Huracán Katrina

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Saltar a navegación , búsqueda
Huracán Katrina
Huracán de categoría 5 ( SSHS )
Huracán Katrina en el pico de fuerza en 28 de agosto 2005
Formado 23 de agosto 2005
Disipado 30 de agosto 2005
Vientos más fuertes 1 minuto sostenido :
175 mph (280 km / h)
Presión mínima 902 mbar ( hPa ), 26.64 inHg
Fatalidades 1833 confirmado [1]
Daño $ 108 mil millones (2005 USD )
( más costoso de huracanes en la historia de EE.UU. [2] )
Areas afectadas Bahamas , el sur de Florida , Cuba , Louisiana (especialmente Greater New Orleans ), Mississippi , Alabama , Florida Panhandle , la mayor parte del este de América del Norte
Una parte de la temporada de huracanes del Atlántico 2005

El huracán Katrina fue el más mortífero y destructivo de huracanes del Atlántico de la temporada de huracanes del Atlántico 2005 . Fue el más costoso desastre natural, así como una de las cinco más mortales huracanes , en la historia de los Estados Unidos . Entre registrados huracanes en el Atlántico , que era el sexto más fuerte en general . Al menos 1.833 personas murieron en las inundaciones del huracán y posterior, por lo que es el más mortífero EE.UU. de huracanes desde 1928 Okeechobee huracanes , daños a la propiedad total se estima en 81 mil millones dólares (2005 USD), [1] casi el triple de los daños interpuesta por el huracán Andrew en 1992 . [3]

El huracán Katrina se formó sobre las Bahamas el 23 de agosto de 2005 y cruzó el sur de la Florida como un moderado huracán de categoría 1 , causando algunas muertes e inundaciones antes que fortalecer rápidamente en el Golfo de México . El huracán se fortaleció a categoría 5 huracán sobre el agua cálida del Golfo, pero se debilitó antes de hacer su segunda recalada como categoría 3 huracán en la mañana del lunes 29 de agosto en el sudeste de Luisiana. Esto causó gran destrucción a lo largo de la costa del Golfo de la Florida central de Texas, en gran parte debido a la oleada de la tormenta . El más significativo número de muertes se produjo en Nueva Orleans , Louisiana , que inundó como diques sistema falló catastróficamente , en muchos casos, horas después de que la tormenta se había desplazado hacia el interior. [4] Finalmente, el 80% de la ciudad y grandes extensiones de vecinos parroquias se inundó , y las aguas quedaron durante semanas. [4] Sin embargo, el peor daño a la propiedad se produjo en las zonas costeras, como todos los pueblos frente a la playa de Mississippi , que se inundó el 90% en las horas, como barcos y barcazas casino apisonada edificios, empujando coches y casas interior, con aguas que alcanzan 6-12 millas (10-19 km) de la playa.

Los fracasos de protección contra sobretensiones huracán en Nueva Orleans se consideran el peor desastre de ingeniería civil en la historia de EE.UU. [5] y provocó una demanda contra el Cuerpo de Ingenieros del Ejército de EE.UU. (USACE), los diseñadores y constructores del sistema de diques a lo dispuesto por el Control de Inundaciones Ley de 1965 . La responsabilidad de los fracasos y las inundaciones se puso de lleno en el cuerpo del ejército en enero de 2008 por el juez Stanwood Duval , Tribunal de Distrito de EE.UU., [6] pero la agencia federal no puede ser considerado responsable financieramente debido a la inmunidad soberana en el Acta de Control de Inundaciones de 1928 . También hubo una investigación de las respuestas de los gobiernos federal, estatales y locales, lo que resulta en la renuncia de la Agencia Federal de Manejo de Emergencias (FEMA) del director Michael D. Brown , y del Departamento de Policía de Nueva Orleans (NOPD) Superintendente Eddie brújula .

Varios organismos, entre ellos el guardacostas de Estados Unidos (USCG), el Centro Nacional de Huracanes (NHC), y el Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (NWS) fueron elogiados por sus acciones. Ellos siempre precisos huracán meteorológico Previsiones de seguimiento con suficiente antelación. [7] Incluso los más insistentes llamamientos de locales, estatales y funcionarios públicos nacionales a los residentes a evacuar antes de la tormenta no advirtió que los diques podrían romper y no. [8]

Contenido

Historial Meteorológico

Ruta Storm

El huracán Katrina se formó como depresión tropical Doce sobre el sureste de Bahamas el 23 de agosto de 2005 como resultado de la interacción de una onda tropical y los restos de la depresión tropical Diez . El sistema se ha actualizado a la condición de tormenta tropical en la mañana del 24 de agosto y en este momento, la tormenta se le dio el nombre de Katrina. La tormenta tropical continuó moviéndose hacia Florida, y se convirtió en un huracán de tan sólo dos horas antes de que hiciera tocar tierra entre Hallandale Beach y Aventura en la mañana del 25 de agosto. La tormenta se debilitó sobre tierra, pero recuperó la categoría de huracán cerca de una hora después de entrar en el Golfo de México. [1]

Katrina cerca de Florida tocar tierra.

La tormenta se intensificó rápidamente después de entrar en el Golfo, pasando de un huracán de categoría 3 en un huracán de categoría 5 en tan sólo nueve horas. Este rápido crecimiento se debe al movimiento de la tormenta sobre los "inusualmente cálidas" aguas de la Corriente del Lazo , que aumentaron la velocidad del viento. [9] El sábado 27 de agosto, la tormenta alcanzó la intensidad de categoría 3 en la escala de huracanes de Saffir-Simpson , convirtiéndose el tercer huracán mayor de la temporada. Un ciclo de sustitución del contorno del núcleo interrumpe la intensificación, pero causó la tormenta que casi el doble de tamaño. Katrina nuevo se intensificó rápidamente, alcanzando la Categoría 5 en la mañana del 28 de agosto y alcanzó su pico de fuerza a 1800 UTC el día, con vientos máximos sostenidos de 175 mph (280 km / h) y una central mínima de presión de 902 mbar (26.6 inHg ). La medición de la presión hizo Katrina el cuarto huracán atlántico más intenso de la historia en el momento, sólo para ser superado por los huracanes Rita y Wilma tarde en la temporada, sino que también fue el huracán más intenso jamás registrado en el Golfo de México en ese momento. Sin embargo, este disco fue posteriormente interrumpido por el huracán Rita. [1]

Katrina el 28 de agosto, a punto de la Costa del Golfo .

Katrina hizo su segundo desembarco en 1110 UTC (6:10 am CDT) el lunes 29 de agosto como huracán de categoría 3, con vientos sostenidos de 125 mph (205 km / h) cerca de Buras-Triumph, Louisiana . Al tocar tierra, los vientos huracanados extienden hacia el exterior 120 millas (190 km) del centro y de la presión central de la tormenta fue de 920 mbar (27 inHg). Tras situarse sobre el sureste de Luisiana y Breton Sound , que hizo su tercera tierra cerca de la frontera con Louisiana / Mississippi con 120 mph (195 km / h) vientos sostenidos, aún con una intensidad de categoría 3. Katrina mantiene la fuerza y en Mississippi, finalmente, la pérdida de fuerza de huracán más de 150 millas (240 km) tierra adentro cerca de Meridian, Mississippi . Fue degradada a depresión tropical cerca de Clarksville, Tennessee , pero sus restos fueron último distinguibles en el este de los Grandes Lagos, la región el 31 de agosto, cuando fue absorbida por un límite frontal . El resultado extratropical tormenta se movió rápidamente hacia el noreste y el este de Canadá afectada. [1]

Preparativos

Gobierno Federal

Flanqueado por Michael Chertoff , Secretario de Seguridad Nacional , a la izquierda, y el secretario de Defensa, Donald Rumsfeld , el presidente George W. Bush se reúne con miembros de la Casa Blanca Grupo de Trabajo sobre el huracán Katrina de recuperación el 31 de agosto de 2005, en la Sala del Gabinete de la Casa Blanca House.

