el actual y el oeste al norte del estado de Nueva York , tuvo una confederación de modelo a partir de mediados del siglo 15. Algunos historiadores han sugerido que contribuyeron al pensamiento político durante el desarrollo de la tarde el gobierno de los Estados Unidos. Su sistema de afiliación era una especie de federación, a diferencia de las monarquías europeas fuertes y centralizados.   El liderazgo se limita a un grupo de 50 sachem jefes , cada uno representando a un clan de dentro de una tribu, los Oneida y la gente Mohawk tenía nueve asientos cada uno; los onondagas celebró catorce años, el Cayuga tenía diez escaños, y el Séneca tenía ocho años. La representación no se basó en las cifras de población, como la tribu Séneca superaban ampliamente en número a los demás. Cuando un jefe sachem murió, su sucesor fue elegido por la mujer mayor de su tribu, en consulta con otros miembros femeninos del clan, el liderazgo de la propiedad y herencia fueron aprobadas por línea materna . Las decisiones no fueron hechas a través del voto sino a través de la toma de decisiones por consenso, con todos los jefes de la celebración de sachem teórico poder de veto . El Onondaga eran los " firekeepers ", responsable de levantar temas que se tratarán. Ocuparon un lado de un fuego de tres lados (el Mohawk y Séneca se sentó en un lado del fuego, el Oneida y Cayuga se sentó en el tercer lado.)  Elizabeth Tooker, una antropóloga , ha dicho que era poco probable que el padres fundadores de Estados Unidos se inspiraron en la confederación, ya que tiene poco parecido con el sistema de gobierno adoptado en los Estados Unidos. Por ejemplo, se basa en la heredó en lugar de los dirigentes elegidos, seleccionados por los miembros femeninos de las tribus, el consenso de toma de decisiones, independientemente del tamaño de la población de las tribus, y un grupo único capaz de plantear asuntos ante el cuerpo legislativo. 
Comercio a larga distancia no impidió que la guerra y el desplazamiento de los pueblos indígenas, y sus historias orales hablan de numerosas migraciones de los territorios históricos donde los europeos los encontraron. Los iroqueses invadieron y atacaron a las tribus en el área del río Ohio de la actual Kentucky y reclamó los territorios de caza. Los historiadores han colocado a estos eventos como algo que ocurre ya en el siglo 13, o en el siglo 17 las guerras del castor . A través de la guerra, los iroqueses llevó a varias tribus a emigrar al oeste a lo que se conoce como sus tierras tradicionales, históricamente, al oeste del río Mississippi. Las tribus originarias del valle de Ohio que se mudaron al oeste incluyó la Osage , Kaw , Ponca , y la gente de Omaha . A mediados del siglo 17, que se había instalado en sus tierras históricas en lo que hoy en Kansas , Nebraska , Arkansas y Oklahoma . El Osage guerreó con Caddo de habla nativos americanos, desplazando a su vez por la mitad del siglo 18 y dominando sus nuevos territorios históricos. 
[ editar ] exploración y colonización europea
Después de 1492 Europa exploración y colonización de las Américas revolucionado la forma de los viejos y New Worlds se percibe. Uno de los principales contactos en primer lugar, en lo que se llama la región de América del Sur profundo , se produjo cuando el conquistador Juan Ponce de León desembarcó en La Florida en abril de 1513. Ponce de León fue seguido más tarde por otros exploradores españoles, como Pánfilo de Narváez en 1528 y Hernando de Soto en 1539. Los posteriores colonos europeos en América del Norte a menudo racionalizar su expansión del imperio con la suposición de que estaban ahorrando un mundo bárbaro, pagano, mediante la difusión de la civilización cristiana.  En la colonización española de las Américas , la política de reducción de la India dio lugar a la desaparición forzada las conversiones al catolicismo de los pueblos indígenas en el norte de Nueva España , que disponían de larga data espirituales y las tradiciones religiosas y teológicas creencias. Lo que se desarrolló durante los años de la colonia y desde entonces ha sido un esfuerzo de sincretismo catolicismo que absorbe y refleja las creencias indígenas, la religión cambió en la Nueva España.
[ editar ] Impacto sobre las poblaciones nativas
Desde el día 16 a través de los siglos 19, la población de indios disminuyó en las siguientes formas: enfermedades epidémicas traídas de Europa; el genocidio y la guerra  a manos de los exploradores y colonos europeos, así como entre las tribus, el desplazamiento de sus tierras; interno de la guerra ,  la esclavitud , y una alta tasa de matrimonios mixtos .   La mayoría de los estudiosos creen que la corriente principal, entre los diversos factores que contribuyen, epidemia de la enfermedad fue la causa primordial de la disminución de la población de los indígenas americanos a causa de su la falta de inmunidad a las nuevas enfermedades traídas de Europa.    Con la rápida declinación de algunas poblaciones y las rivalidades constantes entre sus naciones, los americanos nativos a veces se reorganizan para formar nuevos grupos culturales, tales como los Seminoles de Florida en el siglo XVIII y el indios de la misión de la Alta California .
Estimar el número de nativos americanos que viven en lo que hoy es los Estados Unidos de América antes de la llegada de los exploradores y colonizadores europeos ha sido objeto de mucho debate. Si bien es difícil determinar exactamente cómo los nativos de muchos vivían en América del Norte antes de Colón,  Las estimaciones oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,1 millones ( Ubelaker 1976) a 7 millones de personas (Russell Thornton) y un máximo de 18 millones de dólares (Dobyns 1983) .  Una estimación a la baja de alrededor de 1 millón fue postulado por primera vez por el antropólogo James Mooney en la década de 1890, mediante el cálculo de la densidad de población de cada área de la cultura en base a su capacidad de carga . En 1965, la American antropólogo Henry Dobyns estudios publicados la estimación de la población original que ha sido de 10 a 12 millones. En 1983, aumentó sus estimaciones a 18 millones de dólares.  Se tuvo en cuenta las tasas de mortalidad causadas por enfermedades infecciosas de Europa exploradores y colonos, en contra de que los nativos americanos no tenían inmunidad. Dobyns combinan las tasas de mortalidad más conocidas de estas enfermedades entre las personas nativas con registros confiables de población del siglo 19, para calcular el tamaño probable de las poblaciones originales.   En 1800, la población indígena de la que hoy es Estados Unidos se había reducido a aproximadamente 600.000, 250.000 y sólo los nativos americanos se mantuvo en la década de 1890. 
La varicela y el sarampión , las endémicas , pero rara vez es mortal entre los europeos (de largo después de haber sido introducida desde Asia ), a menudo resultó mortal para los nativos americanos. viruela epidemias a menudo inmediatamente después de la exploración europea y, en ocasiones destruidas poblaciones rurales enteras. Aunque las cifras exactas son difíciles de determinar, algunos historiadores estiman que al menos el 30% (ya veces un 50% a 70%) de algunas poblaciones indígenas murieron después del primer contacto, debido a la viruela de Eurasia.   Uno de los elementos del intercambio colombino sugiere exploradores de la Cristóbal Colón expedición contrajo la sífilis de los pueblos indígenas y se lo llevó de regreso a Europa, donde se difundió ampliamente.  Otros investigadores creen que la enfermedad existía en Europa y Asia antes de que Colón y sus hombres regresaron de la exposición a los pueblos indígenas de las Américas, sino que trajo una forma más virulenta.
En 1618-1619, la viruela mató a 90% de los americanos nativos en el área de la Bahía de Massachusetts .  Los historiadores creen que muchos de Mohawk en la actual Nueva York se infectaron después de contacto con los niños de holandeses los comerciantes de Albany en 1634. La enfermedad se propagó a través de pueblos Mohawk, Onondaga al llegar al lago Ontario en 1636, y las tierras del oeste de los iroqueses por 1679, ya que fue llevado por los Mohawk y otros nativos americanos que viajaron las rutas comerciales.  La alta tasa de víctimas mortales averías causadas en las sociedades nativas americanas e interrumpió el intercambio generacional de la cultura.
Entre 1754 y 1763, muchas tribus de indios americanos participaron en la Guerra Francesa e India / Guerra de los Siete Años . Las personas involucradas en el comercio de pieles en las zonas septentrionales tienden a aliarse con las fuerzas francesas en contra de las milicias coloniales británicas. Nativos americanos lucharon en ambos bandos del conflicto. El mayor número de las tribus lucharon contra los franceses con la esperanza de comprobar la expansión británica. Los británicos se habían hecho pocos aliados, sino que fue acompañado por algunas tribus que querían demostrar la asimilación y la lealtad en apoyo de los tratados para preservar sus territorios. Ellos se sintieron decepcionados a menudo, cuando dichos tratados fueron anuladas más tarde. Las tribus tienen sus propios fines, con sus alianzas con las potencias europeas para combatir a los enemigos tradicionales de los nativos.
Después de los exploradores europeos llegaron a la Costa Oeste en la década de 1770, la viruela rápida muerte de al menos el 30% de la costa del noroeste los nativos americanos. Para los próximos 80 a 100 años, la viruela y otras enfermedades devastaron las poblaciones nativas de la región.  de Puget Sound , una vez que las poblaciones del área se estima tan alta como 37.000 personas, se redujeron a sólo 9.000 sobrevivientes en el momento en colonos llegaron en masa en el mediados del siglo 19.  Las misiones españolas en California no afectó significativamente la población de los nativos americanos , pero los números de este último disminuyó rápidamente después de que California dejó de ser una colonia española, especialmente durante la segunda mitad del siglo 19 y el comienzo de la 20 ª (ver gráfico a la derecha).
Epidemias de viruela en 1780-1782 y 1837-1838 trajo la devastación y la despoblación drástica entre los indios de las llanuras .   En 1832, el gobierno federal estableció una vacuna contra la viruela del programa para los nativos americanos (La Ley de Vacunación indio de 1832). Fue el primer programa federal creado para hacer frente a un problema de salud de los nativos americanos.  
[ editar ] la introducción de animales
Con el encuentro de dos mundos, animales, insectos y plantas se llevaron de una a la otra parte, tanto de forma deliberada y por casualidad, en lo que se llama el intercambio colombino . Las ovejas, cerdos, caballos y ganado estaban todos los animales del Viejo Mundo que se introdujeron a lo contemporáneo nativos americanos que nunca supo de estos animales. 
En el siglo 16, los españoles y otros europeos trajeron caballos a México. Algunos de los caballos se escaparon y empezaron a reproducirse y aumentar su número en la naturaleza. Los primeros caballo americano había sido partido por los primeros seres humanos en el continente. Fue cazado hasta su extinción alrededor de 7000 aC, justo después del final del último período glacial . [ cita requerida ] los indígenas americanos se beneficiaron por la reintroducción de caballos. As they adopted use of the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their nomadic ranges for hunting.
The reintroduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains . The tribes trained and used horses to ride and to carry packs or pull travois . The people fully incorporated the use of horses into their societies and expanded their territories. They used horses to carry goods for exchange with neighboring tribes, to hunt game , especially bison , and to conduct wars and horse raids.
[ editar Guerra] del rey Felipe
King Philip's War sometimes called Metacom 's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675 to 1676. It continued in northern New England (primarily on the Maine frontier) even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April 1678. [ citation needed ] According to a combined estimate of loss of life in Schultz and Tougias' "King Philip's War, The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict" (based on sources from the Department of Defense, the Bureau of Census, and the work of Colonial historian Francis Jennings), 800 out of 52,000 English colonists of New England (1 out of every 65) and 3,000 out of 20,000 natives (3 out of every 20) lost their lives due to the war, which makes it proportionately one of the bloodiest and costliest in the history of America. [ citation needed ] More than half of New England's ninety towns were assaulted by Native American warriors. One in ten soldiers on both sides were wounded or killed. [ 62 ]
The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom, known to the English as "King Philip." He was the last Massasoit (Great Leader) of the Pokanoket Tribe/Pokanoket Federation & Wampanoag Nation. Upon their loss to the Colonists and the attempted genocide of the Pokanoket Tribe and Royal Line, many managed to flee to the North to continue their fight against the British (Massachusetts Bay Colony) by joining with the Abanaki Tribes and Wabanaki Federation. [ citation needed ]
[ edit ] Foundations for freedom
Some Europeans considered Native American societies to be representative of a golden age known to them only in folk history. [ 63 ] The political theorist Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote that the idea of freedom and democratic ideals was born in the Americas because "it was only in America" that Europeans from 1500 to 1776 knew of societies that were "truly free." [ 63 ]
Natural freedom is the only object of the policy of the [Native Americans]; with this freedom do nature and climate rule alone amongst them ... [Native Americans] maintain their freedom and find abundant nourishment... [and are] people who live without laws, without police, without religion.
In the twentieth century, some writers have credited the Iroquois nations ' political confederacy and democratic government as being influences for the development of the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution . [ 64 ] [ 65 ] In October 1988, the US Congress passed Concurrent Resolution 331 to recognize the influence of the Iroquois Constitution upon the US Constitution and Bill of Rights. [ 66 ]
But, leading historians of the period note that historic evidence is lacking to support such an interpretation. Gordon Wood wrote, "The English colonists did not need the Indians to tell them about federalism or self-government. The New England Confederation was organized as early as 1643." [ 67 ] The historian Jack Rakove , a specialist in early American history, in 2005 noted that the voluminous documentation of the Constitutional proceedings "contain no significant reference to Iroquois." [ 67 ] Secondly, he notes: "All the key political concepts that were the stuff of American political discourse before the Revolution and after, had obvious European antecedents and referents: bicameralism, separation of powers, confederations, and the like." [ 67 ]
[ editar ] Revolución Americana
During the American Revolution , the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River . Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, based both on their trading relationships and hopes that colonial defeat would result in a halt to further colonial expansion onto Native American land. Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war and others wanted to remain neutral. The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape . For the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, the American Revolution resulted in civil war . The only Iroquois tribes to ally with the colonials were the Oneida and Tuscarora.
Frontier warfare during the American Revolution was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed by settlers and native tribes alike. Noncombatants suffered greatly during the war. Military expeditions on each side destroyed villages and food supplies to reduce the ability of people to fight, as in frequent raids by both sides in the Mohawk Valley and western New York. [ 68 ] The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, in which American colonial troops destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York . The expedition failed to have the desired effect: Native American activity became even more determined.
American Indians have played a central role in shaping the history of the nation, and they are deeply woven into the social fabric of much of American life.... During the last three decades of the twentieth century, scholars of ethnohistory, of the "new Indian history," and of Native American studies forcefully demonstrated that to understand American history and the American experience, one must include American Indians.—Robbie Ethridge, Creek Country . [ 69 ]
The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783) , through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing or consulting with the Native Americans. The Northwest Indian War was led by Native American tribes trying to repulse American settlers. The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought as allies with the British as a conquered people who had lost their lands. Although most members of the Iroquois tribes went to Canada with the Loyalists, others tried to stay in New York and western territories to maintain their lands. The state of New York made a separate treaty with Iroquois nations and put up for sale 5,000,000 acres (20,000 km 2 ) of land that had previously been their territories. The state established small reservations in western New York for the remnant peoples.
The Indians presented a reverse image of European civilization which helped America establish a national identity that was neither savage nor civilized.—Charles Sanford, The Quest for Paradise [ 70 ]
[ edit ] 18th century United States
The United States was eager to expand, to develop farming and settlements in new areas, and to satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants. The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties . The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy. [ 71 ]
European nations sent Native Americans (sometimes against their will) to the Old World as objects of curiosity. They often entertained royalty and were sometimes prey to commercial purposes. Christianization of Native Americans was a charted purpose for some European colonies.