En la mañana del viernes 26 de agosto a las 10 am CDT (1500 UTC ), Katrina había fortalecido a un huracán de categoría 3 en el Golfo de México. Por la tarde, el NHC dado cuenta de que Katrina todavía tenía que hacer el giro hacia la península de Florida y terminó la revisión de la pista prevista de la tormenta de la península de la costa de Mississippi. [10] [11] El NHC emitió una advertencia de huracán para el sureste de Louisiana, incluyendo el área de Nueva Orleans a las 10 am CDT Sábado, 27 de agosto. Esa tarde el NHC extendió el reloj para cubrir las costas de Mississippi y Alabama, así como la costa de Louisiana a Intracoastal City .

El guardacostas de Estados Unidos comenzó recursos preposicionar en un anillo alrededor de la zona del impacto previsto y activado más de 400 reservistas. El 27 de agosto, se trasladó a su personal fuera de la región de Nueva Orleans antes de la evacuación obligatoria. [12] Las tripulaciones aéreas del Centro de Entrenamiento de Aviación, en Mobile, realizaron aviones de rescate de Texas a Florida. [13] Todos los aviones volvían hacia el Golfo de México en la tarde del 29 de agosto. Aire equipos , muchos de los cuales perdieron sus viviendas durante el huracán, comenzaron los trabajos de rescate del reloj alrededor de Nueva Orleans, ya lo largo de las costas de Mississippi y Alabama. [14]

Presidente de los Estados Unidos George W. Bush declaró el estado de emergencia en algunas regiones de Louisiana, Alabama y Mississippi, el sábado, día 27, dos días antes de que el huracán tocó tierra. [15] Esa misma noche, el CNH actualizó la tormenta estado de alerta por el huracán reloj alerta de huracán en el tramo de costa entre Morgan City, Louisiana hasta la frontera de Alabama-Florida, 12 horas después de haberse realizado la descripción del reloj, y también emitió una advertencia de tormenta tropical para la más occidental de Florida Panhandle. [1 ]

Durante las conferencias de video que involucran al presidente el 28 de agosto y 29, el director del Centro Nacional de Huracanes, Max Mayfield , expresó su preocupación de que Katrina podría impulsar la marejada sobre los diques de la ciudad y los muros de contención. En una conferencia, declaró: "Yo no creo que nadie se puede decir con seguridad si en estos momentos se superaron los diques o no, pero eso es obviamente un muy gran preocupación". [16]

El domingo 28 de agosto, ya que la magnitud de Katrina puso de manifiesto, el NHC amplió la zona de alerta de tormenta tropical para cubrir la mayor parte de la costa de Louisiana y una porción más grande de la península de Florida . Oficina Rouge del Servicio Nacional Meteorológico de New Orleans / Baton emitió un boletín claramente redactado predice que la zona sería "inhabitable por semanas" después de "daño devastador" causado por Katrina, que en ese momento rivalizó con la intensidad de huracán Camille . [17] " El domingo 28 de agosto, el presidente Bush habló con el gobernador Blanco animarla a ordenar una evacuación obligatoria de Nueva Orleans ". (Por página 235 del Informe Especial de la Comisión de Seguridad Nacional y Asuntos Gubernamentales) [18]

Evacuaciones voluntarias y obligatorias fueron emitidas para las grandes áreas del sureste de Louisiana, así como la costa de Mississippi y Alabama. Cerca de 1.2 millones de residentes de la Costa del Golfo fueron cubiertos por una orden de evacuación voluntaria u obligatoria. [1]

Investigación de la declaración de estado de emergencia

En un 26 de septiembre 2005 la audiencia, el ex jefe de la FEMA Michael Brown testificó ante un subcomité de EE.UU. Casa de la respuesta de la FEMA. Durante la audiencia, el representante Stephen comprador (R-IN) preguntó por qué la declaración del estado de emergencia el 27 de agosto del presidente Bush no había incluido las parroquias costeras de Orleans, Jefferson y Plaquemines. [19] (De hecho, la declaración hizo no incluye ninguna de las parroquias costeras de Louisiana, mientras que los condados costeros fueron incluidas en las declaraciones de Mississippi [20] y Alabama. [21] ) Brown testificó que esto se debía a Louisiana gobernadora Blanco no incluía las parroquias en su solicitud inicial de la ayuda, una decisión que se encontró "sorprendente". Después de la audiencia, Blanco lanzó una copia de su carta, que mostró que había solicitado ayuda para "todas las parroquias del sureste, incluyendo la ciudad de Nueva Orleans", así nombrando específicamente 14 parroquias como Jefferson, Orleans y Plaquemines. [22]

Costa del Golfo

Imagen de radar de huracán Katrina se acerca a tierra en Louisiana

El 26 de agosto, el estado de Mississippi activó su Guardia Nacional en la preparación para la tormenta toque tierra. Además, el gobierno del estado activado su Centro de Operaciones de Emergencia del día siguiente, y los gobiernos locales comenzó a emitir órdenes de evacuación. Por 18:00 CDT el 28 de agosto 11 condados y once ciudades emitieron órdenes de evacuación, un número que aumentó a 41 condados y 61 ciudades a la mañana siguiente. Por otra parte, se establecieron 57 albergues de emergencia en las comunidades costeras, con 31 nuevos centros de acogida disponibles para abrir, si es necesario. [7] el plan de evacuación de huracanes de Louisiana llamado a los gobiernos locales en áreas a lo largo y cerca de la costa para evacuar en tres fases, a partir de la costa inmediata 50 horas antes del comienzo de los vientos con fuerza de tormenta tropical. Personas en áreas designadas Fase II comienzan evacuación de 40 horas antes de la aparición de los vientos de tormenta tropical y los de las zonas de fase III (incluyendo Nueva Orleans) evacuar a 30 horas antes del inicio de tales vientos. [23]

Muchos centros privados de cuidado que dependían de las empresas de autobuses y servicios de ambulancia para la evacuación no pudieron evacuar sus cargos porque esperaron demasiado tiempo. De Louisiana de Operaciones de Emergencia Plan Complementario de 1C (Parte II, sección II, punto D) requiere el uso de la escuela y otros autobuses públicos en las evacuaciones. [24] A pesar de los autobuses que luego inundan estaban disponibles para el transporte de los que dependen de transporte público, no los conductores de autobuses suficientes eran disponibles para conducirlos como gobernadora Blanco no firmó una renuncia de emergencia para permitir que cualquier conductor con licencia para el transporte de evacuados en autobuses escolares. [25] Sin embargo, 20 años de edad Jabbar Gibson armado sólo con un permiso de operador estándar se encargó de llevar a la escuela autobús y conducirlo a Houston con 50 a 70 evacuados. [26] [27] Algunas estimaciones afirmaron que el 80% de los 1,3 millones de residentes en el área metropolitana de Nueva Orleans evacuados, dejando atrás muchas menos personas de las que permanecieron en la ciudad durante el Huracán Ivan evacuación. [28]

Para el domingo, 28 de agosto de más infraestructura a lo largo de la costa del Golfo había sido cerrado, incluyendo toda la carga y Amtrak tráfico ferroviario en las zonas de evacuación, así como la Estación de Generación Nuclear de Waterford . [29] El CNH mantiene las advertencias costeras hasta finales de agosto 29, momento en que el huracán Katrina fue sobre el centro de Mississippi. [1]

City of New Orleans

Sección vertical de New Orleans, que muestra la altura máxima del dique de 23 pies (7 m). La escala vertical exagerada.

Para el 26 de agosto ya estaba siendo considerado la posibilidad de un cataclismo sin precedentes. Muchos de los modelos de computadora habían cambiado la trayectoria potencial de Katrina 150 millas (240 km) al oeste de la península de Florida, poniendo a la ciudad de Nueva Orleans en el centro de sus probabilidades de pista, las posibilidades de un golpe directo se pronostican en 17% , con una probabilidad de golpe ascendente al 29% antes del 28 de agosto. [30] Esta situación se considera una potencial catástrofe porque algunas partes de Nueva Orleans y el área metropolitana se encuentran por debajo del nivel del mar. Dado que se prevé que la marejada producida por cuadrante delantero derecho del huracán (que contiene los vientos más fuertes) a ser de 28 pies (8,5 m), los funcionarios de manejo de emergencias en Nueva Orleans teme que la oleada de la tormenta podría ir sobre las copas de los diques de protección de la ciudad , causando grandes inundaciones. [31]

En una conferencia de prensa a las 10 horas el 28 de agosto, poco después de Katrina pasó a ser un huracán de categoría 5, alcalde de Nueva Orleans Ray Nagin ordenó el primer evacuación obligatoria de la ciudad, llamando a Katrina "una tormenta que la mayoría de nosotros hemos temido durante mucho tiempo ». [32] El gobierno de la ciudad también estableció varios "refugios de último recurso" para los ciudadanos que no podían salir de la ciudad, como la masiva Louisiana Superdome , que albergaba a unos 26.000 personas y les proporcionó comida y agua durante varios días mientras la tormenta tocó tierra. [33] [34]

Florida

Muchas personas que viven en la zona sur de la Florida no sabían cuando Katrina fortalecido de una tormenta tropical a un huracán en un día y golpeó el sur de Florida, cerca de la Miami-Dade - Broward línea del condado. El huracán golpeó entre las ciudades de Aventura , en el condado de Miami-Dade y Hallandale , en el condado de Broward, el jueves 25 de agosto de 2005. Sin embargo, el Centro de Huracanes (NHC previsiones nacionales) habían pronosticado correctamente que Katrina se intensificaría con fuerza de huracán antes de tocar tierra, y los relojes de los huracanes y las advertencias fueron emitidas 31,5 horas y 19,5 horas antes de tocar tierra, respectivamente - sólo un poco menor que los umbrales objetivo de 36 y 24 horas. [1]

El gobernador de Florida Jeb Bush declaró el estado de emergencia el 24 de agosto antes de la llegada del Huracán Katrina en la Florida. Se abrieron refugios y las escuelas cerraron en varios condados en la parte sur del estado. También se emitieron varias órdenes de evacuación, en su mayoría voluntarios, a pesar de una evacuación obligatoria se ordenó para la vivienda vulnerable en el condado de Martin . [35]

Impacto

En la estela de Katrina - cortometraje de la NASA
Muerto por estado
Alabama 2
Florida 14
Georgia 2
Kentucky 1
Luisiana 1577 *
Misisipí 238
Ohio 2
Total 1836
Que falta 135 [36]
* Incluye los evacuados fuera del estado
contados por Louisiana

El 29 de agosto de Katrina marejada causó 53 ruptura de los diques diferentes en mayor New Orleans, sumergiendo el ochenta por ciento de la ciudad. Un informe de junio de 2007 por la Sociedad Americana de Ingenieros Civiles indicó que dos tercios de las inundaciones fueron causadas por las múltiples fallas de muros de contención de la ciudad. [37] No se menciona eran las compuertas que no estaban cerradas. [ cita requerida ] La tormenta aumento también devastó las costas de Mississippi y Alabama, haciendo Katrina el más destructivo y costoso desastre natural en la historia de los Estados Unidos, y el huracán más mortífero desde el 1928 el huracán Okeechobee. El total de daños de Katrina se estima en $ 81,2 mil millones (2.005 dólares ), casi el doble del costo de la tormenta antes más caro, el huracán Andrew , cuando se ajusta por la inflación. [1] [38]

El número de muertos confirmados (total de muertes directas e indirectas) es 1836, principalmente de Louisiana (1577) y Mississippi (238). [36] [39] Sin embargo, 135 personas permanecen clasificados como desaparecidos en Louisiana, [36] y muchos de las muertes son indirectos, pero es casi imposible determinar la causa exacta de algunos de los muertos.

Federales declaraciones de desastre cubren 90.000 millas cuadradas (233.000 kilometros 2) de los Estados Unidos, un área casi tan grande como el Reino Unido . El huracán dejó un estimado de tres millones de personas sin electricidad. El 3 de septiembre de 2005, de Seguridad Nacional Secretario Michael Chertoff describió las consecuencias del huracán Katrina como "probablemente la peor catástrofe o conjunto de catástrofes" en la historia del país, en referencia a que el huracán en sí, más la inundación de Nueva Orleans. [40]

Incluso en 2010, los restos permanecieron en algunas comunidades costeras. [41]

Sur de la Florida y Cuba

Daños en una casa móvil en Davie, Florida después del huracán Katrina

El huracán Katrina tocó tierra primero el 25 de agosto de 2005 en el sur de Florida donde golpeó como un huracán de categoría 1, con vientos de 80 mph (130 km / h). Las precipitaciones fueron pesados ​​en lugares y superó 14 pulgadas (350 mm) en Homestead, Florida , [1] y una marejada de 3 - 5 pies (1,5 m) se mide en partes del condado de Monroe . [38] Más de 1 millón de clientes se quedaron sin electricidad y daños en la Florida se estima a partir de $ 1 - $ 2 mil millones, con la mayor parte de los daños provenientes de inundaciones y árboles volcados. Hubo 14 muertes reportadas en Florida como resultado del huracán Katrina. [1]

La mayoría de los Cayos de la Florida experimentaron vientos con fuerza de tormenta tropical de Katrina como el centro de la tormenta pasó por el norte, con vientos huracanados reportados en el Dry Tortugas . Las precipitaciones también fue alta en las islas, con 10 pulgadas (250 mm) que caen en Key West . El 26 de agosto, un fuerte F1 tornado formado a partir de una banda de lluvia exterior de Katrina y ponchó Marathon . El tornado dañó un hangar en el aeropuerto allí y causó un estimado de $ 5 millones en daños. [42]

Aunque el huracán Katrina quedó bien al norte de Cuba , el 29 de agosto trajo vientos con fuerza de tormenta tropical y lluvias de más de 8 pulgadas (200 mm) en las regiones occidentales de la isla. Las líneas telefónicas y de energía fueron dañadas y alrededor de 8.000 personas fueron evacuadas en la provincia de Pinar del Río . Según la televisión cubana informa de la ciudad costera de Surgidero de Batabanó fue del 90% bajo el agua. [43]

Luisiana

Inundaciones en Venice, Louisiana

El 29 de agosto, el huracán Katrina tocó tierra cerca de Buras-Triumph, Louisiana con vientos de 125 mph (205 km / h), ya que una fuerte tormenta de categoría 3. Sin embargo, como lo había hecho más que debilitado por la fuerza de categoría 4 y el radio de vientos máximos era grande, es posible que los vientos de fuerza de Categoría 4 impactados brevemente extremo sureste de Louisiana. A pesar de la oleada de la tormenta en el este de la ruta del ojo en Mississippi fue mayor, un aumento muy significativo afectó a la costa de Luisiana. La altura del pico es incierta debido a la falta de datos, aunque un mareógrafo en Plaquemines Parish indicó una marea de tormenta de más de 14 pies (4,3 m) y 12 pies (3 m) oleada de la tormenta se registró en Grand Isle . El huracán Katrina tocó tierra cerca de la final de la boca del Río de las Perlas , a simple caballo entre San Tammany Parish, Louisiana y el Condado de Hancock, Mississippi, en la mañana del 29 de agosto a las 9:45 M CST. [1]

El huracán Katrina también trajo fuertes lluvias a Luisiana, con 8 - 10 pulgadas (200 - 250 mm) que cae en una amplia franja de la parte oriental del estado. En los alrededores de Slidell , la lluvia fue aún mayor, y la precipitación más alta registrada en el estado fue de aproximadamente 15 pulgadas (380 mm). Como resultado de las lluvias y mareas de tempestad el nivel de lago Pontchartrain se levantó y causó importantes inundaciones a lo largo de su costa noreste, afectando a las comunidades de Slidell a Mandeville . Varios puentes fueron destruidos, incluyendo el puente de Span I-10 Doble conexión Slidell a Nueva Orleans. [1] Casi 900.000 personas en Louisiana quedaron sin electricidad a causa del huracán Katrina. [44]

Marejada del huracán Katrina inundó todas las parroquias que rodean el lago Pontchartrain, incluyendo St. Tammany , Tangipahoa, St. Juan el Bautista y St. Charles Parroquias. St. Tammany Parish recibió una marejada de dos partes. La primera oleada llegó el lago Pontchartrain se levantó y la tormenta soplaba el agua del Golfo de México en el lago. El segundo llegó con el paso del ojo de Katrina, los vientos del oeste empujan el agua en un cuello de botella en el Rigolets Pass, lo que obligó tierra adentro. El rango de niveles de sobretensión en el este de St. Tammany Parish se estima en 13 a 16 pies (4,9 m), sin incluir la acción del oleaje. [45]

Duro golpe St. Bernard Parish se inundó debido a la ruptura de los diques que contenían un canal de navegación llamado el Río Mississippi Golfo Outlet (MR-GO) y el incumplimiento de la Junta dique diseñado y construido 40 Arpent dique canal. La búsqueda de los desaparecidos fue realizado por el Departamento de Bernard debido a los activos de la St. Fuego guardacostas de Estados Unidos se desvíen hacia Nueva Orleans. En los meses después de la tormenta, muchos de los desaparecidos fueron localizados por la búsqueda de casas inundadas, el seguimiento de los registros de tarjetas de crédito, y visitar las casas de familiares y parientes. [46]

Huracán Katrina de tocar tierra en Nueva Orleans, Louisiana .