Whereas it hath at this time become peculiarly necessary to warn the citizens of the United States against a violation of the treaties.... I do by these presents require, all officers of the United States, as well civil as military, and all other citizens and inhabitants thereof, to govern themselves according to the treaties and act aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril.—George Washington, Proclamation Regarding Treaties, 1790. [ 73 ]
United States policy toward Native Americans had continued to evolve after the American Revolution. George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society was inferior. Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process. [ 7 ] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included,
1. impartial justice toward Native Americans
2. regulated buying of Native American lands
3. promotion of commerce
4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society
5. presidential authority to give presents
6. punishing those who violated Native American rights. [ 9 ]
Robert Remini , a historian, wrote that "once the Indians adopted the practice of private property, built homes, farmed, educated their children, and embraced Christianity, these Native Americans would win acceptance from white Americans." [ 8 ] The United States appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins , to live among the Native Americans and to teach them how to live like whites. [ 6 ]
How different would be the sensation of a philosophic mind to reflect that instead of exterminating a part of the human race by our modes of population that we had persevered through all difficulties and at last had imparted our Knowledge of cultivating and the arts, to the Aboriginals of the Country by which the source of future life and happiness had been preserved and extended. But it has been conceived to be impracticable to civilize the Indians of North America — This opinion is probably more convenient than just.—Henry Knox to George Washington, 1790s. [ 72 ]
In the late 18th century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox, [ 74 ] supported educating native children and adults, in efforts to " civilize " or otherwise assimilate Native Americans to the larger society (as opposed to relegating them to reservations ). The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American improvement.
I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families. Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting. A little land cultivated, and a little labor, will procure more provisions than the most successful hunt; and a woman will clothe more by spinning and weaving, than a man by hunting. Compared with you, we are but as of yesterday in this land. Yet see how much more we have multiplied by industry, and the exercise of that reason which you possess in common with us. Follow then our example, brethren, and we will aid you with great pleasure...—President Thomas Jefferson, Brothers of the Choctaw Nation, December 17, 1803 [ 75 ]
[ editar ] siglo 19
[ editar ] Resistencia
As American expansion continued, Native Americans resisted settlers' encroachment in several regions of the new nation (and in unorganized territories), from the Northwest to the Southeast, and then in the West, as settlers encountered the tribes of the Great Plains .
East of the Mississippi River, an intertribal army led by Tecumseh , a Shawnee chief, fought a number of engagements in the Northwest during the period 1811–12, known as Tecumseh's War . In the latter stages, Tecumseh's group allied with the British forces in the War of 1812 and was instrumental in the conquest of Detroit . Conflicts in the Southeast include the Creek War and Seminole Wars , both before and after the Indian Removals of most members of the Five Civilized Tribes beginning in the 1830s under President Andrew Jackson 's policies.
Native American nations on the plains in the west continued armed conflicts with the United States throughout the 19th century, through what were called generally " Indian Wars ." The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) was one of the greatest Native American victories. Defeats included the Sioux Uprising of 1862, [ 77 ] the Sand Creek Massacre (1864) and Wounded Knee in 1890. [ 78 ] Indian Wars continued into the early 20th century.
According to the US Bureau of the Census (1894),
"The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians." [ 79 ]
[ edit ] American expansion
In July 1845, the New York newspaper editor John L. O'Sullivan coined the phrase, "Manifest Destiny," as the "design of Providence" supporting the territorial expansion of the United States. [ 80 ] Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for Native Americans, since continental expansion for the United States took place at the cost of their occupied land. Manifest Destiny was a justification for expansion and westward movement, or, in some interpretations, an ideology or doctrine that helped to promote the process of civilization. Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it was obvious and certain. The term was first used primarily by Jacksonian Democrats in the 1840s to promote the annexation of much of what is now the Western United States (the Oregon Territory , the Texas Annexation , and the Mexican Cession ).
What a prodigious growth this English race, especially the American branch of it, is having! How soon will it subdue and occupy all the wild parts of this continent and of the islands adjacent. No prophecy, however seemingly extravagant, as to future achievements in this way [is] likely to equal the reality.—Rutherford Birchard Hayes, US President, January 1, 1857, Personal Diary. [ 81 ]
The age of Manifest Destiny, which came to be associated with extinguishing American Indian territorial claims and removing them to reservations, gained ground as the United States population explored and settled west of the Mississippi River. Although Indian Removal from the Southeast had been proposed by some as a humanitarian measure to ensure their survival away from Americans, conflicts of the nineteenth century led some Americans to regard the natives as "savages".
[ editar ] Guerra Civil
Many Native Americans served in the military during the Civil War , [ 83 ] the vast majority of whom siding with the Union. By fighting with the whites, Native Americans hoped to gain favor with the prevailing government by supporting the war effort. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] They also believed war service might mean an end to discrimination and relocation from ancestral lands to western territories. [ 83 ] While the war raged and African Americans were proclaimed free, the US government continued its policies of assimilation, submission, removal, or extermination of Native Americans. [ 83 ]
General Ely S. Parker , a member of the Seneca tribe , created the articles of surrender which General Robert E. Lee signed at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Gen. Parker, who served as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's military secretary and was a trained attorney, was once rejected for Union military service because of his race. At Appomattox, Lee is said to have remarked to Parker, "I am glad to see one real American here," to which Parker replied, "We are all Americans." [ 83 ] General Stand Watie , a leader of the Cherokee Nation and Confederate Indian cavalry commander, was the last Confederate General to surrender his troops. [ 85 ]
[ edit ] Removals and reservations
In the 19th century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. Native Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Hopewell Treaty of 1785 . Under President Andrew Jackson , United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river . As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota , which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees but not the principal chief. The following year, the Cherokee conceded to removal, but Georgia included their land in a lottery for European-American settlement before that. President Jackson used the military to gather and transport the Cherokee to the west, whose timing and lack of adequate supplies led to the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on the Trail of Tears . About 17,000 Cherokees, along with approximately 2,000 enslaved blacks held by Cherokees, were taken by force migration to Indian Territory. [ 86 ]
Tribes were generally located to reservations where they could more easily be separated from traditional life and pushed into European-American society. Some southern states additionally enacted laws in the 19th century forbidding non-Native American settlement on Native American lands, with the intention to prevent sympathetic white missionaries from aiding the scattered Native American resistance. [ 87 ]
[ edit ] Native Americans and US Citizenship
In 1817, the Cherokee became the first Native Americans recognized as US citizens. Under Article 8 of the 1817 Cherokee treaty, "Upwards of 300 Cherokees (Heads of Families) in the honest simplicity of their souls, made and election to become American citizens." [ 88 ] [ 89 ] The next earliest recorded date of Native Americans' becoming US citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Congress ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek . [ 12 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] Article 22 sought to put a Choctaw representative in the US House of Representatives. [ 12 ] Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move with the Choctaw Nation could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Through the years, Native Americans became US citizens by:
1. Treaty provision (as with the Cherokee)
2. Registration and land allotment under the Dawes Act of February 8, 1887
3. Issuance of Patent in Fee simple
4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life
5. Minor Children
6. Citizenship by Birth
7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the US Armed Forces
8. Marriage to a US citizen
9. Special Act of Congress.
In 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney expressed the opinion of the court that since Native Americans were "free and independent people" that they could become US citizens. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Taney asserted that Native Americans could be naturalized and join the "political community" of the United States. [ 94 ]
[Native Americans], without doubt, like the subjects of any other foreign Government, be naturalized by the authority of Congress, and become citizens of a State, and of the United States; and if an individual should leave his nation or tribe, and take up his abode among the white population, he would be entitled to all the rights and privileges which would belong to an emigrant from any other foreign people.—Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, 1857, What was Taney thinking? American Indian Citizenship in the era of Dred Scott , Frederick e. Hoxie, April 2007. [ 94 ]
After the American Civil War, the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment and The Civil Rights Act of 1866 states, "that all persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States". [ 95 ] Native American as US citizens fell out of favor among politicians at the time. Senator Jacob Howard of Michigan commented, “I am not yet prepared to pass a sweeping act of naturalization by which all the Indian savages, wild or tame, belonging to a tribal relation, are to become my fellow-citizens and go to the polls and vote with me". (Congressional Globe 1866, 2895) [ 96 ] This sentiment is also shown through a Senate floor debate regarding the Fourteenth Amendment where James Rood Doolittle of Wisconsin stated, " ... all those wild Indians to be citizens of the United States, the Great Republic of the world, whose citizenship should be a title as proud as that of king, and whose danger is that you may degrade that citizenship (Congressional Globe 1866, 2892)." [ 96 ]
[ edit ] Indian Appropriations Act of 1871
That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe.—Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 [ 97 ]
[ edit ] Education and Indian boarding schools
After the Indian wars in the late 19th century, the United States established Native American boarding schools , initially run primarily by or affiliated with Christian missionaries. [ 98 ] At this time American society thought that Native American children needed to be acculturated to the general society. The boarding school experience often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages , taught Christianity and denied the right to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities [ 99 ] and adopt European-American culture. Since the twentieth century, investigations documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] While problems were documented as early as the 1920s, some of the schools continued into the 1960s. Since the rise of self-determination for Native Americans, they have generally emphasized education of their children at schools near where they live. In addition, many federally recognized tribes have taken over operations of such schools and added programs of language retention and revival to strengthen their cultures. Beginning in the 1970s, tribes have also founded colleges at their reservations, controlled and operated by Native Americans, to educate their young for jobs as well as to pass on their cultures.
[ editar ] Siglo XX
On June 2, 1924 US Republican President Calvin Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act , which made citizens of the United States of all Native Americans, who were not already citizens, born in the United States and its territories. Prior to passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already US citizens. [ 102 ]
American Indians today in the US have all the rights guaranteed in the US Constitution , can vote in elections, and run for political office. There has been controversy over how much the federal government has jurisdiction over tribal affairs, sovereignty, and cultural practices. [ 103 ]
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property.— Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
[ editar ] Segunda Guerra Mundial
Some 44,000 Native Americans served in the United States military during World War II : at the time, one-third of all able-bodied Indian men from 18 to 50 years of age. [ 104 ] Described as the first large-scale exodus of indigenous peoples from the reservations since the removals of the 19th century, the men's service with the US military in the international conflict was a turning point in Native American history. The overwhelming majority of Native Americans welcomed the opportunity to serve; they had a voluntary enlistment rate that was 40% higher than those drafted. War Department officials said that if the entire population had enlisted in the same proportion as the Native Americans, the response would have rendered the draft unnecessary. [ 105 ] Their fellow soldiers often held them in high esteem, in part since the legend of the tough Native American warrior had become a part of the fabric of American historical legend. White servicemen sometimes showed a lighthearted respect toward Native American comrades by calling them "chief". The resulting increase in contact with the world outside of the reservation system brought profound changes to Native American culture. "The war", said the US Indian Commissioner in 1945, "caused the greatest disruption of Native life since the beginning of the reservation era", affecting the habits, views, and economic well-being of tribal members. [ 106 ] The most significant of these changes was the opportunity—as a result of wartime labor shortages—to find well-paying work in cities, and many people relocated to urban areas, particularly on the West Coast with the buildup of the defense industry.
There were also losses as a result of the war. For instance, a total of 1,200 Pueblo men served in World War II; only about half came home alive. In addition many more Navajo served as code talkers for the military in the Pacific. The code they made, although cryptologically very simple, was never cracked by the Japanese.
[ edit ] Self-determination
Military service and urban residency contributed to the rise of American Indian activism, particularly after the 1960s and the occupation of Alcatraz Island (1969–1971) by a student Indian group from San Francisco . In the same period, the American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in Minneapolis , and chapters were established throughout the country, where American Indians combined spiritual and political activism. Political protests gained national media attention and the sympathy of the American public.
Through the mid-1970s, conflicts between governments and Native Americans occasionally erupted into violence. A notable late 20th-century event was the Wounded Knee incident on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation . Upset with tribal government and the failures of the federal government to enforce treaty rights, about 300 Oglala Lakota and American Indian Movement (AIM) activists took control of Wounded Knee on February 27, 1973. Indian activists from around the country joined them at Pine Ridge, and the occupation became a symbol of rising American Indian identity and power. Federal law enforcement officials and the national guard cordoned off the town, and the two sides had a standoff for 71 days. During much gunfire, one United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed. In late April a Cherokee and local Lakota man were killed by gunfire; the Lakota elders ended the occupation to ensure no more lives were lost. [ 107 ] In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and killed at close range. The AIM activist Leonard Peltier was sentenced in 1976 to two consecutive terms of life in prison in the FBI deaths. [ 108 ]
In 1975 the US Congress passed the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act , marking the culmination of 15 years of policy changes. It resulted from American Indian activism, the Civil Rights Movement, and community development aspects of President Lyndon Johnson 's social programs of the 1960s. The Act recognized the right and need of Native Americans for self-determination. It marked the US government's turn away from the 1950s policy of termination of the relationship between tribes and the government. The US government encouraged Native Americans' efforts at self government and determining their futures. Tribes have developed organizations to administer their own social, welfare and housing programs, for instance.
By this time, tribes had already started to establish community schools to replace the BIA boarding schools. Led by the Navajo Nation in 1968, tribes started tribal colleges and universities , to build their own models of education on reservations, preserve and revive their cultures, and develop educated workforces. In 1994 the US Congress passed legislation recognizing the tribal colleges as land-grant colleges , which provided opportunities for funding. Thirty-two tribal colleges in the United States belong to the American Indian Higher Education Consortium . By the early 21st century, tribal nations had also established numerous language revival programs in their schools.
In addition, Native American activism has led major universities across the country to establish Native American studies programs and departments, increasing awareness of the strengths of Indian cultures, providing opportunities for academics, and deepening research on history and cultures in the United States. Native Americans have entered academia; journalism and media; politics at local, state and federal levels; and public service, for instance, influencing medical research and policy to identify issues related to American Indians. In 1981, Tim Giago founded the Lakota Times , an independent Native American newspaper, located at the Pine Ridge Reservation but not controlled by tribal government. He later founded the Native American Journalists Association . Other independent newspapers and media corporations have been developed, so that Native American journalists are contributing perspective on their own affairs and other policies and events.
In 2004 Senator Sam Brownback ( Republican of Kansas ) introduced a joint resolution (Senate Joint Resolution 37) to "offer an apology to all Native Peoples on behalf of the United States" for past "ill-conceived policies" by the US government regarding Indian Tribes. [ 109 ] President Barack Obama signed the historic apology into law in 2009, as section Section 8113 of the 2010 defense appropriations bill. [ 110 ]
|Wikisource tiene texto original relacionado con este artículo:|
After years of investigation and independent work by Native American journalists, in 2003 the US government indicted suspects in the December 1975 murder of Anna Mae Aquash at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. A Mi'qmaq',' Aquash was the highest-ranking woman activist in the American Indian Movement (AIM) at the time. She was killed several months after two FBI agents had been killed at the reservation. Many Lakota believe that she was killed by AIM on suspicion of having been an FBI informant, but she never worked for the FBI. [ 111 ] Arlo Looking Cloud was convicted in federal court in 2004. In 2007 the United States extradited AIM activist John Graham from Canada to stand trial for her murder. [ 112 ] He was also convicted and sentenced to life.
[ edit ] International indigenous rights
Activists around the world have been working on organizing for indigenous rights. On September 13, 2007 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples , after nearly 25 years of discussion. Indigenous representatives from the United States, particularly from AIM, played a key role in the development of this Declaration, as did indigenous peoples from the Americas and other nations. It was passed with an overwhelming majority of 143 votes in favor; only Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States voted against it. Each of these four nations has indigenous populations that became outnumbered, disfranchised and historically oppressed by new immigrant groups. [ 113 ] They expressed serious reservations about the final text of the Declaration as placed before the General Assembly. Australia and New Zealand have since then changed their vote in favor of the Declaration.
The US mission issued a floor document, "Observations of the United States with respect to the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples", setting out its objections to the Declaration. The United States drew attention to the Declaration's failure to provide a clear definition of exactly whom the term "indigenous peoples" is intended to cover. [ 114 ] A change in political administrations has resulted in US support for the document. In December 2010, President Obama declared that the United States would sign the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. [ 115 ]
[ edit ] Current legal status
There are 562 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. These tribes possess the right to form their own governments, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal) within their lands, to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money (this includes paper currency). [ 116 ]
Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights point out that the US federal government's claim to recognize the "sovereignty" of Native American peoples falls short, given that the United States wishes to govern Native American peoples and treat them as subject to US law. Such advocates contend that full respect for Native American sovereignty would require the US government to deal with Native American peoples in the same manner as any other sovereign nation, handling matters related to relations with Native Americans through the Secretary of State, rather than the Bureau of Indian Affairs . The Bureau of Indian Affairs reports on its website that its "responsibility is the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km 2 ) of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives". [ 117 ] Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights believe that it is condescending for such lands to be considered "held in trust" and regulated in any fashion by other than their own tribes, whether the US or Canadian governments, or any other non-Native American authority.