Según el Departamento de EE.UU. de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano, en St. Bernard Parish, el 81% (20.229) de las viviendas sufrieron daños. En St. Tammany Parish, el 70% (48.792) fueron dañadas y en Placquemines Parroquia 80% (7.212) fueron dañados. [47]

Además, el efecto combinado de los huracanes Katrina y Rita fue la destrucción de unos 562 kilometros cuadrados (217 millas cuadradas) de los humedales costeros de Louisiana. [48]

Nueva Orleáns

Inundado I-10/I-610/West End Blvd intercambio y sus alrededores en el noroeste de Nueva Orleans y New Orleans, Louisiana

En el ojo del huracán Katrina barrió hacia el noreste, se somete a la ciudad a las condiciones de huracán durante horas. A pesar de los apagones impidieron la medición precisa de la velocidad del viento en Nueva Orleans, había unas pocas mediciones de vientos huracanados. A partir de esto, el NHC concluye que es probable que gran parte de la ciudad experimentaron vientos sostenidos de las categorías 1 o 2 de fuerza.

Marejada del huracán Katrina provocó 53 ruptura de los diques en el sistema de diques construidos por el gobierno federal proteger metropolitana de Nueva Orleans y el fracaso de la 40 Arpent Canal dique. Casi todos los diques en el área metropolitana de Nueva Orleans fue violada cuando el huracán Katrina pasó justo al este de los límites de la ciudad. Las fallas se produjeron en Nueva Orleans y las comunidades circundantes, especialmente St. Bernard Parish. El río Mississippi Golfo Outlet (MR-GO) incumplió sus diques en aproximadamente 20 lugares, inundando gran parte del este de Nueva Orleans, la mayor parte de San Bernard Parish y el lado Este de la parroquia de Plaquemines . Los principales ruptura de los diques de la ciudad incluyen las infracciones en el 17th Street Canal del dique, el London Avenida Canal , y el amplio y navegable Canal Industrial , que dejó aproximadamente el 80% de la ciudad inundada. [49]

La mayoría de las principales carreteras que viajan dentro y fuera de la ciudad fueron dañados. Las únicas rutas fuera de la ciudad fueron el oeste Crescent City Connection y el Huey P. Long Bridge, como gran parte del puente I-Span 10 camas en dirección este hacia Slidell, Louisiana había derrumbado. Tanto el Lake Pontchartrain Causeway y el Crescent City Connection sólo llevan el tráfico de emergencia. [50]

El 29 de agosto, a las 7:40 am CDT, se informó de que la mayoría de las ventanas en el lado norte del Hyatt Regency New Orleans se había volado, y muchos otros edificios de gran altura tenido grandes daños ventana. [51] El Hyatt Fue el hotel más severamente dañado de la ciudad, con camas reportados estar volando por las ventanas. Tubos aislantes fueron expuestos como vidrio exterior del hotel ha sido totalmente cortado apagado. [52]

Un soldado de la guardia Costera de Estados Unidos busca de sobrevivientes en Nueva Orleans en las secuelas de Katrina

El Superdome, que fue refugio a muchas personas que no habían evacuado, sufrió daños significativos. [53] Dos secciones del techo del Superdome fueron comprometidos y membrana impermeable de la bóveda esencialmente había sido pelada. aeropuerto internacional Louis Armstrong de Nueva Orleans fue cerrado antes de la tormenta pero no inundar. El 30 de agosto, se vuelve a abrir a las operaciones humanitarias y de rescate. Servicio comercial de pasajeros Limited reanudado en el aeropuerto a 13 operaciones de transporte regulares septiembre y reanudó a principios de octubre. [54]

Ruptura de los diques en Nueva Orleans también causó una gran cantidad de muertes, con más de 700 cuerpos recuperados en Nueva Orleans el 23 de octubre de 2005. [55] Algunos sobrevivientes y evacuados dijeron haber visto cadáveres tendidos en las calles de la ciudad y flotando en secciones aún inundadas, especialmente en el este de la ciudad. El avanzado estado de descomposición de muchos cadáveres, algunos de los cuales quedaron en el agua o el sol durante días antes de ser recogido, obstaculizado los esfuerzos de los médicos forenses para identificar muchos de los muertos. [56]

Las primeras muertes de la ciudad se registraron poco antes de la medianoche del 28 de agosto, cuando tres hogares de ancianos pacientes murieron durante la evacuación a Baton Rouge , muy probablemente de la deshidratación. Aunque también hubo los primeros informes de víctimas mortales en medio de caos en el Superdome, se confirmaron sólo seis muertes allí, con cuatro de ellos procedentes de causas naturales , uno de una sobredosis de drogas , y uno un suicidio . En el Centro de Convenciones, se recuperaron cuatro cuerpos. Uno de los cuatro se cree que es el resultado de un homicidio. [57]

Hay evidencia de que muchos presos fueron abandonados en sus celdas durante la tormenta, mientras los guardias se refugiaron. Cientos de presos más tarde se registraron como "desaparecidos". [58] [59] [60] [61] [62]

Misisipí

US Route 90's Bay St. Louis Bridge on Pass Christian was destroyed as a result of Katrina.

The Gulf coast of Mississippi suffered massive damage from the impact of Hurricane Katrina on August 29, leaving 238 people dead, 67 missing, and billions of dollars in damage: bridges, barges, boats, piers, houses and cars were washed inland. [ 63 ] Katrina traveled up the entire state, and afterwards, all 82 counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas for federal assistance, 47 for full assistance. [ 63 ]

After making a brief initial landfall in Louisiana, Katrina had made its final landfall near the state line, and the eyewall passed over the cities of Bay St. Louis and Waveland as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). [ 1 ] Katrina's powerful right-front quadrant passed over the west and central Mississippi coast, causing a powerful 27-foot (8.2 m) storm surge, which penetrated 6 miles (10 km) inland in many areas and up to 12 miles (20 km) inland along bays and rivers; in some areas, the surge crossed Interstate 10 for several miles. [ 1 ] Hurricane Katrina brought strong winds to Mississippi, which caused significant tree damage throughout the state. The highest unofficial reported wind gust recorded from Katrina was one of 135 mph (217 km/h) in Poplarville , in Pearl River County . [ 1 ]

Damage to Long Beach, Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina

The storm also brought heavy rains with 8 – 10 inches (200 – 250 mm) falling in southwestern Mississippi and rain in excess of 4 inches (100 mm) falling throughout the majority of the state. Katrina caused eleven tornadoes in Mississippi on August 29, some of which damaged trees and power lines. [ 1 ]

Battered by wind, rain and storm surge, some beachfront neighborhoods were completely leveled. Preliminary estimates by Mississippi officials calculated that 90% of the structures within half a mile of the coastline were completely destroyed, [ 64 ] and that storm surges traveled as much as six miles (10 km) inland in portions of the state's coast. [ 38 ] One apartment complex with approximately thirty residents seeking shelter inside collapsed. More than half of the 13 casinos in the state, which were floated on barges to comply with Mississippi land-based gambling laws, were washed hundreds of yards inland by waves. [ 64 ]

Storm surge damage along Highway 90 on the Mississippi Gulf Coast (early September 2005).

A number of streets and bridges were washed away. On US Highway 90 along the Mississippi Gulf Coast, two major bridges were completely destroyed: the Bay St. Louis — Pass Christian [ 1 ] bridge, and the Biloxi - Ocean Springs bridge. In addition, the eastbound span of the I-10 bridge over the Pascagoula River estuary was damaged. In the weeks after the storm, with the connectivity of the coastal US Highway 90 shattered, traffic traveling parallel to the coast was reduced first to State Road 11 (parallel to I-10) then to two lanes on the remaining I-10 span when it was opened.

Surge damage in Pascagoula, Mississippi

All three coastal counties of the state were severely affected by the storm. Katrina's surge was the most extensive, as well as the highest, in the documented history of the United States; large portions of both Hancock , Harrison , and Jackson Counties were inundated by the storm surge, in all three cases affecting most of the populated areas. [ 65 ] Surge covered almost the entire lower half of Hancock County, destroying the coastal communities of Clermont Harbor and Waveland, much of Bay St. Louis, and flowed up the Jourdan River, flooding Diamondhead and Kiln . In Harrison County, Pass Christian was completely inundated, along with a narrow strip of land to the east along the coast, which includes the cities of Long Beach and Gulfport; the flooding was more extensive in communities such as D'Iberville, which borders Back Bay. Biloxi , on a peninsula between the Back Bay and the coast, was particularly hard hit, especially the low-lying Point Cadet area. In Jackson County, storm surge flowed up the wide river estuary , with the combined surge and freshwater flooding cutting the county in half. Remarkably, over 90% of Pascagoula, the easternmost coastal city in Mississippi, and about 75 miles (121 km) east of Katrina's landfall near the Louisiana-Mississippi border, was flooded from surge at the height of the storm. Other large Jackson County neighborhoods such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Hills were severely damaged with large portions being completely destroyed, and St. Martin was hard hit; Ocean Springs, Moss Point , Gautier, and Escatawpa also suffered major surge damage.

Mississippi Emergency Management Agency officials also recorded deaths in Forrest , Hinds , Warren , and Leake counties. Over 900,000 people throughout the state experienced power outages. [ 44 ]

Southeast United States

Flood waters come up the steps of Mobile's federal courthouse.

Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 feet (3–5 m) around Mobile Bay , [ 1 ] with higher waves on top. Sustained winds of 67 mph (107 km/h) were recorded in Mobile, Alabama , and the storm surge there was approximately 12 feet (3.7 m). [ 1 ] The surge caused significant flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. Four tornadoes were also reported in Alabama. [ 1 ] Ships, oil rigs, boats and fishing piers were washed ashore along Mobile Bay: the cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper and many fishing boats were grounded at Bayou La Batre .

An oil rig under construction along the Mobile River broke its moorings and floated 1.5 miles (2 km) northwards before striking the Cochrane Bridge just outside Mobile. No significant damage resulted to the bridge and it was soon reopened. The damage on Dauphin Island was severe, with the surge destroying many houses and cutting a new canal through the western portion of the island. An offshore oil rig also became grounded on the island. As in Mississippi, the storm surge caused significant beach erosion along the Alabama coastline. [ 1 ] More than 600,000 people lost power in Alabama as a result of Hurricane Katrina and two people died in a traffic accident in the state. Residents in some areas, such as Selma, were without power for several days. [ 44 ]

Bayou La Batre : cargo ship and fishing boats were grounded

Along the Florida Panhandle the storm surge was typically about five feet (1.5 m) and along the west-central Florida coast there was a minor surge of 1 – 2 feet (0.3 – 0.6 m). In Pensacola, Florida 56 mph (90 km/h) winds were recorded on August 29. The winds caused damage to some trees and structures and there was some minor flooding in the Panhandle. There were two indirect fatalities from Katrina in Walton County as a result of a traffic accident. [ 1 ] In the Florida Panhandle, 77,000 customers lost power. [ 66 ]

Northern and central Georgia were affected by heavy rains and strong winds from Hurricane Katrina as the storm moved inland, with more than 3 inches (75 mm) of rain falling in several areas. At least 18 tornadoes formed in Georgia on August 29, the most on record in that state for one day in August. The most serious of these tornadoes was an F2 tornado which affected Heard County and Carroll County . This tornado caused 3 injuries and one fatality and damaged several houses. In addition this tornado destroyed several poultry barns, killing over 140,000 chicks. The other tornadoes caused significant damages to buildings and agricultural facilities. In addition to the fatality caused by the F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident. [ 67 ]

Other US States and Canada

Total rainfall from Katrina in the United States. Data for the New Orleans area is not available.

Hurricane Katrina weakened as it moved inland, but tropical-storm force gusts were recorded as far north as Fort Campbell, Kentucky on August 30, and the winds damaged trees in New York . The remnants of the storm brought high levels of rainfall to a wide swath of the eastern United States , and rain in excess of 2 inches (50 mm) fell in parts of 20 states. [ 68 ] A number of tornadoes associated with Katrina formed on August 30 and August 31, which caused minor damages in several regions. In total, 62 tornadoes formed in eight states as a result of Katrina. [ 38 ]

Eastern Arkansas received light rain from the passage of Katrina. [ 69 ] Gusty winds downed some trees and power lines, though damage was minimal. [ 70 ] In Kentucky , a storm that had moved through the weekend before had already produced flooding and the rainfall from Katrina added to this. As a result of the flooding, Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher declared three counties disaster areas and a statewide state of emergency. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] One person was killed in Hopkinsville, Kentucky and part of a high school collapsed. [ 73 ] Flooding also prompted a number of evacuations in West Virginia and Ohio , the rainfall in Ohio leading to two indirect deaths. Katrina also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over 100,000 customers affected in Tennessee , primarily in the Memphis and Nashville areas. [ 74 ]

The remnants of Katrina were absorbed by a new cyclone to its east across Pennsylvania . This second cyclone continued north and affected Canada on August 31. In Ontario there were a few isolated reports of rain in excess of 100 mm (4 inches) and there were a few reports of damage from fallen trees. [ 75 ] Flooding also occurred in both Ontario and Quebec , cutting off a number of isolated villages in Quebec, particularly in the Côte-Nord region. [ 76 ]

Secuelas

Efectos económicos

Costliest US Atlantic hurricanes
Cost refers to total estimated property damage
Posición Huracán Temporada Daños y perjuicios
1 Katrina 2005 7011108000000000000 $108 billion
2 Arenoso 2012 7010750000000000000 $75 billion
3 Ike 2008 7010295200000000000 $29.5 billion
4 Andrés 1992 7010265000000000000 $26.5 billion
5 Wilma 2005 7010206000000000000 $20.6 billion
6 Ivan 2004 7010188200000000000 $18.8 billion
7 Irene 2011 7010156000000000000 $15.6 billion
8 Charley 2004 7010151130000000000 $15.1 billion
9 Rita 2005 7010120370000000000 $12 billion
10 Frances 2004 7009950700000000000 $9.51 billion
Source: National Hurricane Center [ 2 ] [ 77 ]


The economic effects of the storm were far-reaching. The Bush Administration sought $105 billion for repairs and reconstruction in the region, [ 78 ] which did not account for damage to the economy caused by potential interruption of the oil supply, destruction of the Gulf Coast's highway infrastructure, and exports of commodities such as grain. Katrina damaged or destroyed 30 oil platforms and caused the closure of nine refineries ; [ 38 ] the total shut-in oil production from the Gulf of Mexico in the six-month period following Katrina was approximately 24% of the annual production and the shut-in gas production for the same period was about 18%. [ 79 ] The forestry industry in Mississippi was also affected, as 1.3 million acres (5,300 km 2 ) of forest lands were destroyed. [ 80 ] The total loss to the forestry industry from Katrina is calculated to rise to about $5 billion. [ 80 ] Furthermore, hundreds of thousands of local residents were left unemployed, which will have a trickle-down effect as fewer taxes are paid to local governments. Before the hurricane, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in New Orleans. It is estimated that the total economic impact in Louisiana and Mississippi may exceed $150 billion. [ 81 ]

Katrina redistributed over one million people from the central Gulf coast elsewhere across the United States, which became the largest diaspora in the history of the United States. [ 82 ] Houston, Texas , had an increase of 35,000 people; Mobile, Alabama , gained over 24,000; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, over 15,000; and Hammond, Louisiana received over 10,000, nearly doubling its size. Chicago received over 6,000 people, the most of any non-southern city. [ 83 ] By late January 2006, about 200,000 people were once again living in New Orleans, less than half of the pre-storm population. [ 84 ] By July 1, 2006, when new population estimates were calculated by the US Census Bureau , the state of Louisiana showed a population decline of 219,563, or 4.87%. [ 85 ] Additionally, some insurance companies have stopped insuring homeowners in the area because of the high costs from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, or have raised homeowners' insurance premiums to cover their risk. [ 86 ]

Environmental effects

The Chandeleur Islands , before Katrina (left) and after (right), showing the impact of the storm along coastal areas.