As of year 2000, the largest tribes in the United States by population were Navajo , Cherokee , Choctaw , Sioux , Chippewa , Apache , Blackfeet , Iroquois , and Pueblo . In 2000, eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed ancestry. It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine out of ten. [ 118 ] In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states , but not by the federal government. The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state.
Some tribal nations have been unable to document the cultural continuity required for federal recognition. The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition. [ 119 ] Many of the smaller eastern tribes, long considered remnants of extinct peoples, have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status. Several in Virginia and North Carolina have gained state recognition. Federal recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans. But gaining federal recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent and continuity of the tribe as a culture.
In July 2000 the Washington Republican Party adopted a resolution recommending that the federal and legislative branches of the US government terminate tribal governments. [ 120 ] In 2007 a group of Democratic Party congressmen and congresswomen introduced a bill in the US House of Representatives to "terminate" the Cherokee Nation . [ 121 ] This was related to their voting to exclude Cherokee Freedmen as members of the tribe unless they had a Cherokee ancestor on the Dawes Rolls, although all Cherokee Freedmen and their descendants had been members since 1866.
In the state of Virginia , Native Americans face a unique problem. Virginia has no federally recognized tribes but the state has recognized eight. This is related historically to the greater impact of disease and warfare on the Virginia Indian populations, as well as their intermarriage with Europeans and Africans. Some people confused the ancestry with culture, but groups of Virginia Indians maintained their cultural continuity. Most of their early reservations were ended under the pressure of early European settlement.
Some historians also note the problems of Virginia Indians in establishing documented continuity of identity, due to the work of Walter Ashby Plecker (1912–1946). As registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, he applied his own interpretation of the one-drop rule , enacted in law in 1924 as the state's Racial Integrity Act. It recognized only two races: "white" and "colored".
Plecker, a segregationist , believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" by intermarriage with African Americans ; to him, ancestry determined identity, rather than culture. He thought that some people of partial black ancestry were trying to " pass " as Native Americans. Plecker thought that anyone with any African heritage had to be classified as colored, regardless of appearance, amount of European or Native American ancestry, and cultural/community identification. Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", and gave them lists of family surnames to examine for reclassification based on his interpretation of data and the law. This led to the state's destruction of accurate records related to families and communities who identified as Native American (as in church records and daily life). By his actions, sometimes different members of the same family were split by being classified as "white" or "colored". He did not allow people to enter their primary identification as Native American in state records. [ 125 ] In 2009, the Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition to tribes in Virginia. [ 126 ]
To achieve federal recognition and its benefits, tribes must prove continuous existence since 1900. The federal government has maintained this requirement, in part because through participation on councils and committees, federally recognized tribes have been adamant about groups' satisfying the same requirements as they did. [ 125 ]
[ editar ] Los temas contemporáneos
According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559. [ 127 ]
Native American struggles amid poverty to maintain life on the reservation or in larger society have resulted in a variety of health issues, some related to nutrition and health practices. The community suffers a vulnerability to and disproportionately high rate of alcoholism . [ 128 ] Numerous tribal governments have long prohibited the sale of alcohol on reservations, but generally it is readily for sale in nearby border towns. In addition to increasing numbers of American Indians entering the fields of community health and medicine, agencies working with Native American communities have sought partnerships, representatives of policy and program boards, and other ways to learn and respect their traditions and integrate the benefits of Western medicine within their own cultural practices.
"It has long been recognized that Native Americans are dying of diabetes, alcoholism, tuberculosis , suicide , and other health conditions at shocking rates. Beyond disturbingly high mortality rates, Native Americans also suffer a significantly lower health status and disproportionate rates of disease compared with all other Americans."— The US Commission on Civil Rights, September 2004 [ 129 ]
In the early 21st century, Native American communities have exhibited continuing growth and revival, playing a larger role in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans. Communities have consistently formed governments that administer services such as firefighting , natural resource management, social programs, housing and law enforcement . Most Native American communities have established court systems to adjudicate matters related to local ordinances, and most also look to various forms of moral and social authority, such as forms of restorative justice , vested in the traditional culture of the tribal nation. To address the housing needs of Native Americans, Congress passed the Native American Housing and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) in 1996. This legislation replaced public housing built by the BIA, and other 1937 Housing Act programs directed towards Indian Housing Authorities, with a block-grant program providing funds to be administered by the Tribes to develop their own housing.
[ edit ] Societal discrimination and racism
Universities have conducted relatively little public opinion research on attitudes toward Native Americans among the general public. In 2007 the non-partisan Public Agenda organization conducted a focus group study. Most non-Native Americans admitted they rarely encountered Native Americans in their daily lives. While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today. For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice and mistreatment in the broader society. [ 130 ]
Journalists have covered issues of discrimination.
LeCompte also endured taunting on the battlefield. "They ridiculed him and called him a 'drunken Indian.' They said, 'Hey, dude, you look just like a haji—you'd better run.' They call the Arabs 'haji.' I mean, it's one thing to worry for your life, but then to have to worry about friendly fire because you don't know who in the hell will shoot you?—Tammie LeCompte, May 25, 2007, "Soldier highlights problems in US Army" [ 131 ]
[ edit ] Affirmative action issues
Federal contractors and subcontractors such as businesses and educational institutions are legally required to adopt equal opportunity employment and affirmative action measures intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment, on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin". [ 132 ] [ 133 ] For this purpose, an American Indian or Alaska Native is defined as "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains a tribal affiliation or community attachment." However, self-reporting is permitted, "Educational Institutions and Other Recipients Should Allow Students and Staff To Self-Identify Their Race and Ethnicity Unless Self-Identification Is Not Practicable or Feasible." [ 134 ] Self-reporting opens the door to "box checking" by people who despite not having a substantial relationship to Native American culture innocently or fraudulently "check the box" for Native American. [ 135 ] On August 15, 2011 the American Bar Association passed a resolution recommending to law schools that supporting information such as evidence of tribal enrollment or connection with Native American culture be required. [ 136 ]
[ edit ] Native American mascots in sports
American Indian activists in the United States and Canada have criticized the use of Native American mascots in sports, as perpetuating stereotypes. European Americans have had a history of "playing Indian" that dates back to at least the 18th century. [ 137 ] While supporters of the mascots say they embody the heroism of Native American warriors, AIM particularly has criticized the use of mascots as offensive and demeaning. While many universities and professional sports teams (for example, the Cleveland Indians , who had a Chief Wahoo ) no longer use such images without consultation and approval by the respective nation, some lower-level schools continue to do so. On the other hand, in the Bay Area of California, Tomales Bay High and Sequoia High have retired their Indian mascots.
(Trudie Lamb Richmond doesn't) know what to say when kids argue, 'I don't care what you say, we are honoring you. We are keeping our Indian.' ... What if it were 'our black' or 'our Hispanic'?—Amy D'orio quoting Trudie Lamb Richmond, March 1996, "Indian Chief Is Mascot No More" [ 138 ]
In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) banned the use of "hostile and abusive" Native American mascots in postseason tournaments. [ 139 ] An exception was made to allow the use of tribal names if approved by that tribe (such as the Seminole Tribe of Florida 's approving use of their name for the team of Florida State University .) [ 140 ] [ 141 ]
Could you imagine people mocking African Americans in black face at a game?" he said. "Yet go to a game where there is a team with an Indian name and you will see fans with war paint on their faces. Is this not the equivalent to black face?—"Native American Mascots Big Issue in College Sports",Teaching Tolerance, May 9, 2001 [ 142 ]
[ edit ] Historical depictions in art
Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different historical periods. During the 16th century, the artist John White made watercolors and engravings of the people native to the southeastern states. John White's images were, for the most part, faithful likenesses of the people he observed.
The artist Theodore de Bry used White's original watercolors to make a book of engravings entitled, A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia . In his book, de Bry often altered the poses and features of White's figures to make them appear more European. During the period when White and de Bry were working, when Europeans were first coming into contact with Native Americans, Europeans were greatly interested in native American cultures. Their curiosity created demand for a book like de Bry's.
A number of 19th and 20th-century United States and Canadian painters, often motivated by a desire to document and preserve Native culture, specialized in Native American subjects. Among the most prominent of these were Elbridge Ayer Burbank , George Catlin , Seth Eastman , Paul Kane , W. Langdon Kihn , Charles Bird King , Joseph Henry Sharp , and John Mix Stanley .
During the construction of the Capitol building in the early 19th century, the US government commissioned a series of four relief panels to crown the doorway of the Rotunda . The reliefs encapsulate a vision of European—Native American relations that had assumed mythic historical proportions by the 19th century. The four panels depict: The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) by Antonio Capellano , The Landing of the Pilgrims (1825) and The Conflict of Daniel Boone and the Indians (1826–27) by Enrico Causici , and William Penn's Treaty with the Indians (1827) by Nicholas Gevelot . The reliefs by European sculptors present versions of the Europeans and the Native Americans, in which the Europeans appear refined and the natives appear ferocious. The Whig representative of Virginia , Henry A. Wise , wrote about how Native Americans might think of the reliefs: "We give you corn, you cheat us of our lands: we save your life, you take ours." While many 19th-century images of Native Americans conveyed similarly negative messages, artists such as Charles Bird King sought to express a more balanced image of Native Americans.
During this time, some fiction writers were informed about and sympathetic to Native American culture. Marah Ellis Ryan conveyed the culture with sympathy.
In the 20th century, early portrayals of Native Americans in movies and television roles were first performed by European Americans dressed in mock traditional attire. Examples included The Last of the Mohicans (1920), Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans (1957), and F Troop (1965–67). In later decades, Native American actors such as Jay Silverheels in The Lone Ranger television series (1949–57) came to prominence. Roles of Native Americans were limited and not reflective of Native American culture. By the 1970s some Native American film roles began to show more complexity, such as those in Little Big Man (1970), Billy Jack (1971), and The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), which depicted Native Americans in minor supporting roles.
For years, Native people on US television were relegated to secondary, subordinate roles. During the years of the series Bonanza (1959–1973), no major or secondary Native characters appeared on a consistent basis. The series The Lone Ranger (1949–1957), Cheyenne (1957–1963), and Law of the Plainsman (1959–1963) had Native characters who were essentially aides to the central white characters. This continued in such series as How the West Was Won . These programs resembled the "sympathetic" yet contradictory film Dances With Wolves of 1990, in which, according to Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, the narrative choice was to relate the Lakota story as told through a Euro-American voice, for wider impact among a general audience. [ 143 ] Like the 1992 remake of The Last of the Mohicans and Geronimo: An American Legend (1993), Dances with Wolves employed a number of Native American actors, and made an effort to portray Indigenous languages.
In 2004 producer Guy Perrotta presented the film Mystic Voices: The Story of the Pequot War (2004), a television documentary on the first major war between colonists and Native peoples in the Americas. Perrotta and Charles Clemmons intended to increase public understanding of the significance of this early event. They believed it had significance not only for northeastern Native Peoples and descendants of English and Dutch colonists, but for all Americans today. Wanting to make the film historically accurate and unbiased, the producers invited a broadly based Advisory Board, and used scholars, Native Americans, and descendants of the colonists to help tell the story. They elicited personal and often passionate viewpoints from contemporary Americans. The production portrayed the conflict as a struggle between different value systems, which included not only the Pequot, but a number of other Native American tribes, most of which allied with the English. It presents facts and seeks to help viewers better understand the several peoples who fought the War.
In 2009 We Shall Remain (2009), a television documentary by Ric Burns and part of the American Experience series, presented a five-episode series "from a Native American perspective". It represented "an unprecedented collaboration between Native and non-Native filmmakers and involves Native advisors and scholars at all levels of the project." [ 144 ] The five episodes explore the impact of King Philip's War on the northeastern tribes, the "Native American confederacy" of Tecumseh's War , the US-forced relocation of Southeastern tribes known as the Trail of Tears , the pursuit and capture of Geronimo and the Apache Wars , and concludes with the Wounded Knee incident , participation by the American Indian Movement , and the increasing resurgence of modern Native cultures since.
[ edit ] Terminology differences
[ edit ] Common usage in the United States
Native Americans are more commonly known as Indians or American Indians, and have been known as Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, Colored, [ 83 ] [ 145 ] First Americans, Native Indians, Indigenous, Original Americans, Red Indians, Redskins or Red Men. The term Native American was introduced in the United States by academics [ who? ] in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India , and to avoid negative stereotypes associated with the term Indian . Some academics [ who? ] believe that the term Indian should be considered outdated or offensive. Many indigenous Americans, however, prefer the term American Indian . [ 146 ] Others point out that anyone born in the United States is, technically, native to America. In this sense, "native" was substituted for "indigenous". Today, people from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are called Indian Americans or Asian Indians .
Criticism of the neologism Native American comes from diverse sources. Russell Means , an American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians. He has also argued that the use of the word Indian derives not from a confusion with India but from a Spanish expression En Dio , meaning "in God". [ 147 ] Furthermore, some American Indians [ who? ] question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present. [ 148 ] Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) [ who? ] argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in the Americas could be considered "native". The compound "Native American" is generally capitalized to differentiate the reference to the indigenous peoples.
A 1995 US Census Bureau survey found that more Native Americans in the United States preferred American Indian to Native American . [ 146 ] Most American Indians are comfortable with Indian , American Indian , and Native American , and the terms are often used interchangeably. [ 149 ] The traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian , which opened in 2004 on the Mall in Washington, DC .
Recently, the US Census Bureau has introduced the "Asian-Indian" category to avoid ambiguity for descendants of people from India.
[ edit ] Gambling industry
Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to use as leverage to build diversified economies. Native American communities have waged and prevailed in legal battles to assure recognition of rights to self-determination and to use of natural resources. Some of those rights, known as treaty rights, are enumerated in early treaties signed with the young United States government. Tribal sovereignty has become a cornerstone of American jurisprudence , and at least on the surface, in national legislative policies. Although many Native American tribes have casinos, the impact of Native American gaming is widely debated. Some tribes, such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California , feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out. These tribes refuse to participate in the gambling industry.
[ edit ] Crime on reservations
Prosecution of serious crime, historically endemic on reservations, [ 150 ] [ 151 ] was required by the 1885 Major Crimes Act, [ 152 ] 18 USC §§1153, 3242, and court decisions to be investigated by the federal government, usually the Federal Bureau of Investigation , and prosecuted by United States Attorneys of the United States federal judicial district in which the reservation lies. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] An investigation by The Denver Post in 2007 found that crimes in Indian Country have been a low priority both with the FBI and most federal prosecutors. [ 155 ] Often serious crimes have been either poorly investigated or prosecution has been declined. [ 155 ] Tribal courts were limited to sentences of one year or less, [ 155 ] until on July 29, 2010 the Tribal Law and Order Act was enacted which in some measure reforms the system permitting tribal courts to impose sentences of up to three years provided proceedings are recorded and additional rights are extended to defendants. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] The Justice Department on January 11, 2010 initiated the Indian Country Law Enforcement Initiative which recognizes problems with law enforcement on reservations and assigns top priority to solving existing problems.
El Departamento de Justicia reconoce la relación jurídica singular que Estados Unidos tiene con las tribus reconocidas federalmente. Como un aspecto de esta relación, en gran parte de los territorios indígenas, el Departamento de Justicia tiene la autoridad para buscar una convicción de que lleva una sentencia adecuada al potencial de un grave delito se ha cometido. Our role as the primary prosecutor of serious crimes makes our responsibility to citizens in Indian Country unique and mandatory. En consecuencia, la seguridad pública en las comunidades tribales es una prioridad para el Departamento de Justicia.
Emphasis was placed on improving prosecution of crimes involving domestic violence and sexual assault. [ 156 ]
Aprobada en 1953, la Ley Pública 280 (PL 280) dio a conocer de las infracciones penales relacionadas con los indios en los territorios indígenas a ciertos Estados y permitió a otros Estados a asumir la competencia. La posterior legislación permite a los Estados a retroceder jurisdicción, lo que ha ocurrido en algunas áreas. Some PL 280 reservations have experienced jurisdictional confusion, tribal discontent, and litigation, compounded by the lack of data on crime rates and law enforcement response. [ 157 ]
As of 2012, a high incidence of rape continued to impact Native American women and Alaskan native women. According to the Justice Department 1 in 3 women have suffered rape or attempted rape, more than twice the national rate. [ 158 ] 80% of Native American sexual assault victims report that their attacker was "non-Indian". [ 159 ] On June 6, 2012 the Justice Department announced a pilot plan to establish joint federal-tribal response teams on 6 Montana reservations to combat rape and sexual assault. [ 160 ]
[ edit ] Society, language, and culture
[ edit ] Ethno-linguistic classification
Far from forming a single ethnic group, Native Americans were divided into several hundred ethno-linguistic groups, most of them grouped into besides many smaller groups and several language isolates . Demonstrating genetic relationships has proved difficult due to the great linguistic diversity present in North America.