Katrina also had a profound impact on the environment. The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion , in some cases completely devastating coastal areas. In Dauphin Island, approximately 90 miles (150 km) to the east of the point where the hurricane made landfall, the sand that comprised the barrier island was transported across the island into the Mississippi Sound , pushing the island towards land. [ 87 ] The storm surge and waves from Katrina also obliterated the Chandeleur Islands , which had been affected by Hurricane Ivan the previous year. [ 88 ] The US Geological Survey has estimated 217 square miles (560 km 2 ) of land was transformed to water by the hurricanes Katrina and Rita. [ 89 ]

The lands that were lost were breeding grounds for marine mammals, brown pelicans , turtles , and fish , as well as migratory species such as redhead ducks . [ 80 ] Overall, about 20% of the local marshes were permanently overrun by water as a result of the storm. [ 80 ]

The damage from Katrina forced the closure of 16 National Wildlife Refuges . Breton National Wildlife Refuge lost half its area in the storm. [ 90 ] As a result, the hurricane affected the habitats of sea turtles , Mississippi sandhill cranes , Red-cockaded woodpeckers and Alabama Beach mice . [ 90 ]

Large oil spills caused by Hurricane Katrina
Spills exceeding 10,000 US gallons (38,000 L ) [ 91 ]
Spill Location Cantidad
(US gal) (L)
Bass Enterprises (Cox Bay) 3,780,000 14,300,000
Shell ( Pilot Town ) 1,050,000 4000000
Chevron ( Empire ) 991,000 3750000
Murphy Oil ( Meraux and Chalmette ) 819,000 3,100,000
Bass Enterprises ( Pointe à la Hache ) 461000 1750000
Chevron ( Port Fourchon ) 53,000 200000
Venice Energy Services ( Venice ) 25000 95000
Shell Pipeline Oil (Nairn) 13,440 50,900
Sundown Energy (West Potash) 13000 49,000

The storm caused oil spills from 44 facilities throughout southeastern Louisiana, which resulted in over 7 million US gallons (26 million L) of oil being leaked. Some spills were as small as a few hundred gallons; the largest are tabulated to the right. While most of the spills were contained on-site, some oil entered the ecosystem, and the town of Meraux was flooded with a blend of water and oil. [ 91 ] Unlike Hurricane Ivan no offshore oil spills were officially reported after Hurricane Katrina. However, Skytruth reported some signs of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico. [ 91 ]

Finally, as part of the cleanup effort, the flood waters that covered New Orleans were pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, a process that took 43 days to complete. [ 38 ] These residual waters contained a mix of raw sewage , bacteria , heavy metals , pesticides , toxic chemicals, and oil , which sparked fears in the scientific community of massive numbers of fish dying. [ 80 ]

Prior to the storm, subsidence and erosion caused erosion in the Louisiana wetlands and bayous . This, along with the canals built in the area, allowed for Katrina to maintain more of its intensity when it struck. [ 92 ]

Looting and violence

A Border Patrol Special Response Team searches a hotel room-by-room in New Orleans in response to Hurricane Katrina.

Shortly after the hurricane moved away on August 30, 2005, some residents of New Orleans who remained in the city began looting stores. Many were in search of food and water that were not available to them through any other means, as well as non-essential items. [ 93 ]

Reports of carjacking , murders , thefts , and rapes in New Orleans flooded the news. Some sources later determined that many of the reports were inaccurate, because of the confusion. [ 94 ] Thousands of National Guard and federal troops were mobilized (the total went from 7,841 in the area the day Katrina hit to a maximum of 46,838 on September 10) and sent to Louisiana along with numbers of local law enforcement agents from across the country who were temporarily deputized by the state. "They have M16s and are locked and loaded. These troops know how to shoot and kill and I expect they will," Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco said. Congressman Bill Jefferson (D-LA) told ABC News : "There was shooting going on. There was sniping going on. Over the first week of September, law and order were gradually restored to the city." [ 95 ] Several shootings occurred between police and New Orleans residents, some involving police misconduct ; including a fatal incident at Danziger Bridge . [ 96 ]

A number of arrests were made throughout the affected area, including some near the New Orleans Convention Center. A temporary jail was constructed of chain link cages in the city train station. [ 97 ]

In Texas, where more than 300,000 refugees were located, local officials ran 20,000 criminal background checks on the refugees, as well as on the relief workers helping them and people who opened up their homes. The background checks found that 45% of the refugees had a criminal record of some nature, and that 22% had a violent criminal record. [ 98 ] The number of homicides in Houston from September 2005 through February 22, 2006 went up by 23% relative to the same period a year before; 29 of the 170 murders involved displaced Louisianans as victims or suspects. [ 99 ]

Government response

Chart showing some common uses of the FEMA marking system in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina
President Bush stands with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld , Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao and Secretary of Health and Human Services Mike Leavitt during a press conference from the Rose Garden , regarding the devastation along the Gulf Coast caused by Katrina.
President Bush examines the flooded areas from Air Force One.

Within the United States and as delineated in the National Response Plan , disaster response and planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility. When local government exhausts its resources, it then requests specific additional resources from the county level. The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state to the federal government as additional resource needs are identified. Many of the problems that arose developed from inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at various levels. [ 100 ]

Some disaster recovery response to Katrina began before the storm, with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) preparations that ranged from logistical supply deployments to a mortuary team with refrigerated trucks. A network of volunteers began rendering assistance to local residents and residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding parishes as soon as the storm made landfall (even though many were directed to not enter the area), and continued for more than six months after the storm. [ 100 ]

Of the 60,000 people stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard rescued more than 33,500. [ 101 ] Congress recognized the Coast Guard's response with an official entry in the Congressional Record, [ 102 ] and the Armed Service was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation . [ 103 ]

The United States Northern Command established Joint Task Force (JTF) Katrina based out of Camp Shelby , Mississippi, to act as the military's on-scene response on Sunday, August 28, with US Army Lieutenant General Russel L. Honoré as commander. [ 104 ] Approximately 58,000 National Guard personnel were activated to deal with the storm's aftermath, with troops coming from all 50 states. [ 105 ] The Department of Defense also activated volunteer members of the Civil Air Patrol .