The indigenous peoples of North America can be classified as belonging to a number of large cultural areas:
- Nativos de Alaska
- Occidental de los Estados Unidos
- Californian tribes (Northern): Yok-Utian , Pacific Coast Athabaskan , Coast Miwok , Yurok , Palaihnihan , Chumashan , Uto-Aztecan
- Plateau tribes : Interior Salish , Plateau Penutian
- Great Basin tribes : Uto-Aztecan
- Pacific Northwest Coast : Pacific Coast Athabaskan , Coast Salish
- Southwestern tribes : Uto-Aztecan , Yuman , Southern Athabaskan
- Central United States
- Eastern United States
Of the surviving languages, Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl ); Nadene comes in second with approximately 180,200 speakers (148,500 of these are speakers of Navajo ). Na-Dené and Algic have the widest geographic distributions: Algic currently spans from northeastern Canada across much of the continent down to northeastern Mexico (due to later migrations of the Kickapoo ) with two outliers in California ( Yurok and Wiyot ); Na-Dené spans from Alaska and western Canada through Washington , Oregon , and California to the US Southwest and northern Mexico (with one outlier in the Plains). Another area of considerable diversity appears to have been the Southeast ; however, many of these languages became extinct from European contact and as a result they are, for the most part, absent from the historical record.
[ editar ] Aspectos culturales
Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.
Early hunter-gatherer tribes made stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, newer technologies were used and more efficient weapons produced. Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry. The most common implements were the bow and arrow, the war club, and the spear. Quality, material, and design varied widely. Native American use of fire both helped provide and prepare for food and altered the landscape of the continent to help the human population flourish.
Large mammals like mammoths and mastodons were largely extinct by around 8000 BCE. Native Americans switched to hunting other large game, such as bison . The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The Spanish reintroduction of the horse to North America in the 17th century and Native Americans' learning to use them greatly altered the natives' culture, including changing the way in which they hunted large game. (Evidence of pre-historic horses prior to the arrival of the Spanish has been found in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California . [ 161 ] [ 162 ] ) In addition, horses became such a valuable, central element of Native lives that they were counted as a measure of wealth.
[ editar ] Organización
[ edit ] Gens structure
Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by clans or gentes (in the Roman model) before tribes were formed. There were some common characteristics:
- The right to elect its sachem and chiefs.
- The right to depose its sachem and chiefs.
- The obligation not to marry in the gens.
- Mutual rights of inheritance of the property of deceased members.
- Reciprocal obligations of help, defense, and redress of injuries.
- The right to bestow names on its members.
- The right to adopt strangers into the gens.
- Common religious rights, query.
- A common burial place.
- A council of the gens. [ 163 ]
[ edit ] Tribal structure
Subdivision and differentiation took place between various groups. Upwards of forty stock languages developed in North America, with each independent tribe speaking a dialect of one of those languages. Some functions and attributes of tribes are:
- The possession of the gentes.
- The right to depose these sachems and chiefs.
- The possession of a religious faith and worship.
- A supreme government consisting of a council of chiefs.
- A head-chief of the tribe in some instances. [ 163 ]
[ edit ] Society and art
The Iroquois , living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries. [ 164 ]
Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use. Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.
Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting . The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony.
[ editar ] Agricultura
Agriculture in the southwest started around 4,000 years ago when traders brought cultigens from Mexico. Due to the varying climate, some ingenuity was needed for agriculture to be successful. The climate in the southwest ranged from cool, moist mountains regions, to dry, sandy soil in the desert. Some innovations of the time included irrigation to bring water into the dry regions and the selection of seed based on the traits of the growing plants that bore them. In the southwest, they grew beans that were self-supported, much like the way they are grown today.
In the east, however, they were planted right by corn in order for the vines to be able to "climb" the cornstalks. The most important crop the Native Americans raised was maize . It was first started in Mesoamerica and spread north. About 2,000 years ago it reached eastern America. This crop was important to the Native Americans because it was part of their everyday diet; it could be stored in underground pits during the winter, and no part of it was wasted. The husk was made into art crafts, and the cob was used as fuel for fires. By 800 CE the Native Americans had established three main crops — beans, squash, and corn — called the three sisters .
The agriculture gender roles of the Native Americans varied from region to region. In the southwest area, men prepared the soil with hoes . The women were in charge of planting, weeding, and harvesting the crops. In most other regions, the women were in charge of doing everything, including clearing the land. Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields frequently. There is a tradition that Squanto showed the Pilgrims in New England how to put fish in fields to act like a fertilizer, but the truth of this story is debated. Native Americans did plant beans next to corn; the beans would replace the nitrogen which the corn took from the ground, as well as using corn stalks for support for climbing. Native Americans used controlled fires to burn weeds and clear fields; this would put nutrients back into the ground. If this did not work, they would simply abandon the field to let it be fallow, and find a new spot for cultivation.
Europeans in the eastern part of the continent observed that Natives cleared large areas for cropland. Their fields in New England sometimes covered hundreds of acres. Colonists in Virginia noted thousands of acres under cultivation by Native Americans. [ 165 ]
Native Americans commonly used tools such as the hoe , maul , and dibber . The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting; then it was used for weeding. The first versions were made out of wood and stone. When the settlers brought iron, Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatchets. The dibber was a digging stick, used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested, women prepared the produce for eating. They used the maul to grind the corn into mash. It was cooked and eaten that way or baked as corn bread. [ 166 ]
[ editar ] Religión
Traditional Native American ceremonies are still practiced by many tribes and bands, and the older theological belief systems are still held by many of the "traditional" people. [ specify ] These spiritualities may accompany adherence to another faith, or can represent a person's primary religious identity. While much Native American spiritualism exists in a tribal-cultural continuum, and as such cannot be easily separated from tribal identity itself, certain other more clearly defined movements have arisen among "traditional" Native American practitioners, these being identifiable as "religions" in the clinical sense. Traditional practices of some tribes include the use of sacred herbs such as tobacco, sweetgrass or sage . Many Plains tribes have sweatlodge ceremonies, though the specifics of the ceremony vary among tribes. Fasting, singing and prayer in the ancient languages of their people, and sometimes drumming are also common. [ citation needed ]
Another significant religious body among Native peoples is known as the Native American Church . It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of Native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity . Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. Prior to 1890, traditional religious beliefs included Wakan Tanka . In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico , a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe 's Saint Francis Cathedral . [ 167 ] Native American-Catholic syncretism is also found elsewhere in the United States. (eg, the National Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine in Fonda, New York and the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs in Auriesville, New York ).
The eagle feather law (Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations) stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans.
[ edit ] Gender roles
Gender roles were differentiated in most Native American tribes, and both had power in decisionmaking within the tribe. Many tribes, such as the Haudenosaunee Five Nations and the Southeast Muskogean tribes, had matrilineal systems, in which property and hereditary leadership were controlled by and passed through the maternal lines. The children were considered to belong to the mother's clan and achieved status within it. When the tribe adopted war captives, the children became part of their mother's clan and accepted in the tribe. In Cherokee and other matrilineal cultures, wives owned the family property. When young women married, their husbands joined them in their mother's household. This enabled the young women to have assistance for childbirth and rearing; it also protected her in case of conflicts between the couple. If they separated or the man was killed at war, the woman had her family to assist her. In addition, in matrilineal culture, the mother's brother was the leading male figure in a male child's life, as he mentored the child within the mother's clan.
The husband had no standing in his wife's and children's clan, as he belonged to his own mother's clan. Hereditary clan chief positions passed through the mother's line, not the father's. Chiefs were selected on recommendation of women elders, who also could disapprove of a chief. There were sometimes hereditary roles for men called peace chiefs, but war chiefs were selected based on proven prowess in battle. Men usually had the roles of hunting, waging war, and negotiating with other tribes, including the Europeans after their arrival.
Others were patriarchal , although several different systems were in use. In the patrilineal tribes, such as the Omaha , Osage and Ponca , hereditary leadership passed through the male line, and children were considered to belong to the father and his clan . For this reason, when Europeans or American men took wives from such tribes, their children were considered "white" like their fathers, or " half-breeds ". Generally such children could have no official place in the tribe because their fathers did not belong to it, unless they were adopted by a male and made part of his family. [ 168 ]
Men hunted, traded and made war. The women had primary responsibility for the survival and welfare of the families (and future of the tribe); they gathered and cultivated plants, used plants and herbs to treat illnesses, cared for the young and the elderly, made all the clothing and instruments, and processed and cured meat and skins from the game. They tanned hides to make clothing as well as bags, saddle cloths, and tepee covers. Mothers used cradleboards to carry an infant while working or traveling. [ 169 ]
Apart from making homes, women had many additional tasks that were also essential for the survival of the tribes. They made weapons and tools, took care of the roofs of their homes and often helped their men hunt bison . [ 170 ] In some of the Plains Indian tribes, medicine women gathered herbs and cured the ill. [ 171 ]
The Sioux girls were encouraged to learn to ride, hunt and fight. [ 172 ] Though fighting was mostly left to the boys and men, occasionally women fought with them, especially if the tribe was severely threatened. [ 173 ]
[ editar ] Deportes
[ edit ] Team based
Native American ball sports, sometimes referred to as lacrosse , stickball, or baggataway, was often used to settle disputes; rather than going to war which was a civil way to settle potential conflict. The Choctaw called it ISITOBOLI ("Little Brother of War"); [ 174 ] the Onondaga name was DEHUNTSHIGWA'ES ("men hit a rounded object"). There are three basic versions, classified as Great Lakes, Iroquoian, and Southern. [ 175 ] The game is played with one or two rackets/sticks and one ball. The object of the game is to land the ball on the opposing team's goal (either a single post or net) to score and to prevent the opposing team from scoring on your goal. The game involves as few as twenty or as many as 300 players with no height or weight restrictions and no protective gear. The goals could be from around 200 feet (61 m) apart to about 2 miles (3.2 km); in Lacrosse the field is 110 yards (100 m). A Jesuit priest [ who? ] referenced stickball in 1729, and George Catlin painted the subject.
[ edit ] Individual based
Chunkey was a game that consisted of a stone shaped disk that was about 1–2 inches in diameter. The disk was thrown down a 200-foot (61 m) corridor so that it could roll past the players at great speed. The disk would roll down the corridor, and players would throw wooden shafts at the moving disk. The object of the game was to strike the disk or prevent your opponents from hitting it.
[ edit ] US Olympics
Jim Thorpe , a Sauk and Fox Native American, was an all-round athlete playing football and baseball in the early 20th century. Future President Dwight Eisenhower injured his knee while trying to tackle the young Thorpe. In a 1961 speech, Eisenhower recalled Thorpe: "Here and there, there are some people who are supremely endowed. My memory goes back to Jim Thorpe. He never practiced in his life, and he could do anything better than any other football player I ever saw." [ 176 ]
In the 1912 Olympics, Thorpe could run the 100-yard dash in 10 seconds flat, the 220 in 21.8 seconds, the 440 in 51.8 seconds, the 880 in 1:57, the mile in 4:35, the 120-yard high hurdles in 15 seconds, and the 220-yard low hurdles in 24 seconds. [ 177 ] He could long jump 23 ft 6 in and high-jump 6 ft 5 in. [ 177 ] He could pole vault 11 feet (3.4 m), put the shot 47 ft 9 in (14.55 m), throw the javelin 163 feet (50 m), and throw the discus 136 feet (41 m). [ 177 ] Thorpe entered the US Olympic trials for both the pentathlon and the decathlon.
Billy Mills , a Lakota and USMC officer, won the gold medal in the 10,000 meter run at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics . He was the only American ever to win the Olympic gold in this event. An unknown prior to the Olympics, Mills finished second in the US Olympic trials.
Billy Kidd , part Abenaki from Vermont , became the first American male to medal in alpine skiing in the Olympics, taking silver at age 20 in the slalom in the 1964 Winter Olympics at Innsbruck , Austria .
Six years later at the 1970 World Championships, Kidd won the gold medal in the combined event and took the bronze medal in the slalom.
[ editar ] La música y el arte
Traditional Native American music is almost entirely monophonic , but there are notable exceptions. Native American music often includes drumming and/or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation. Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles (as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto ). The tuning of modern flutes is typically pentatonic .
Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, such as Robbie Robertson (The Band), Rita Coolidge , Wayne Newton , Gene Clark , Buffy Sainte-Marie , Blackfoot , Tori Amos , Redbone , and CocoRosie . Some, such as John Trudell , have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings. A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.
The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At pow-wows , such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque , New Mexico , members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum. Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs. Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community. [ 178 ]
Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery , paintings , jewellery , weavings , sculpture , basketry , and carvings . Franklin Gritts was a Cherokee artist who taught students from many tribes at Haskell Institute (now Haskell Indian Nations University ) in the 1940s, the Golden Age of Native American painters. The integrity of certain Native American artworks is protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.
[ editar ] Economía
The Inuit , or Eskimo , prepared and buried large amounts of dried meat and fish. Pacific Northwest tribes crafted seafaring dugouts 40–50 feet (12–15 m) long for fishing. Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops. On the Plains, some tribes engaged in agriculture but also planned buffalo hunts in which herds were driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals and gathered acorns to grind into flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones. Some groups on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts .
In the early years, as these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for blankets, iron and steel implements, horses, trinkets, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.
[ edit ] Barriers to economic development
Today, other than tribes successfully running casinos, many tribes struggle, as they are often located on reservations isolated from the main economic centers of the country. The estimated 2.1 million Native Americans are the most impoverished of all ethnic groups. According to the 2000 Census , an estimated 400,000 Native Americans reside on reservation land. While some tribes have had success with gaming, only 40% of the 562 federally recognized tribes operate casinos . [ 179 ] According to a 2007 survey by the US Small Business Administration , only 1% of Native Americans own and operate a business. [ 180 ] Native Americans rank at the bottom of nearly every social statistic: highest teen suicide rate of all minorities at 18.5 per 100,000, highest rate of teen pregnancy, highest high school drop-out rate at 54%, lowest per capita income , and unemployment rates between 50% to 90%. Many [ clarification needed ] Native Americans have become urbanized to survive, moving to urban centers in the states where their reservations are, or out of state. [ citation needed ] Others have entered academic and political fields that take them away from the reservations. [ citation needed ]
The barriers to economic development on Native American reservations have been identified by Joseph Kalt [ 181 ] and Stephen Cornell [ 182 ] of the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development at Harvard University , in their report: What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development (2008), [ 183 ] are summarized as follows:
- Lack of access to capital.
- Lack of human capital (education, skills, technical expertise) and the means to develop it.
- Reservations lack effective planning.
- Reservations are poor in natural resources.
- Reservations have natural resources, but lack sufficient control over them.
- Reservations are disadvantaged by their distance from markets and the high costs of transportation.
- Tribes cannot persuade investors to locate on reservations because of intense competition from non-Native American communities.
- The Bureau of Indian Affairs is inept, corrupt, and/or uninterested in reservation development.
- Tribal politicians and bureaucrats are inept or corrupt.
- On-reservation factionalism destroys stability in tribal decisions.
- The instability of tribal government keeps outsiders from investing. (Many tribes adopted constitutions by the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act model, with two-year terms for elected positions of chief and council members deemed too short by the authors for getting things done)
- Entrepreneurial skills and experience are scarce.
- Tribal cultures get in the way.
A major barrier to development is the lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and experience within Indian reservations . "A general lack of education and experience about business is a significant challenge to prospective entrepreneurs," was the report on Native American entrepreneurship by the Northwest Area Foundation in 2004. "Native American communities that lack entrepreneurial traditions and recent experiences typically do not provide the support that entrepreneurs need to thrive. Consequently, experiential entrepreneurship education needs to be embedded into school curricula and after-school and other community activities. This would allow students to learn the essential elements of entrepreneurship from a young age and encourage them to apply these elements throughout life.". [ 184 ] Rez Biz magazine addresses these issues.
[ edit ] Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans
Interracial relations between Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans is a complex issue that has been mostly neglected with "few in-depth studies on interracial relationships". [ 185 ] [ 186 ] Some of the first documented cases of European/Native American intermarriage and contact were recorded in Post-Columbian Mexico . One case is that of Gonzalo Guerrero , a European from Spain , who was shipwrecked along the Yucatan Peninsula , and fathered three Mestizo children with a Mayan noblewoman. Another is the case of Hernán Cortés and his mistress La Malinche , who gave birth to another of the first multi-racial people in the Americas. [ 187 ]
[ editar ] Asimilación
European impact was immediate, widespread, and profound—more than any other race that had contact with Native Americans during the early years of colonization and nationhood. Europeans living among Native Americans were often called "white indians". They "lived in native communities for years, learned native languages fluently, attended native councils, and often fought alongside their native companions." [ 188 ]
Early contact was often charged with tension and emotion, but also had moments of friendship, cooperation, and intimacy. [ 189 ] Marriages took place in English, Spanish, and French colonies between Native Americans and Europeans. Given the preponderance of men among the colonists in the early years, generally European men married American Indian women. In 1528, Isabel de Moctezuma , an heir of Moctezuma II , was married to Alonso de Grado, a Spanish Conquistador. After his death, the widow married Juan Cano de Saavedra . Together they had five children. Many heirs of Emperor Moctezuma II were acknowledged by the Spanish crown, who granted them titles including Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo .
On April 5, 1614, Pocahontas married the Englishman John Rolfe . They had a child called Thomas Rolfe . Intimate relations among Native American and Europeans were widespread, beginning with the French and Spanish explorers and trappers. For instance, in the early 19th century, the Native American woman Sacagawea , who would help translate for the Lewis and Clark Expedition , was married to the French-Canadian trapper Toussaint Charbonneau . They had a son named Jean Baptiste Charbonneau . This was the most typical pattern among the traders and trappers.
There was fear on both sides, as the different peoples realized how different their societies were. [ 189 ] The whites regarded the Indians as "savage" because they were not Christian. They were suspicious of cultures which they did not understand. [ 189 ] The Native American author, Andrew J. Blackbird, wrote in his History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, (1897), that white settlers introduced some immoralities into Native American tribes. Many Indians suffered because the Europeans introduced alcohol and the whiskey trade resulted in alcoholism among the people, who were alcohol-intolerant . [ 189 ]
"The Ottawas and Chippewas were quite virtuous in their primitive state, as there were no illegitimate children reported in our old traditions. But very lately this evil came to exist among the Ottawas-so lately that the second case among the Ottawas of 'Arbor Croche' is yet living in 1897. And from that time this evil came to be quite frequent, for immorality has been introduced among these people by evil white persons who bring their vices into the tribes." [ 189 ]
The US government had two purposes when making land agreements with Native Americans: to open it up more land for white settlement. [ 190 ] and to ease tensions between whites and Native Americans by forcing Natives to use the land in the same way as did the whites - for subsistence farms. [ 190 ] The government used a variety of strategies to achieve these goals; many treaties required Native Americans to become farmers in order to keep their land. [ 190 ] Government officials often did not translate the documents which Native Americans were forced to sign, and native chiefs often had little or no idea what they were signing. [ 190 ]
For a Native American man to marry a white woman, he had to get consent of her parents, as long as "he can prove to support her as a white woman in a good home". [ 191 ] In the early 19th century, the Shawnee Tecumseh and blonde hair & blued eyed Rebbecca Galloway had a inter-racial affair. In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class women teachers at Hampton Institute married Native American men whom they had met as students. [ 192 ] As European-American women started working independently at missions and Indian schools in the western states, there were more opportunities for their meeting and developing relationships with Native American men. For instance, Charles Eastman , a man of European and Lakota descent whose father sent both his sons to Dartmouth College , got his medical degree at Boston University and returned to the West to practice. He married Elaine Goodale , whom he met in South Dakota. He was the grandson of Seth Eastman , a military officer from Maine, and a chief's daughter. Goodale was a young European-American teacher from Massachusetts and a reformer, who was appointed as the US superintendent of Native American education for the reservations in the Dakota Territory. Tuvieron seis hijos juntos.
[ edit ] European enslavement
When Europeans arrived as colonists in North America, Native Americans changed their practice of slavery dramatically. Native Americans began selling war captives to whites rather than integrating them into their own societies as they had done before. As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar cane , Europeans enslaved Native Americans for the Thirteen Colonies , and some were exported to the "sugar islands." The British settlers, especially those in the southern colonies, purchased or captured Native Americans to use as forced labor in cultivating tobacco, rice, and indigo. Accurate records of the numbers enslaved do not exist. Scholars estimate tens of thousands of Native Americans may have been enslaved by the Europeans, being sold by Native Americans themselves.
Slavery became a caste of people who were foreign to the English (Native Americans, Africans and their descendants) and non-Christians. The Virginia General Assembly defined some terms of slavery in 1705:
All servants imported and brought into the Country... who were not Christians in their native Country... shall be accounted and be slaves. All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this dominion ... shall be held to be real estate. If any slave resists his master ... correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction ... the master shall be free of all punishment ... as if such accident never happened.—Virginia General Assembly declaration, 1705 [ 193 ]
The slave trade of Native Americans lasted only until around 1730. It gave rise to a series of devastating wars among the tribes, including the Yamasee War . The Indian Wars of the early 18th century, combined with the increasing importation of African slaves, effectively ended the Native American slave trade by 1750. Colonists found that Native American slaves could easily escape, as they knew the country. The wars cost the lives of numerous colonial slave traders and disrupted their early societies. The remaining Native American groups banded together to face the Europeans from a position of strength. Many surviving Native American peoples of the southeast strengthened their loose coalitions of language groups and joined confederacies such as the Choctaw , the Creek , and the Catawba for protection.
Native American women were at risk for rape whether they were enslaved or not; during the early colonial years, settlers were disproportionately male. They turned to Native women for sexual relationships. [ 194 ] Both Native American and African enslaved women suffered rape and sexual harassment by male slaveholders and other white men. [ 194 ]
[ edit ] Native American slavery
[ edit ] Traditions of Native American slavery
The majority of Native American tribes did practice some form of slavery before the European introduction of African slavery into North America, but none exploited slave labor on a large scale. In addition, Native Americans did not buy and sell captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved individuals with other tribes in peace gestures or in exchange for their own members. [ 195 ]
The conditions of enslaved Native Americans varied among the tribes. In many cases, young enslaved captives were adopted into the tribes to replace warriors killed during warfare or by disease. Other tribes practiced debt slavery or imposed slavery on tribal members who had committed crimes; but, this status was only temporary as the enslaved worked off their obligations to the tribal society. [ 195 ]
Among some Pacific Northwest tribes, about a quarter of the population were slaves. [ 196 ] Other slave-owning tribes of North America were, for example, Comanche of Texas, Creek of Georgia, the Pawnee , and Klamath . [ 197 ]
[ edit ] Native American and African relations
African and Native Americans have interacted for centuries. The earliest record of Native American and African contact occurred in April 1502, when Spanish colonists transported the first Africans to Hispaniola to serve as slaves. [ 198 ]
Sometimes Native Americans resented the presence of African Americans. [ 199 ] The "Catawaba tribe in 1752 showed great anger and bitter resentment when an African American came among them as a trader." [ 199 ] To gain favor with Europeans, the Cherokee exhibited the strongest color prejudice of all Native Americans. [ 200 ] He contends that because of European fears of a unified revolt of Native Americans and African Americans, the colonists encouraged hostility between the ethnic groups: "Whites sought to convince Native Americans that African Americans worked against their best interests." [ 201 ] In 1751, South Carolina law stated:
"The carrying of Negroes among the Indians has all along been thought detrimental, as an intimacy ought to be avoided." [ 202 ]
In addition, in 1758 the governor of South Carolina James Glen wrote:
it has always been the policy of this government to create an aversion in them Indians to Negroes. [ 203 ]
Europeans considered both races inferior and made efforts to make both Native Americans and Africans enemies. [ 204 ] Native Americans were rewarded if they returned escaped slaves, and African Americans were rewarded for fighting in the late nineteenth-century Indian Wars . [ 204 ] [ 205 ] [ 206 ]
"Native Americans, during the transitional period of Africans becoming the primary race enslaved, were enslaved at the same time and shared a common experience of enslavement. They worked together, lived together in communal quarters, produced collective recipes for food, shared herbal remedies, myths and legends, and in the end they intermarried." [ 207 ] Because of a shortage of men due to warfare, many tribes encouraged marriage between the two groups, to create stronger, healthier children from the unions. [ 208 ]
In the 18th century, many Native American women married freed or runaway African men due to a decrease in the population of men in Native American villages. [ 204 ] Records show that many Native American women bought African men but, unknown to the European sellers, the women freed and married the men into their tribe. [ 204 ] When African men married or had children by a Native American woman, their children were born free, because the mother was free (according to the principle of partus sequitur ventrum, which the colonists incorporated into law.) [ 204 ]
European colonists often required the return of runaway slaves to be included as a provision in treaties with American Indians. In 1726, the British Governor of New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. [ 209 ] In the mid 1760s, the government requested the Huron and Delaware to return runaway slaves, but there was no record of slaves having been returned. [ 210 ] Colonists placed ads about runaway slaves.
While numerous tribes used captive enemies as servants and slaves, they also often adopted younger captives into their tribes to replace members who had died. In the Southeast, a few Native American tribes began to adopt a slavery system similar to that of the American colonists, buying African American slaves, especially the Cherokee , Choctaw , and Creek . Though less than 3% of Native Americans owned slaves, divisions grew among the Native Americans over slavery. [ 211 ] Among the Cherokee, records show that slave holders in the tribe were largely the children of European men that had shown their children the economics of slavery. [ 205 ] As European colonists took slaves into frontier areas, there were more opportunities for relationships between African and Native American peoples. [ 204 ]
Based on the work of geneticists , a PBS series on African Americans explained that while most African Americans are racially mixed, it is relatively rare that they have Native American ancestry. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] According to the PBS series, the most common "non-black" mix is English and Scots-Irish. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] However, the Y-chromosome and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) testing processes for direct-line male and female ancestors can fail to pick up the heritage of many ancestors. (Some critics thought the PBS series did not sufficiently explain the limitations of DNA testing for assessment of heritage.) [ 214 ] Another study suggests that relatively few Native Americans have African-American heritage. [ 215 ] A study reported in The American Journal of Human Genetics stated, "We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) ... mtDNA haplogroups analysis shows no evidence of a significant maternal Amerindian contribution to any of the 10 populations." [ 216 ] A few writers persist in the myth that most African Americans have Native American heritage. [ 217 ]
DNA testing has limitations and should not be depended on by individuals to answer all their questions about heritage. [ 214 ] [ 218 ] So far, such testing cannot distinguish among the many distinct Native American tribes. No tribes accept DNA testing to satisfy their differing qualifications for membership, usually based on documented blood quantum or descent from ancestor(s) listed on the Dawes Rolls . [ 219 ]
[ edit ] Native American adoption of African slavery
Native Americans interacted with enslaved Africans and African Americans on many levels. Over time all the cultures interacted. Native Americans began slowly to adopt white culture. [ 204 ] Native Americans in the South shared some experiences with Africans, especially during the period, primarily in the 17th century, when both were enslaved. The colonists along the Atlantic Coast had begun enslaving Native Americans to ensure a source of labor. At one time the slave trade was so extensive that it caused increasing tensions with the various Algonquian tribes, as well as the Iroquois . Based in New York and Pennsylvania, they had threatened to attack colonists on behalf of the related Iroquoian Tuscarora before they migrated out of the South in the early 1700s. [ 207 ]
In the 1790s, Benjamin Hawkins was assigned as the US agent to the southeastern tribes, who became known as the Five Civilized Tribes for their adoption of numerous Anglo-European practices. He advised the tribes to take up slaveholding to aid them in European-style farming and plantations. He thought their traditional form of slavery, which had looser conditions, was less efficient than chattel slavery. [ 203 ] In the nineteenth century, some members of these tribes who were more closely associated with settlers, began to purchase African-American slaves for workers. They adopted some European-American ways to benefit their people.
The writer William Loren Katz contends that Native Americans treated their slaves better than did the typical European American in the Deep South . [ 211 ] Though less than 3% of Native Americans owned slaves, bondage created destructive cleavages among those who were slaveholders.
Among the Five Civilized Tribes , mixed-race slaveholders were generally part of an elite hierarchy, often based on their mothers' clan status, as the societies had matrilineal systems. As did Benjamin Hawkins, European fur traders and colonial officials tended to marry high-status women, in strategic alliances seen to benefit both sides. The Choctaw, Creek and Cherokee believed they benefited from stronger alliances with the traders and their societies. [ citation needed ] The women's sons gained their status from their mother's families; they were part of hereditary leadership lines who exercised power and accumulated personal wealth in their changing Native American societies. The historian Greg O'Brien calls them the Creole generation to show that they were part of a changing society. [ citation needed ] The chiefs of the tribes believed that some of the new generation of mixed-race, bilingual chiefs would lead their people into the future and be better able to adapt to new conditions influenced by European Americans. [ 211 ] Proposals for Indian Removal heightened the tensions of cultural changes, due to the increase in the number of mixed-race Native Americans in the South. Full bloods, who tended to live in areas less affected by colonial encroachment, generally worked to maintain traditional ways, including control of communal lands. While the traditional members often resented the sale of tribal lands to Anglo-Americans, by the 1830s they agreed it was not possible to go to war with the colonists on this issue.
[ edit ] Who are Native Americans?
[ edit ] Admixture and genetics
Intertribal mixing was common among Native American tribes, so individuals often had ancestry from more than one tribe, particularly after tribes lost so many members from disease. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Bands or entire tribes occasionally split or merged to form more viable groups in reaction to the pressures of climate, disease and warfare. [ 221 ] A number of tribes traditionally adopted captives into their group to replace members who had been captured or killed in battle. These captives were from rival tribes and later from European settlements. Some tribes also sheltered or adopted white traders and runaway slaves, and others owned slaves of their own. Tribes with long trading histories with Europeans show a higher rate of European admixture, reflecting years of intermarriage between European men and Native American women. [ 221 ] A number of paths to genetic and ethnic diversity among Native Americans existed.
In recent years, genetic genealogists have been able to determine the proportion of Native American ancestry carried by the African-American population. The literary and history scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. had experts on his TV programs who discussed African-American ancestry. They stated that 5% of African Americans have at least 12.5% Native American ancestry. A greater percentage could have a smaller proportion of Indian ancestry, but their conclusions show that popular estimates of admixture may have been too high. [ 222 ]
DNA testing is not sufficient to qualify a person for specific tribal membership, as it cannot distinguish among Native American groups.
Native American identity has historically been based on culture, not just biology, as many American Indian peoples adopted captives from their enemies and assimilated them into their tribes. The Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism (IPCB) notes that:
"Nativos americanos marcadores" no se encuentran únicamente entre los nativos americanos. While they occur more frequently among Native Americans, they are also found in people in other parts of the world. [ 223 ]
Not all Native Americans have been tested; especially with the large number of deaths due to disease such as small pox, it is unlikely that Native Americans only have the genetic markers they have identified, even when their maternal or paternal bloodline does not include a non-Native American. [ 214 ] [ 218 ]
[ edit ] Tribal Classifications
To receive tribal services, a Native American must be a certified member of a recognized tribal organization. Each tribal government makes its own rules for eligibility of citizens or tribal members. The federal government has standards related to services available to certified Native Americans. For instance, federal scholarships for Native Americans require the student to be enrolled in a federally recognized tribe and have at least one-quarter Native American descent (equivalent to one grandparent), attested to by a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) card. Among tribes, qualification may be based upon a required percentage of Native American "blood" (or the " blood quantum ") of an individual seeking recognition, or documented descent from an ancestor on the Dawes Rolls or other registers.
Some tribes have begun requiring genealogical DNA testing , but this is usually related to an individual's proving parentage or direct descent from a certified member. [ 224 ] Requirements for tribal membership vary widely by tribe. The Cherokee require documented genealogical descent from a Native American listed on the early 1906 Dawes Rolls . Tribal rules regarding recognition of members who have heritage from multiple tribes are equally diverse and complex.