Michael Chertoff, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security , decided to take over the federal, state, and local operations officially on August 30, 2005, citing the National Response Plan. [ 106 ] This was refused by Governor Blanco who indicated that her National Guard could manage. Early in September, Congress authorized a total of $62.3 billion in aid for victims. [ 107 ] Additionally, President Bush enlisted the help of former presidents Bill Clinton and George HW Bush to raise additional voluntary contributions, much as they did after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami . [ 108 ] American flags were also ordered to be half-staff from September 2, 2005 to September 20, 2005 in honor of the victims. [ 109 ]

FEMA provided housing assistance (rental assistance, trailers , etc.) to more than 700,000 applicants—families and individuals. However, only one-fifth of the trailers requested in Orleans Parish were supplied, resulting in an enormous housing shortage in the city of New Orleans. [ 110 ] Many local areas voted to not allow the trailers, and many areas had no utilities, a requirement prior to placing the trailers. To provide for additional housing, FEMA has also paid for the hotel costs of 12,000 individuals and families displaced by Katrina through February 7, 2006, when a final deadline was set for the end of hotel cost coverage. After this deadline, evacuees were still eligible to receive federal assistance, which could be used towards either apartment rent, additional hotel stays, or fixing their ruined homes, although FEMA no longer paid for hotels directly. [ 111 ] As of March 30, 2010, there were still 260 families living in FEMA-provided trailers in Louisiana and Mississippi. [ 112 ]

Law enforcement and public safety agencies, from across the United States, provided a " mutual aid " response to Louisiana and New Orleans in the weeks following the disaster. Many agencies responded with manpower and equipment from as far away as California , Michigan , Nevada , New York, and Texas . This response was welcomed by local Louisiana authorities as their staff were either becoming fatigued, stretched too thin, or even quitting from the job. [ 113 ]

Two weeks after the storm, more than half of the states were involved in providing shelter for evacuees. By four weeks after the storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states and in 18,700 zip codes—half of the nation's residential postal zones. Most evacuees had stayed within 250 miles (400 km), but 240,000 households went to Houston and other cities over 250 miles (400 km) away and another 60,000 households went over 750 miles (1,200 km) away. [ 114 ]

Criticism of government response

USNS Comfort takes on supplies at Mayport, Florida en route to the Gulf Coast.

The criticisms of the government's response to Hurricane Katrina primarily consisted of criticism of mismanagement and lack of leadership in the relief efforts in response to the storm and its aftermath. More specifically, the criticism focused on the delayed response to the flooding of New Orleans, and the subsequent state of chaos in the Crescent City. [ 57 ] The neologism Katrina gate was coined to refer to this controversy, and was a runner-up for "2005 word of the year." [ 115 ]

Within days of Katrina's August 29, 2005 landfall, public debate arose about the local, state and federal governments' role in the preparations for and response to the hurricane. Criticism was initially prompted by televised images of visibly shaken and frustrated political leaders, and of residents who remained stranded by flood waters without water , food or shelter. Deaths from thirst , exhaustion , and violence , days after the storm had passed, fueled the criticism, as did the dilemma of the evacuees at facilities such as the Louisiana Superdome (designed to handle 800, yet 30,000 arrived) and the New Orleans Civic Center (not designed as an evacuation center, yet 25,000 arrived). Some alleged that race , class , and other factors could have contributed to delays in government response.

In accordance with federal law, President George W. Bush directed the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security , Michael Chertoff, to coordinate the Federal response. Chertoff designated Michael D. Brown , head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as the Principal Federal Official to lead the deployment and coordination of all federal response resources and forces in the Gulf Coast region. However, the President and Secretary Chertoff initially came under harsh criticism for what some perceived as a lack of planning and coordination. Brown claimed that Governor Blanco resisted their efforts and was unhelpful. Governor Blanco and her staff disputed this. [ 116 ] Eight days later, Brown was recalled to Washington and Coast Guard Vice Admiral Thad W. Allen replaced him as chief of hurricane relief operations. [ 117 ] Three days after the recall, Michael D. Brown resigned as director of FEMA in spite of having received recent praise from President Bush. [ 118 ]

During A Concert for Hurricane Relief , a benefit concert for victims of the hurricane, rapper Kanye West veered off script and harshly criticized the government's response to the crisis, stating that "George Bush doesn't care about black people ." Although the camera quickly cut away, and the scene was deleted from delayed broadcasts, West's comments still reached the East Coast broadcasts, and were replayed and discussed afterwards. [ 119 ] Bush later called West's remarks 'the worst moment in his presidency', feeling he was unjustly accused of racism. [ 120 ]

Criticism from politicians, activists, pundits and journalists of all stripes was directed at the local and state governments headed by Mayor Ray Nagin of New Orleans and Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco. Nagin and Blanco were criticized for failing to implement New Orleans' evacuation plan and for ordering residents to a shelter of last resort without any provisions for food, water, security, or sanitary conditions. Perhaps the most important criticism of Nagin was that he delayed his emergency evacuation order until 19 hours before landfall, which led to hundreds of deaths of people who (by that time) could not find any way out of the city. [ 7 ]

The destruction wrought by Hurricane Katrina raised other, more general public policy issues about emergency management , environmental policy , poverty , and unemployment . The discussion of both the immediate response and of the broader public policy issues may have affected elections and legislation enacted at various levels of government . The storm's devastation also prompted a Congressional investigation, which found that FEMA and the Red Cross "did not have a logistics capacity sophisticated enough to fully support the massive number of Gulf coast victims." Additionally, it placed responsibility for the disaster on all three levels of government. [ 7 ]

An ABC News poll conducted on September 2, 2005, showed more blame was being directed at state and local governments (75%) than at the Federal government (67%), with 44% blaming Bush's leadership directly. [ 121 ] A later CNN / USAToday / Gallup poll showed that respondents disagreed widely on who was to blame for the problems in the city following the hurricane — 13% said Bush, 18% said federal agencies, 25% blamed state or local officials and 38% said no one was to blame. [ 122 ]

Five former police officers have pleaded guilty to charges connected to the Danziger Bridge shootings in the aftermath of the hurricane. Six other former or current officers appeared in court in June 2011. Two unarmed civilians were killed and four others seriously wounded when police opened fire on people attempting to cross the bridge. [ 123 ]

International response

United States Navy personnel unload Canadian relief supplies from a Canadian Air Force transport aircraft in Pensacola, Florida .

Over seventy countries pledged monetary donations or other assistance. Notably, Cuba and Venezuela (both considered as hostile to US government interest) were the first countries to offer assistance, pledging over $1 million, several mobile hospitals, water treatment plants, canned food, bottled water, heating oil, 1,100 doctors and 26.4 metric tons of medicine, though this aid was rejected by the US government. [ 124 ] [ 125 ] [ 126 ] [ 127 ] Kuwait made the largest single pledge, $500 million; other large donations were made by Qatar and United Arab Emirates (each $100 million), South Korea ($30 million), Australia ($10 million), India , China (both $5 million), New Zealand ($2 million), [ 128 ] Pakistan ($1.5 million), [ 129 ] and Bangladesh ($1 million). [ 130 ]

India sent tarps, blankets and hygiene kits. An Indian Air Force IL-76 aircraft delivered 25 tonnes of relief supplies for the Hurricane Katrina victims at the Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas on September 13, 2005.

Israel sent an IDF delegation to New Orleans to transport aid equipment including 80 tons of food, disposable diapers, beds, blankets, generators and additional equipment which were donated from different governmental institutions, civilian institutions and the IDF. [ 131 ] The Bush Administration announced in mid-September that it did not need Israeli divers and physicians to come to the United States for search and rescue missions, but a small team landed in New Orleans on September 10 to give assistance to operations already under way. The team administered first aid to survivors, rescued abandoned pets and discovered hurricane victims. [ 132 ]

Countries like Sri Lanka , which was still recovering from the Indian Ocean Tsunami , also offered to help. Countries including Canada , Mexico , Singapore , and Germany sent supplies, relief personnel (like Technisches Hilfswerk ), troops, ships and water pumps to aid in the disaster recovery. Belgium sent in a team of relief personnel. Britain's donation of 350,000 emergency meals did not reach victims because of laws regarding mad cow disease. [ 133 ] Russia 's initial offer of two jets was declined by the US State Department but accepted later. The French offer was also declined and requested later. [ 134 ]

In addition to receiving aid from around the world, there was criticism to go along with it, including accusations of racism. Quoted from the UK Mirror, "Many things about the United States are wonderful, but it has a vile underbelly which is usually kept well out of sight. Now in New Orleans it has been exposed to the world." [ 135 ]

Non-governmental organization response

Residents of Louisiana, who had to flee their homes because of Hurricane Katrina, are inside the Houston Astrodome and being helped by the Red Cross and other agencies and associations.