Tribal membership conflicts have led to a number of legal disputes, court cases, and the formation of activist groups. One example of this are the Cherokee Freedmen . Today, they include descendants of African Americans once enslaved by the Cherokees, who were granted, by federal treaty, citizenship in the historic Cherokee Nation as freedmen after the Civil War . The modern Cherokee Nation , in the early 1980s, excluded them from citizenship, unless individuals can prove descent from a Cherokee Native American (not Cherokee Freedmen) listed on the Dawes Rolls.
[ edit ] Increased self-identification
Since the census of 2000, people who have, or believe they have, Native American ancestry may designate themselves, for census purposes, as being of more than one race. [ 225 ] Since the 1960s, the number of people claiming Native American ancestry has grown significantly and by the 2000 census, the number had more than doubled. Sociologists attribute this dramatic change to "ethnic shifting" or "ethnic shopping"; they believe that it reflects a willingness of people to question their birth identities and adopt new ethnicities which they find more compatible. The author Jack Hitt writes:
The reaction from lifelong Indians runs the gamut. It is easy to find Native Americans who denounce many of these new Indians as members of the wannabe tribe. But it is also easy to find Indians like Clem Iron Wing, an elder among the Sioux , who sees this flood of new ethnic claims as magnificent, a surge of Indians trying to come home. Those Indians who ridicule Iron Wing's lax sense of tribal membership have retrofitted the old genocidal system of blood quantum -- measuring racial purity by blood -- into the new standard for real Indianness, a choice rich with paradox. [ 226 ]
The journalist Mary Annette Pember notes that identifying with Native American culture may be a result of a person's increased interest in genealogy, the romanticization of the lifestyle, and a family tradition of distant Native American ancestors. Problems in classification are compounded by different qualifications for tribal membership by different tribes, a fear of registering with a tribe because it is seen as a method of control initiated by the federal government, and the problem of individuals who are of 100% Native American background who, because of their mixed tribal heritage, do not qualify to belong to any individual tribe. Pember concludes:
The subjects of genuine American Indian blood, cultural connection and recognition by the community are extremely contentious issues, hotly debated throughout Indian country and beyond. The whole situation, some say, is ripe for misinterpretation, confusion and, ultimately, exploitation.
[ edit ] Population
The 2010 census permitted respondents to self-identify as being of one or more races. Self-identification dates from the census of 1960; prior to that the race of the respondent was determined by opinion of the census taker. The option to select more than one race was introduced in 2000. [ 226 ] If American Indian or Alaska Native was selected, the form requested the individual provide the name of the "enrolled or principal tribe". The 2010 Census showed that the US population on April 1, 2010, was 308.7 million. Out of the total US population, 2.9 million people, or 0.9 percent, reported American Indian and Alaska Native alone. In addition, 2.3 million people, or another 0.7 percent, reported American Indian and Alaska Native in combination with one or more other races. Together, these two groups totaled 5.2 million people. Thus, 1.7 percent of all people in the United States identified as American Indian and Alaska Native, either alone or in combination with one or more other races. [ 225 ]
The definition of American Indian or Alaska Native used in the 2010 census:
According to Office of Management and Budget, “American Indian or Alaska Native” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. [ 225 ]
78% of Native Americans live outside a reservation. Full-blood individuals are more likely to live on a reservation than mixed-blood individuals. The Navajo, with 286,000 full-blood individuals, is the largest tribe if only full-blood individuals are counted; the Navajo are the tribe with the highest proportion of full-blood individuals, 86.3%. The Cherokee have a different history; it is the largest tribe with 819,000 individuals, and it has 284,000 full-blood individuals. [ 229 ]
In 2006, the US Census Bureau estimated that about 0.8% of the US population was of American Indian or Alaska Native descent. This population is unevenly distributed across the country. [ 230 ] Below, all 50 states, as well as the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, are listed by the proportion of residents citing American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry, based on 2006 estimates:
- Alaska – 13.1% 101,352
- New Mexico – 9.7% 165,944
- South Dakota – 8.6% 60,358
- Oklahoma – 6.8% 262,581
- Montana – 6.3% 57,225
- North Dakota – 5.2% 30,552
- Arizona – 4.5% 261,168
- Wyoming – 2.2% 10,867
- Oregon – 1.8% 45,633
- Washington – 1.5% 104,819
- Nevada – 1.2%
- Idaho – 1.1%
- North Carolina – 1.1%
- Utah – 1.1%
- Minnesota – 1.0%
- Colorado – 0.9%
- Kansas – 0.9%
- Nebraska – 0.9%
- Wisconsin – 0.9%
- Arkansas – 0.8%
- California – 0.7%
- Louisiana – 0.6%
- Maine – 0.5%
- Michigan – 0.5%
- Texas – 0.5%
- Alabama – 0.4%
- Mississippi – 0.4%
- Missouri – 0.4%
- Rhode Island – 0.4%
- Vermont – 0.4%
- Florida – 0.3%
- Delaware – 0.3%
- Hawaii – 0.3%
- Iowa – 0.3%
- New York – 0.3%
- South Carolina – 0.3%
- Tennessee – 0.3%
- Georgia – 0.2%
- Virginia – 0.2%
- Connecticut – 0.2%
- Illinois – 0.2%
- Indiana – 0.2%
- Kentucky – 0.2%
- Maryland – 0.2%
- Massachusetts – 0.2%
- New Hampshire – 0.2%
- New Jersey – 0.2%
- Ohio – 0.2%
- West Virginia – 0.2%
- Pennsylvania – 0.1%
- District of Columbia – 0.3%
- Puerto Rico – 0.2%
In 2006, the US Census Bureau estimated that about less than 1.0% of the US population was of Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander descent. This population is unevenly distributed across 26 states. [ 230 ] Below, are the 26 states that had at least 0.1%. They are listed by the proportion of residents citing Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, based on 2006 estimates:
- Hawaii – 8.7
- Utah – 0.7
- Alaska – 0.6
- California – 0.4
- Nevada – 0.4
- Washington – 0.4
- Arizona – 0.2
- Oregon – 0.2
- Alabama – 0.1
- Arkansas – 0.1
- Colorado – 0.1
- Florida – 0.1
- Idaho – 0.1
- Kentucky – 0.1
- Maryland – 0.1
- Massachusetts – 0.1
- Missouri – 0.1
- Montana – 0.1
- New Mexico – 0.1
- North Carolina – 0.1
- Oklahoma – 0.1
- South Carolina – 0.1
- Texas – 0.1
- Virginia – 0.1
- West Virginia – 0.1
- Wyoming – 0.1
[ editar ] Distribución de la población
Below are numbers for US citizens self-identifying to selected tribal grouping, according to the 2000 US census. [ 231 ]
|Tribal grouping||American and Alaska Native alone||American and Alaska Native alone||American Indian and Alaska Native in combination with one or more races||American Indian and Alaska Native in combination with one or more races||American Indian and Alaska Native tribal grouping alone or in any combination|
|Tribal grouping||One tribal grouping reported||More than one tribal grouping reported||One tribal grouping reported||More than one tribal grouping reported|
|Latin American Indian||104,354||1850||73,042||1,694||180,940|
|Puget Sound Salish||11,034||226||3212||159||14,631|
|Other specified American Indian tribes||240521||9,468||100,346||7,323||357,658|
|American Indian tribe, not specified2||109,644||57||86,173||28||195,902|
|Other specified Alaska Native tribes||2552||435||841||145||3973|
|Alaska Native tribe, not specified||6161||370||2053||118||8702|
|American Indian or Alaska Native tribes, not specified3||511,960||(X)||544,497||(X)||1,056,457|
[ editar ] Genética
La historia genética de los pueblos indígenas de las Américas se centran principalmente en los haplogrupos de ADN Humanos del cromosoma Y y humanos haplogrupos del ADN mitocondrial . "Y-DNA" is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while "mtDNA" is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Neither recombines , and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material. [ 232 ] Autosomal "atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly. [ 233 ] AtDNA is generally used to measure the average continent-of-ancestry genetic admixture in the entire human genome and related isolated populations . [ 233 ]
The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Americans experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas , and secondly with European colonization of the Americas . [ 17 ] [ 234 ] [ 235 ] The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations . [ 234 ]
Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line , with an initial 15, 000 to 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the small founding population . [ 17 ] [ 236 ] [ 237 ] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. [ 238 ] The Na-Dené , Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA) mutations, however, that are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians, and that have various mtDNA and atDNA mutations. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] [ 241 ] This suggests that the paleo-Indian migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland were descended from a later, independent migrant population. [ 242 ] [ 243 ]
[ editar ] Véase también
- Los pueblos aborígenes en Canadá
- Alaska natives
- American Indian College Fund
- American Indian elder
- Native Americans in children's literature
- Native Americans in popular culture
- Portrayal of Native Americans in Film
- List of company and product names derived from indigenous peoples
- Medalla de Campaña de la India
- Comisión de Reclamaciones Indígenas
- Indian massacre
- Indian old field
- Indian Reorganization Act
- Indian Territory
- Inter-Tribal Environmental Council (ITEC)
- List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas
- Lista de las reservaciones indias en los Estados Unidos
- List of Native Americans of the United States
- Lista de las civilizaciones precolombinas
- List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples
- List of unrecognized tribes in the United States
- State recognized tribes in the United States
- Lista de los escritores de los pueblos indígenas de las Américas
- Modern social statistics of Native Americans
- Native American civil rights
- Native American mythology
- Cerámica americana nativa
- Las tribus americanas nativas en Nebraska
- Outline of United States federal indian law and policy
- Historia de la población de los pueblos indígenas de América
- Title 25 of the Code of Federal Regulations
- Title 25 of the United States Code
- Treaties of the United States (includes Native American treaties)
[ editar ] Notas
- US Census Bureau. (2001–2005). Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics 2000: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
- US Census Bureau. (2001–2005). Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics 2000: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. "In combination with one or more of the other races listed." Figure here derived by subtracting figure for "One race (American Indian and Alaska Native)": 2,475,956, from figure for "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races (American Indian and Alaska Native)": 4,119,301, giving the result 1,643,345. Other races counted in the census include: "White"; "Black or African American"; "Asian"; "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; and "Some other race."
- Calloway, Colin G. "Native Americans First View Whites from the Shore." American Heritage , Spring 2009. Retrieved 29 Dec 2011
- Bruce E. Johansen (2006-11). The Native Peoples of North America . Rutgers University Press . ISBN 978-0-8135-3899-0 . http://books.google.com/?id=yiKgBuSUPUIC&lpg=RA1-PA44 . Consultado el 28 de junio 2009.
- "Native American" . Encyclopædia Consultado el 28 de junio 2009.
- Perdue, Theda (2003). "Chapter 2 "Both White and Red"". Mixed Blood Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South . The University of Georgia Press. pág. 51. ISBN 0-8203-2731-X .
- Remini, Robert (1977, 1998). ""The Reform Begins"". Andrew Jackson . History Book Club. pág. 201. ISBN 0-06-080132-8 .
- Remini, Robert (1977, 1998). ""Brothers, Listen ... You Must Submit"". Andrew Jackson . History Book Club. pág. 258. ISBN 0-06-080132-8 .
- Miller, Eric (1994). "George Washington and Indians" . Eric Miller . http://www.dreric.org/library/northwest.shtml . Consultado el 2008-05-02.
- Jewett, Tom (1996–2009). "Thomas Jefferson's Views Concerning Native Americans" . Archiving America . http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/2002_summer_fall/tj_views.htm . Consultado el 17/02/2009.
- "An Indian Candidate for Congress". Christian Mirror and NH Observer, Shirley, Hyde & Co.. July 15, 1830.
- Kappler, Charles (1904). "Indian affairs: laws and treaties Vol. II, Treaties" . Government Printing Office . http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cho0310.htm . Consultado el 16/04/2008.
- "FNX: First Nations Experience Television" , NAFSA News (Native American Faculty and Staff Association), University of California, Davis, accessed 25 October 2011.
- Gordon R. Willey and Philip Phillips (1957). Method and Theory in American Archaeology . University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89888-9 .
- Ehlers, J., and PL Gibbard, 2004a, Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 2: Part II North America , Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0-444-51462-7 .
- "El ADN mitocondrial vista del poblamiento del mundo por el Homo sapiens" . Cambridge Servicios de ADN. 2007 . https://www.cambridgedna.com/genealogy-dna-ancient-migrations-slideshow.php?view=step7 . Consultado el 06/01/2011.
- Wells, Spencer; Read, Mark (2002) (Digitised online by Google books). The Journey of Man – A Genetic Odyssey . Random House. pp Consultado el 21/11/2009.
- Dyke AS & Prest VK (1986). Late Wisconsinian and Holocene retreat of the Larentide ice sheet: Geological Survey of Canada Map 1702A
- Dickason, Olive. Canada's First Nations: A History of the Founding Peoples from the Earliest Times . 2 ª edición. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997.
- J. Imbrie and KPImbrie, Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (Short Hills, NJ: Enslow Publishers) 1979.
- Deloria, V., Jr., (1997) Red Earth White Lies: Native Americans and The Myth of Scientific Fact .
- Hillerman, Anthony G. (1973). "The Hunt for the Lost American", in The Great Taos Bank Robbery and Other Indian Country Affairs , University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0306-4 .
- DE Dummond, "Toward a Pre-History of the Na-Dene, with a General Comment on Population Movements among Nomadic Hunters" , American Anthropological Association, 1969. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Leer, Jeff, Doug Hitch, & John Ritter. 2001. Interior Tlingit Noun Dictionary: The Dialects Spoken by Tlingit Elders of Carcross and Teslin, Yukon, and Atlin, British Columbia , Whitehorse, Yukon Territory: Yukon Native Language Centre. ISBN 1-55242-227-5 .
- Joe W. Saunders*, Rolfe D. Mandel, Roger T. Saucier, E. Thurman Allen, CT Hallmark, Jay K. Johnson, Edwin H. Jackson, Charles M. Allen, Gary L. Stringer, Douglas S. Frink, James K. Feathers, Stephen Williams, Kristen J. Gremillion, Malcolm F. Vidrine, and Reca Jones, "A Mound Complex in Louisiana at 5400-5000 Years Before the Present" , Science , 19 September 1997: Vol. 277 no. 5333, pp. 1796-1799, accessed 27 October 2011
- ^ Fagan, Brian M. 2005. Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent . Cuarta Edición. Nueva York. Thames & Hudson Inc. p. 418.
- "Hopewell" . Ohio History Central . http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1283 .
- T. Douglas Price y Gary M. Feinman (2008). Las imágenes de la pasada edición, quinto. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp 274-277. ISBN 978-0-07-340520-9 .
- Chenault, Mark, Rick Ahlstrom, and Tom Motsinger, (1993) In the Shadow of South Mountain: The Pre-Classic Hohokam of 'La Ciudad de los Hornos', Part I and II.
- muller. "Connections" . http://www.siu.edu/~anthro/muller/SECC/sld008.htm . [ enlace roto ]
- Townsend, Richard F., and Robert V. Sharp, eds. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand . The Art Institute of Chicago and Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10601-7 .
- F. Kent Reilly y James Garber, ed. (2007). Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms . University of Texas Press . ISBN 978-0-292-71347-5 .
- Woods, Thomas E (2007). 33 questions about American history you're not supposed to ask . Crown Forum. pág. 62. ISBN 978-0-307-34668-1 . http://books.google.com/books?id=dCMcnBRKR-0C&pg=PA62 . Consultado el 10/31/2010.
- Wright, R (2005). Stolen Continents: 500 Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas . Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-49240-2 .
- Tooker E (1990). "The United States Constitution and the Iroquois League" . In Clifton JA. The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies . New Brunswick, NJ, EE.UU.: Transaction Publishers. pp. 107–128. ISBN 1-56000-745-1 . http://books.google.com/books?id=ARbVmr941TsC&pg=PA107 . Retrieved 2010-11-24 .
- Burns, LF. "Osage" . Oklahoma Encyclopedia of History and Culture . http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/O/OS001.html . Consultado el 11/29/2010.
- Joel H. Spring (2001). Globalization and educational rights: an intercivilizational analysis . Routledge. p. 92 . ISBN 978-0-8058-3882-4 .
- "''The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During the American-Indian War''". Amazon.com. ASIN 0375503749 .
- "Native Americans – Huron Tribe" . Nativeamericans.com . http://www.nativeamericans.com/Huron.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- "Indian Mixed-Blood" , Frederick W. Hodge, Handbook of American Indians , 1906.
- "A Brief History of Albuquerque" . Replay.waybackmachine.org. Consultado el 08/29/2011.
- "Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge" . Bbc.co.uk. 2009-11-05 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/smallpox_01.shtml . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- "epidemias" . Libby-genealogy.com. 2009-04-30 . http://www.libby-genealogy.com/epidemics.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- "The Story Of... Smallpox—and other Deadly Eurasian Germs" . Pbs.org . http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- " Microchronology y Prueba demográficos relacionados con el tamaño de las poblaciones precolombinas de América del Norte de la India ". Ciencia 16 de junio 1995: vol. 268. ninguna. 5217, pp 1601-1604 doi : 10.1126/science.268.5217.1601 .
- Thornton, Russell (1990). holocausto de indios americanos y la supervivencia: una historia de la población desde 1492 . University of Oklahoma Press. pp
- [Guenter Lewy, "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?"], History News Network, 11–22–04.
- Thorton, Russel (1990). American Indian holocaust and survival: a population history since 1492 . Universidad de Oklahoma Press. pág. 43. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X .
- Lange, Greg (23 January 2003). "Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s" . Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History . http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5100 . Consultado el 04/24/2011. "Worldwide studies show that the fatality rates to people never before exposed to smallpox are at least 30 percent of the entire population and sometimes as high as 50 to 70 percent."
- Native American History and Cultures, http://www.meredith.edu/nativeam/setribes.htm Susan Squires and John Kincheloe, syllabus for HIS 943A, Meredith College , 2005. Consultado el 19 de septiembre 2006.
- "Columbus May Have Brought Syphilis to Europe" , LiveScience, 15 January 2008.
- "David A. Koplow, la viruela'': la lucha para erradicar un flagelo mundial''" . Ucpress.edu . http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.html . Consultado el 21/02/2011.
- M. Paul Keesler, "Dutch Children's Disease Kills Thousands of Mohawks" , Mohawk: Discovering the Valley of the Crystals , 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- " American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011 ". EE.UU. Oficina del Censo.
- "Plagues and Peoples on the Northwest Coast" , History Net, Missouri State University, Humanities & Social Sciences Online.
- Greg Lange, "Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s" , The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History , 23 January 2003. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words" , National Institutes of Health.
- "Mountain Man-Plains Indian Fur Trade" , The Fur Trapper.
- Review of J. Diane Pearson, "Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832" , Project Muse , Johns Hopkins University.
- "The Politics of Disease", Wicazo Sa Review : Vol. 18, No. 2, (Autumn, 2003), pp. 9–35 .
- Philip's War: America's Most Devastating Conflict . Walter Giersbach. Military History Online.
- Jean Jacques Rousseau (1700s). "Ennobling 'Savages'" . http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp4.html . Consultado el 09/05/2008.
- Armstrong, Virginia Irving (1971). I Have Spoken: American History Through the Voices of the Indians . Pocket Books. pág. 14. ISBN 0-8040-0530-3 .
- Mee, Charles L., Jr. The Genius of the People . New York: Harper & Row, 1987. pág. 237. Note: John Rutledge of South Carolina is said to have read lengthy tracts of Iroquoian law to the other framers of the Constitution, beginning with the words, "We, the people, to form a union, to establish peace, equity, and order..."
- "H. CON. Res. 331, 21 de octubre de 1988" . United States Senate . http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/hconres331.pdf . Consultado el 23/11/2008.
- Jack Rakove, "Did the Founding Fathers Really Get Many of Their Ideas of Liberty from the Iroquois?" , History News Network , 5 July 2005, accessed 17 January 2012
- Wyoming Massacre , Encyclopædia Britannica .
- Ethridge, Robbie (2003). "Introduction". Creek Country: The Creek Indians And Their World . The University of North Carolina Press. pág. 1. ISBN 0-8078-5495-6 .
- Charles Sanford (1961). The Quest for Paradise . ISBN ISBN 0-404-60078-6 .
- Wilcomb E. Washburn, "Indians and the American Revolution" , AmericanRevolution.org, History Channel Network. Retrieved February 23, 2006.
- Eric Miller (1994). "Washington and the Northwest War, Part One" . http://www.dreric.org/library/northwest.shtml . Consultado el 2010-08-11.
- "By the President of the United States of America. A proclamation" . Yale Law School. 1790 . http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/gwproc13.asp . Consultado el 2010-08-11.
- The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans and Whites in the Progressive Era , Tom Holm, http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exholgre.html
- "To the Brothers of the Choctaw Nation" . Yale Law School. 1803 . http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/jeffind3.asp . Retrieved 2010-10-24 .
- "Past Notable Native Americans" . Snowwowl.com . http://www.snowwowl.com/swolfpastnotables.html . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- Kenneth Carley (15 July 2001). The Dakota War of 1862 . La prensa de Minnesota Historical Society. pág. 1. ISBN 978-0-87351-392-0 . http://books.google.com/books?id=xU5gUgZcmPEC&pg=PA1-IA2 . Consultado el 1 de mayo de 2011.
- Ralph K. Andrist. MASSACRE! [ dead link ] , American Heritage , April 1962.
- Thornton, Russell (1990). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492 . University of Oklahoma Press. pág. 48. ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5
- Worlds Together, Worlds Apart, Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Stephen Kotkin, Suzanne Marchand, Gyan Prakash, Michael Tsin, WW Norton & Company, New York, 2000, p. 274.
- Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1857). "Hayes Quotes: What a prodigious growth this English race, Consultado el 09/04/2008.
- Ely Parker Famous Native Americans .
- W. David Baird et al. (2009-01-05). ""We are all Americans", Native Americans in the Civil War" . Native Americans.com . http://oha.alexandriava.gov/fortward/special-sections/americans/ . Consultado el 01/05/2009.
- Wiley Britton (2009-01-05). "Union and Confederate Indians in the Civil War "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War"" . Civil War Potpourri . http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionconfedindians.htm . Consultado el 01/05/2009.
- Morris, John Wesley, Ghost towns of Oklahoma , University of Oklahoma Press, 1977, pp. 68-69, ISBN 0-8061-1420-7
- Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee Sunset: A Nation Betrayed : A Narrative of Travail and Triumph, Persecution and Exile . Nueva York: Doubleday, p. 232.
- see Genocides in history#Americas
- McLoughlin, William (1981). "Experiment in Cherokee Citizenship, 1817-1829" (PDF). American Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring, 1981), pp. Consultado el 22/06/2012.
- Kappler, Charles (1904). "INDIAN AFFAIRS: LAWS AND TREATIES Vol. II, Treaties" . Government Printing Office . http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0140.htm#mn1 . Consultado el 22/06/2012.
- Baird, David (1973). "The Choctaws Meet the Americans, 1783 to 1843". The Choctaw People . United States: Indian Tribal Series. pág. 36. Library of Congress 73-80708.
- Council of Indian Nations (2005). "History & Culture, Citizenship Act – 1924" . Council of Indian Nations . http://www.nrcprograms.org/site/PageServer?pagename=cin_hist_citizenshipact . Consultado el 2008-05-02.
- Carleton, Ken (2002). "A Brief History of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians" (PDF). Mississippi Archaeological Association . http://www.msarchaeology.org/maa/carleton.pdf . Consultado el 04/05/2009.
- In an offhand reference in the Dred Scott decision
- Hoxie, Frederick (2007). "What was Taney thinking? American Indian Citizenship in the era of Dred Scott" (PDF). Chicago-Kent Law Review. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070915083732/http://lawreview.kentlaw.edu/articles/82-1/Hoxie.pdf . Retrieved 2009-04-15 .
- (McCool 3)
- McCool, Daniel, Susan M. Olson, and Jennifer L. Robinson. Native Vote. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
- Onecle (Last modified: November 8, 2005). "Indian Treaties" . http://law.onecle.com/constitution/article-2/21-indian-treaties.html . Retrieved 2009-03-31 .
- "What Were Boarding Schools Like for Indian Youth?" . authorsden.com . http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewarticle.asp?AuthorID=2616&id=7375 . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Long-suffering urban Indians find roots in ancient rituals" . California's Lost Tribes . Archivado desde el original el 29 de agosto, Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Developmental and learning disabilities" . PRSP Disabilities . http://www.prsp.bc.ca . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools" . Amnesty International USA . http://www.amnestyusa.org/amnestynow/soulwound.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- Kappler, Charles (1904). "Indian affairs: laws and treaties Vol. IV, Treaties" . Government Printing Office . http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol4/html_files/v4p1165.html . Retrieved 2008-10-14 .
- Deloria, Vincent (1992). American Indian policy in the twentieth century . University of Oklahoma Press. pág. 91. ISBN 978-0-8061-2424-7 . http://books.google.com/?id=VzWIpZBZgA0C .
- US Department of Defense. "American Indians in World War II" . www.defenselink.mil . http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/nativeamerican01/wwii.html . Consultado el 2008-02-25.
- Thomas D. Morgan. "Native Americans in World War II" . United States Army Center of Military History . http://www.history.army.mil/html/topics/natam/natam-wwii.html . Consultado el 01/05/2011.
- Bernstein, p. 131
- Waldron, Martin (1973-04-28). "Shot Kills Indian At Wounded Knee" . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- Crosson, Judith (2003-11-05). "Appeals court denies Peltier's parole bid" . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- Sam Brownback (R). "Senate Joint Resolution 37: APOLOGY TO NATIVE Retrieved 2004-05-06 .
- McKinnon, John D. (2009-12-22). "US Offers An Official Apology to Native Americans" . Consultado el 21/02/2011.
- Hume, Mark (2004-12-07). "Activist pleaded to live, US says; Extradition hearing in Vancouver told about final days of NS Mikmaq killed in 1975" (Newspaper). The Globe and Mail (Canada) (Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc.): p. A12.
- Mickleburgh, Rod (2007-06-27). "Former AIM member loses extradition appeal" (Newspaper). The Globe and Mail (Canada) (Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc.): p. A10.
- Hall, Tony (2003). The American Empire and the Fourth World : The Bowl with One Spoon . McGill-Queen's native and northern series, 34.. Montreal; Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3006-1 9780773530065 0773523324 9780773523326 .
- "Explanation of vote on the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples" [ dead link ] . United States Mission to the United Nations press release, 13 September 2007.
- "Announcement of US Support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples" . US State Department, 16 December 2010
- "The US Relationship To American Indian and Alaska Native Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Bureau of Indian affairs" . Archived from the original on November 29, 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20071129013254/http://www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html . Retrieved December 25, 2007 .
- "Mixing Bodies and Beliefs: The Predicament of Tribes" . Columbia Law Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "The Muwekman Ohlone" . muwekma.org . http://www.muwekma.org . Consultado el 2007-06-22.
- "Washington GOP plank to terminate tribes ignites firestorm" . Web.archive.org. Archivado desde el original en Consultado el 08/29/2011.
- "National Congress of American Indians Opposes Bill to Terminate the Cherokee Nation" . Tanasi Journal . Wisdom Keepers, Inc.. 7 July 2007 . http://www.tanasijournal.com/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=365&Itemid=1&ed=53 . Consultado el 6 de noviembre de 2009. [ enlace roto ]
- "The Genocide and Relocation of the Dine'h (Navajo)" . Senaa . http://www.angelfire.com/band/senaaeurope/DRelocation.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "The Black Mesa Syndrome: Indian Lands, Black Gold" . Shundahai.org . http://www.shundahai.org/bigmtbackground.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Big Mountain Update 1 February 1997" . LISTSERV at Wayne State University . http://lists.wayne.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind9703&L=tamha&F=&S=&P=7661 . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "The black-and-white world of Walter Ashby Plecker" . Pilotonline.com . http://home.hamptonroads.com/stories/story.cfm?story=74481&ran=162825 . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Virginia tribes take another step on road to federal
- "Annual Estimates by Race Alone" (PDF). US Census.gov . http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/tables/SC-EST2003-04.pdf . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- "Challenges to Health and Well-Being of Native American Communities" . The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture . http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=5.4.7e.htm&module=provider&language=English . Consultado el 2007-06-22. , Management of Science of Health
- Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System by the US Commission on Civil Rights, September 2004.
- "Walking a Mile: A Qualitative Study Exploring How Indians and Non-Indians Think About Each Other" . Public Agenda . http://www.publicagenda.org/reports/walking-mile-first-step-toward-mutual-understanding . Consultado el 25 de julio 2008.
- "Soldier highlights problems in US Army" . Indian Country Consultado el 09/20/2008.
- "[Executive Order 11246 --Equal employment opportunity"]. The Federal Register. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010 . http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/11246.html . Consultado el 05/05/2010.
- "Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)" . US Department of Labor . http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/aa.htm . Consultado el 05/05/2010.
- "Final Guidance on Maintaining, Collecting, and Reporting Racial and Ethnic Data to the US Department of Education" (Notice). Federal Register/Vol. 72, No. 202/Friday, October 19, 2007/Notices . EE.UU. Departamento de Educación. October 19, 2007. pp. 59266 to 59279 . http://www2.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/other/2007-4/101907c.pdf . Consultado el 09 de junio 2012. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains a tribal affiliation or community attachment."
- Bridget Neconie (Spring, 2012). "removing educational Barriers for Native American Citizens of Federally- recognized tribes" . The American Indian Graduate : 10 to Consultado el 09 de junio 2012. "The Native American population is the only group in American that tends to experience systematic fraudulent behavior. Claiming to be Native American has become such a common and accepted practice that recently, the American Bar Association began to require verification of the identity of Native American applicants."
- American Bar Association (Spring, 2012). "ABA Adopts Policy to Curb Box-Checking" (Press release). the American Indian Graduate : Consultado el 09 de junio 2012. "RESOLVED, That the American Bar Association urges the Law School Admissions Council and ABA-approved law schools to require additional information from individuals who indicate on their applications for testing or admission that they are Native American, including Tribal citizenship, Tribal affiliation or enrollment number, and/or a “heritage statement.”"
- First Peoples, Colin G. Calloway, 2nd Edition, 2004
- Amy D'orio (1996-03-31). "Indian Chief Is Mascot No More" . The New York Consultado el 26/08/2008.
- "NCAA Bans Indian Mascots" . Online NewsHour . http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/sports/july-dec05/mascots_8-25.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- Powell, Robert Andrew (August 25, 2005). "Florida State wins its battle to remain the Seminoles" . International Herald Tribune . http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/08/24/sports/COLLEGE.php . Retrieved 9 August 2008 .
- "Florida State University thanks Seminoles for historic vote of support" . Universidad Estatal de Florida. Archivado desde el original el 8 de junio, Retrieved 9 August 2008 .
- Teaching Tolerance. "Native American Mascots Big Issue in College Sports" . http://www.tolerance.org/news/article_tol.jsp?id=165 . Consultado el 26/08/2008.
- Shohat, Ella, and Stam, Robert. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . New York: Routledge, 1994.
- "About the Project: We Shall Remain" . http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/weshallremain/the_films/about . Consultado el 06/16/2009.
- Jack Larkin (2003). "OSV Documents – Historical Background on People of Color in Rural New England in the Early 19th Century" . Old Sturbridge Inc . http://www.osv.org/explore_learn/document_viewer.php?DocID=2044 . Consultado el 12/06/2009.
- "Preference for Racial or Ethnic Terminology" . Infoplease . http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0762158.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- Russell Means "I am an American Indian, not a native American!" (Treaty Productions, 1996); citation given here  and here  and they cover the general subject and some Means' contribution, but have no reference to "En Dio" and only those non-working links to text.
- "What's in a Name? Indians and Political Correctness" . All Things Cherokee . http://www.allthingscherokee.com/atc_sub_culture_feat_events_070101.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- " American Indian versus Native American " . Infoplease . http://www.infoplease.com/spot/aihmterms.html . Retrieved February 8, 2006 .
- Steven W. Perry (December, 2004). "A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002 American Indians and Crime" . US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs . http://www.justice.gov/otj/pdf/american_indians_and_crime.pdf . Consultado el 02 de junio 2012.
- Kevin K. Washburn (February, 2006). "American Indians, Crime, and the Law" . Michigan Law Review 104 : 709 to 778 . http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/104/4/Washburn.pdf# . Consultado el 02 de junio 2012.
- Michael Riley (November 11, 2007). "1885 law at root of jurisdictional jumble" . The Denver Post . http://www.denverpost.com/lawlesslands/ci_7422829 . Consultado el 02 de junio 2012.
- "Expansion of tribal courts' authority passes Senate" article by Michael Riley in The Denver Post Posted: 25 June 2010 01:00:00 AM MDT Updated: 25 June 2010 02:13:47 AM MDT Accessed June 25, 2010
- "President Obama signs tribal-justice changes" article by Michael Riley in The Denver Post , Posted: 30 July 2010 01:00:00 AM MDT, Updated: 30 July 2010 06:00:20 AM MDT, accessed July 30, 2010
- "Lawless Lands" a 4 part series in The Denver Post last updated November 21, 2007
- "MEMORANDO PARA Fiscales Federales CON LOS DISTRITOS QUE CONTIENEN Indian Country" Memorando de David W. Ogden Fiscal General Adjunto, Lunes, 11 de enero 2010, Consultado el 12 de agosto 2010
- "Aplicación de la Ley Pública 280 y la ley en los territorios indígenas - Prioridades de Investigación en diciembre de 2005" , consultado el 12 de agosto 2010
- Timonthy Williams (22 de mayo de 2012). "Porque de nativos americanos, azote de violación, Justicia raras" . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans -lucha-con-alta-velocidad de rape.html . Consultado el 23 de mayo 2012.
- N. Bruce Duthu (August 10, 2008). "Broken Justice in Indian Country" (op-ed by expert). The New York Times . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/11/opinion/11duthu.html . Consultado el 07 de junio 2012.
- "New Teams to Counter Sex Crimes on Reservations" . The New York Times . Associated Press. 06 de junio, Consultado el 07 de junio 2012.
- "Cache Of Ice Age Fossils Found Near Tar Pits" . Associated Press . Los Angeles : KCBS-TV . 18 de febrero de Consultado el February 18, 2009.
- Thomas H. Maugh II (February 18, 2009). "Major cache of fossils unearthed in LA" . Los Angeles Times ( Los Angeles ) . http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-sci-fossils18-2009feb18,0,2746763.story . Consultado el 21/02/2011.
- Morgan, Lewis H. (1907). Ancient Society . Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company. pp. 70–71, 113. ISBN 0-674-03450-3 .
- Iroquois History . Retrieved February 23, 2006.
- Krech III, Shepard (1999). The ecological Indian: myth and history (1 ed.). New York, New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc.. pág. 107. ISBN 0-393-04755-5 .
- "American Indian Agriculture" . Answers.com . http://www.answers.com/topic/agriculture-american-indians ? . Consultado el 08 de febrero 2008.
- A Brief History of the Native American Church by Jay Fikes. Retrieved February 22, 2006.
- Melvin Randolph Gilmore, "The True Logan Fontenelle" , Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. 19, editado por Albert Watkins, Nebraska State Historical Society, 1919, p. 64, en Gennet, consultado el 25 de agosto 2011
- Beatrice Medicine , "Gender", Encyclopedia of North American Indians, 9 February 2006.
- "Native American Women" , Indians.org. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- "Medicine Women" , Bluecloud.org. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- Zinn, Howard (2005). A People's History of the United States: 1492–present , Harper Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN 0-06-083865-5 .
- "Women in Battle" , Bluecloud.org. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- "Choctaw Indians" . 2006 . http://www.indians.org/articles/choctaw-indians.html . Consultado el 2008-05-02.
- Thomas Vennum Jr., author of American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War (2002–2005). "History of Native American Lacrossee" . http://www.uslacrosse.org/museum/history.phtml . Consultado el 09/11/2008.
- Botelho, Greg. Roller-coaster life of Indian icon, sports' first star , CNN.com, July 14, 2004. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
- Jim Thorpe Is Dead On West Coast at 64 , The New York Times , March 29, 1953. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
- Bierhosrt, John (1992). A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians . Ancient City Press.
- "NIGA: Indian Gaming Facts" . http://www.indiangaming.org/library/indian-gaming-facts/index.shtml .
- "Number of US Minority Owned Businesses
- Kalt, Joseph. "Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development" . http://www.hks.harvard.edu/hpaied/people/kalt.htm . Retrieved 2008-06-17 .
- Cornell, Stephen. "Co-director, Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development" . Archivado desde el original en Retrieved 2008-06-17 .
- Cornell, S., Kalt, J.. "What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Retrieved 2008-06-17 .
- "Native Entrepreneurship: Challenges and opportunities for rural communities — CFED, Northwest Area Foundation December 2004" . http://www.energizingentrepreneurs.org/content/cr.php?id=4&sel=5 .
- Mary A. Dempsey (1996). "The Indian connection" . American Visions. Archivado desde el original en Retrieved 2008-09-19 .
- Katherine Ellinghaus (2006). Taking assimilation to heart . U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1829-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=3VCc9XEiFt4C&pg=PA176 .
- "Sexuality and the Invasion of America: 1492–1806" . http://www.virtualschool.edu/mon/SocialConstruction/SexualityAndInvasion.html . Consultado el 05/19/2009.
- "Sharing Choctaw History" . A First Nations Perspective, Galafilm . http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/background/nat_white_ind.html . Consultado el 2008-02-05. [ enlace roto ]
- "Native Americans: Early Contact" . Students on Site. Archivado desde el original en Consultado el 05/19/2009.
- "Native Americans: Early Contact" . Students on Site. Archivado desde el original en Consultado el 05/19/2009.
- Ellinghaus, Katherine (2006). Taking assimilation to heart . U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1829-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=3VCc9XEiFt4C&pg=PA176 .
- "Virginia Magazine of History and Biography" . Virginia Historical Society . http://www.vahistorical.org/publications/Abstract_1083_ellinghaus.htm . Consultado el 05/19/2009.
- "The Terrible Transformation:From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery" . PBS. 2009 . http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html . Consultado el 2010-01-07.
- Gloria J. Browne-Marshall (2009). ""The Realities of Enslaved Female Africans in America", excerpted from Failing Our Black Children: Statutory Rape Laws, Moral Reform and the Hypocrisy of Denial " . University of Daytona . http://academic.udayton.edu/Race/05intersection/Gender/rape.htm . Consultado el 06/20/2009.
- Tony Seybert (2009). "Slavery and Native Americans in British North America and the United States: 1600 to Consultado el 06/20/2009.
- " Slavery in Historical Perspective ". Digital History , University of Houston.
- " Slave-owning societies ". Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History .
- Muslims in American History : A Forgotten Legacy by Dr. Jerald F. Dirks. ISBN 1-59008-044-0 p. 204.
- Red, White, and Black, p. 99. ISBN 0-8203-0308-9 .
- Red, White, and Black, p. 99, ISBN 0-8203-0308-9 .
- Red, White, and Black, p. 105, ISBN 0-8203-0308-9 .
- ColorQ (2009). "Black Indians (Afro-Native Americans)" . ColorQ . http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=America&x=blackIndians . Consultado el 29/05/2009.
- Tiya Miles (2008). Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom . Universidad de California Consultado el 10/27/2009.
- Dorothy A. Mays (2008). Women in early America . ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-429-5 . http://books.google.com/?id=UYWs-GQDiOkC&pg=PA214 . Consultado el 2008-05-29.
- Art T. Burton (1996). "CHEROKEE SLAVE REVOLT OF 1842" . LWF COMMUNICATIONS . http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/SLAVE_RV.HTM . Consultado el 29/05/2009.
- Fay A. Yarbrough (2007). Race and the Cherokee Nation . Univ of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4056-6 . http://books.google.com/?id=sHJMNVV31T0C&pg=PA3 . Consultado el 05/30/2009.
- National Park Service (2009-05-30). "African American Heritage and Ethnography: Work, Marriage, Christianity" . National Park Service . http://www.nps.gov/history/ethnography/aah/aaheritage/lowCountry_furthRdg1.htm .
- Nomad Winterhawk (1997). "Black Indians want a place in history" . Djembe Magazine . http://www.djembe.dk/no/19/08biwapi.html . Consultado el 29/05/2009.
- Katz WL 1997 p. 103.
- Katz WL 1997 p. 104.
- William Loren Katz (2008). "Africans and Indians: Only in America" . William Loren Katz . http://www.williamlkatz.com/Essays/History/AfricansIndians.php . Retrieved 2009-05-06 . [ enlace roto ]
- "DNA Testing: review, African American Lives ,
- "African American Lives 2" . http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aalives/dna/index.html .
- Troy Duster (2008). "Deep Roots and Tangled Branches" . Chronicle of Higher Education . http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3908 . Consultado el 10/02/2008.
- Esteban Parra, et al. "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population-Specific Alleles" . American Journal of Human Genetics . http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297(07)61628-0 .
- "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population" . The American Journal of Human Genetics . http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297(07)61628-0 .
- Sherrel Wheeler Stewart (2008). "More Blacks are Exploring the African-American/Native American Connection" . BlackAmericaWeb.com . http://www.rlnn.com/ArtOct06/MoreBlacksAfricanAmerNativeAmerConnection.html . Consultado el 06/08/2008. [ enlace roto ]
- ScienceDaily (2008). "Genetic Ancestral Testing Cannot Deliver On Its Promise, Study Warns" . ScienceDaily . http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071018145955.htm . Consultado el 10/02/2008.
- Brett Lee Shelton, JD and Jonathan Marks, Ph.D. (2008). "Genetic Markers Not a Valid Test of Native Identity" . Counsel for Responsible Genetics . http://www.ipcb.org/publications/briefing_papers/files/identity.html . Consultado el 10/02/2008.
- Charles Hudson, The Southeastern Indians , 1976, p. 479.
- "Y chromosome study sheds light on Athapaskan migration to southwest US" , Eureka Alert , Department of Energy Public Newslist
- Henry Louis Gates, Jr., In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past , New York: Crown Publishers, 2009, pp. 20–21.
- Kim TallBear, Phd., Associate, Red Nation Consulting (2008). "Can DNA Determine Who is American Indian?" . The WEYANOKE Association . http://www.weyanoke.org/historyculture/hc-DNAandIndianAncestry.html . Consultado el 10/27/2009.
- Karen Kaplan, "Ancestry in a Drop of Blood" , Race Science Now (August 30, 2005), Retrieved February 20, 2006.
- "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" . Censo de los EE.UU.. January, 2012 . http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-10.pdf . Retrieved June 2, 2010 .
- Jack Hitt (August 21, 2005). "The Newest Indians" . The New York Times Magazine . http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0F17FD3A580C728EDDA10894DD404482 . Consultado el 02 de junio 2012.
- "Indian Achievement Award" . Ipl.org . http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/A29 . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- "Charles A. Eastman" . Answers.com . http://www.answers.com/topic/charles-eastman . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "US census" . Consultado el 08/22/2010.
- "2000 Summary File 1 – US Census Bureau" (PDF). EE.UU. Oficina del Censo. 2007}accessdate=2010-11-01 . http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf1.pdf .
- Consortium, T. Y C. (2002). "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups" . Genome Research 12 (2): 339–348. DOI : 10.1101/gr.217602 . PMC 155271 . PMID 11827954 . //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=155271 . (Detailed hierarchical chart)
- Griffiths, Anthony JF (1999). An Introduction to genetic analysis . Nueva York: WH Consultado el 03/02/2010.
- "Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup Q. Genebase Tutorials" (Verbal tutorial possible). Genebase Sistemas. 2008. http://www.genebase.com/tutorial/item.php?tuId=16 . Consultado el 21/11/2009.
- L Orgel (2004). "química prebiótica y el origen del mundo del ARN" (PDF) Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 39 (2).: Consultado el 2010-01-19.
- First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover — Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News . Discovery Channel . http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/02/13/beringia-native-american.html . Consultado el 2009-11-18. pág. 2 .
- Que, Ker (2008). "Tomó pobladores del Nuevo Mundo de 20.000 años de Pit Stop" . National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/02/080214-america-layover.html . Consultado el 01/23/2010.
- "Resumen de los conocimientos sobre los subclades de haplogrupo Q" . Genebase Sistemas. 2009. http://22.214.171.124/file/lu/6/52235/NTIyMzV9K3szNTc2Nzc=.jpg?download=1 . Consultado el 11/22/2009.
- Ruhlen M (1998). "The origin of the Na-Dene" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (23): 13994–6. DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.23.13994 . PMC 25007 . PMID 9811914 . //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=25007 .
- Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF (2004). "High-resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas". Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (1): 164–75. DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msh009 . PMID 14595095 .
- Juliette Saillard, Peter Forster, Niels Lynnerup1, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt and Søren Nørby (2000). "mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos. The Edge of the Beringian Expansion". The American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (3): 718–726. DOI : 10.1086/303038 .
- Schurr, Theodore G. (2004). "The peopling of the New World — Perspectives from Molecular Anthropology". Annual Review of Anthropology 33 : 551–583. DOI : 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143932 .
- A. Torroni et al. (1992). "Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations" . Genetics 130 (1): 153–162. PMC 1204788 . PMID 1346260 . //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1204788 .
[ editar ] Referencias
- Barak, Gregg, Paul Leighton, and Jeanne Flavin. Class, Race, Gender, and Crime: The Social Realities of Justice in America. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7425-9969-7 .
[ editar ] Para leer más
- Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875–1928 , University Press of Kansas , 1975. ISBN 0-7006-0735-8 (hbk); ISBN 0-7006-0838-9 (pbk).
- Bierhorst, John. A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians . ISBN 0-941270-53-X .
- Deloria, Vine . 1969. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto . New York: Macmillan.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR), Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries Part 22-Eagle permits "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations:" . Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-22 .
- Hirschfelder, Arlene B.; Byler, Mary G.; & Dorris, Michael. Guide to research on North American Indians . American Library Association (1983). ISBN 0-8389-0353-3 .
- Johnston, Eric F. The Life of the Native American , Atlanta, GA: Tradewinds Press (2003).
- Johnston, Eric. The Life Of the Native . Philadelphia, PA: EC Biddle, etc. 1836–44. University of Georgia Library.
- Jones, Peter N. Respect for the Ancestors: American Indian Cultural Affiliation in the American West . Boulder, CO: Bauu Press (2005). ISBN 0-9721349-2-1 .
- Kroeber, Alfred L. (1939). Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America . University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology . http://books.google.com/books?id=_M70pNlgDf0C .
- Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States & Canada, A Comparative History . University of Nebraska Press (1998). ISBN 0-8032-8377-6 .
- Pohl, Frances K. (2002). Framing America: A Social History of American Art . New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 54–56, 105–106 & 110–111. ISBN 0-500-23792-1 . http://www.thamesandhudsonusa.com/new/fall02/523792.htm . [ enlace roto ]
- Shanley, Kathryn Winona (2004). "The Paradox of Native American Indian Intellectualism and Literature" . Melus 29 . http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5008600865 .
- Shanley, Kathryn Winona (1997). "The Indians America Loves to Love and Read: American Indian Identity and Cultural Appropriation" . American Indian Quarterly 21 (4): 675–702. DOI : 10.2307/1185719 . http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76961328 .
- Krech, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History , New York: WW Norton, 1999. 352 p. ISBN 0-393-04755-5
- Shohat, Ella; Stam, Robert (1994). Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06324-8 .
- Sletcher, Michael, "North American Indians", in Will Kaufman and Heidi Macpherson, eds., Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History , New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, 2 vols.
- Snipp, CM (1989). American Indians: The first of this land . New York: Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 0-87154-822-4 . http://books.google.com/books?id=E0CsvVoVA90C .
- Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1–20). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published), (1978–present).
- Tiller, Veronica E. (Ed.). Discover Indian Reservations USA: A Visitors' Welcome Guide . Foreword by Ben Nighthorse Campbell . Denver, CO: Council Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-9632580-0-1 .
[ editar ]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Native Americans|
- "First Nations Experience Television" , 2011, Official Website, multi-media platform, a partnership between the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians and KVCR, a PBS member station located in California's Inland Empire .
- Native American Treaties and Information from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Native American History from the Library of Congress American Memory project
- Native Americans in the United States at the Open Directory Project
- Native American Historical Records , Archival Research Catalog, National Archives and Records Administration
- Bonneville Collection of 19th century photographs of Native Americans , University of South Carolina Library's Digital Collections Page
- "Researching Individual Native Americans" , National Archives at Atlanta
- National Congress of American Indians
- National Museum of the American Indian
- US Department of the Interior: Indian Affairs