The American Red Cross , America's Second Harvest (now known as Feeding America ), Southern Baptist Convention , Salvation Army , Oxfam , Common Ground Collective , Burners Without Borders , [ 136 ] Emergency Communities , Habitat for Humanity , Catholic Charities , Service International, "A River of Hope", The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , [ 137 ] [ 138 ] [ 139 ] and many other charitable organizations provided help to the victims of the storm. They were not allowed into New Orleans proper by the National Guard for several days after the storm because of safety concerns. These organizations raised US$4.25 billion in donations by the public, with the Red Cross receiving over half of the donations. [ 140 ] Some smaller organizations and individuals ignored the access restrictions and provided early relief. For example, two privately chartered planes from FasterCures evacuated 200 patents from Charity Hospital in New Orleans. [ 141 ]

Volunteers from amateur radio 's emergency service wing, the Amateur Radio Emergency Service , provided communications in areas where the communications infrastructure had been damaged or totally destroyed, relaying everything from 911 traffic to messages home. [ 142 ] In Hancock County, Mississippi, ham radio operators provided the only communications into or out of the area, and even served as 911 dispatchers. [ 143 ]

Many corporations also contributed to relief efforts. On September 13, 2005, it was reported that corporate donations to the relief effort were $409 million, and were expected to exceed $1 billion. [ 144 ]

During and after the Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma and Rita, the American Red Cross had opened 1,470 different shelters across and registered 3.8 million overnight stays. None were allowed in New Orleans however. A total of 244,000 Red Cross workers (95% of which were non-paid volunteers) were utilized throughout these three hurricanes. In addition, 346,980 comfort kits (such as toothpaste, soap, washcloths and toys for children) and 205,360 cleanup kits (containing brooms, mops and bleach) were distributed. For mass care, the organization served 68 million snacks and meals to victims of the disasters and to rescue workers. The Red Cross also had its Disaster Health services meet 596,810 contacts, and Disaster Mental Health services met 826,590 contacts. Red Cross emergency financial assistance was provided to 1.4 million families. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States in which the American Red Cross utilized its "Safe and Well" family location website. [ 145 ] [ 146 ]

In the year following Katrina's strike on the Gulf Coast, The Salvation Army allocated donations of more than $365 million to serve more than 1.7 million people in nearly every state. The organization's immediate response to Hurricane Katrina included more than 5.7 million hot meals served in and around New Orleans, 8.3 million sandwiches, snacks & drinks. Its SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern communications left off to help locate more than 25,000 survivors. Salvation Army pastoral care counselors were on hand to comfort the emotional and spiritual needs of 277,000 individuals. As part of the overall effort, Salvation Army officers, employees and volunteers contributed more than 900,000 hours of service. [ 147 ]

Analysis of New Orleans levee failures

View of the eyewall of Hurricane Katrina taken on August 28, 2005, as seen from a NOAA WP-3D hurricane hunter aircraft before the storm made landfall on the United States Gulf Coast .

A June 2007 report released by the American Society of Civil Engineers states that the failures of the locally built and federally funded levees in New Orleans were found to be primarily the result of system design flaws. [ 37 ] The US Army Corps of Engineers who by federal mandate is responsible for the conception, design and construction of the region's flood-control system failed to pay sufficient attention to public safety.

According to modeling and field observations by a team from Louisiana State University , the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) , a 200-meter-wide (660-foot-wide) canal designed to provide a shortcut from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico, helped provide a funnel for the storm surge, making it 20% higher and 100%-200% faster as it crashed into the city. St. Bernard Parish, one of the more devastated areas, lies just south of the MRGO. The Corps of Engineers disputes this causality and maintains Katrina would have overwhelmed the levees with or without the contributing effect of the MRGO. [ 148 ] The water flowing west from the storm surge was perpendicular to MRGO, and thus the canal had a negligible effect.

There was unfounded speculation made by residents concerning a possible planned levee breach. Many references are made to the 1927 flood in which a levee was breached south of New Orleans in order to divert floodwater to the Gulf of Mexico. [ 149 ] Recently, [ when? ] the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nature Conservancy have developed a floodplain reconnection project in which the Ouachita River would be connected to its floodplain and the Gulf of Mexico. [ 150 ] A breach in the levee [ vague ] caused the water level downstream to drop six inches (152 mm) in a previous event in the early 1990s. Both cases show the many benefits of allowing the river to run its course. [ improper synthesis? ]

On April 5, 2006, months after independent investigators had demonstrated that levee failures were not caused by natural forces beyond intended design strength, Lieutenant General Carl Strock , Chief of Engineers and Commander of the Corps of Engineers, testified before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Energy and Water that "We have now concluded we had problems with the design of the structure." [ 151 ] He also testified that the US Army Corps of Engineers did not know of this mechanism of failure prior to August 29, 2005. The claim of ignorance is refuted, however, by the National Science Foundation investigators hired by the Corps of Engineers, who point to a 1986 study by the Corps itself that such separations were possible in the I-wall design. [ 152 ]

Many of the levees have been reconstructed since the time of Katrina. In reconstructing them, precautions were taken to bring the levees up to modern building code standards and to ensure their safety. For example, in every situation possible, the Corps of Engineers replaced I-walls with T-walls. T-walls have a horizontal concrete base that protects against soil erosion underneath the floodwalls. [ 153 ]

However, there are funding battles over the remaining levee improvements. In February 2008, the Bush administration requested that the state of Louisiana pay about $1.5 billion of an estimated $7.2 billion for Corps of Engineers levee work (in accordance with the principles of local cost sharing required by Congress as early as the Flood Control Act of 1928 ), a proposal which angered many Louisiana leaders. [ 154 ]

On May 2, 2008, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal used a speech to The National Press Club to request that President Bush free up money to complete work on Louisiana's levees. Bush promised to include the levee funding in his 2009 budget, but rejected the idea of including the funding in a war bill, which would pass sooner. [ 155 ]

Media involvement

Many representatives of the news media reporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became directly involved in the unfolding events, instead of simply reporting. Because of the loss of most means of communication, such as land-based and cellular telephone systems, field reporters in many cases became conduits for information between victims and authorities.

The authorities, who monitored local and network news broadcasts, as well as internet sites, would then attempt to coordinate rescue efforts based on the reports. One illustration was when Geraldo Rivera of Fox News tearfully pleaded for authorities to either send help or evacuate the thousands of evacuees stranded at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center . [ 156 ]

The storm also brought a dramatic rise in the role of Internet sites —especially blogging and community journalism . One example was the effort of NOLA.com , the web affiliate of New Orleans' Times-Picayune . A group of reporters from the paper including Doug MacCash, Manuel Torres, Trymaine Lee , and Mark Schleifstein were awarded the Breaking News Pulitzer Prize , [ 157 ] and the Times-Picayune shared the Public Service Pulitzer with the Biloxi-based Sun Herald . [ 158 ] The newspaper's coverage was carried for days only on NOLA's blogs, as the newspaper lost its presses and evacuated its building as water rose around it on August 30. The site became an international focal point for news by local media, and also became a vital link for rescue operations and later for reuniting scattered residents, as it accepted and posted thousands of individual pleas for rescue on its blogs and forums. NOLA was monitored constantly by an array of rescue teams—from individuals to the Coast Guard—which used information in rescue efforts. Much of this information was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then relayed the information back to NOLA.com. The aggregation of community journalism, user photos and the use of the internet site as a collaborative response to the storm attracted international attention, and was called a watershed moment in journalism. [ 159 ] In the wake of these online-only efforts, the Pulitzer Committee for the first time opened all its categories to online entries. [ 160 ]

The role of AM radio was of importance to the hundreds of thousands of persons with no other ties to news. AM radio provided emergency information regarding access to assistance for hurricane victims. Immediately after Hurricane Katrina, radio station WWL-AM (New Orleans) was one of the few area radio stations in the area remaining on the air. The 870 kHz frequency has a clear channel high power designation and the on-going nighttime broadcasts continued to be available up to 500 miles (800 km) away. Announcers continued to broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged their main studios. [ 161 ]

During the period of several weeks when most area radio stations were off the air, WWL-AM's emergency coverage was simulcast on the frequencies of other area radio stations. This emergency service was named " The United Radio Broadcasters of New Orleans ." To reach emergency radio operators in storm-ravaged areas, many of whom made their volunteer services available to the Red Cross and government entities, WWL-AM was simulcast on shortwave outlet WHRI , owned by World Harvest Radio International. The cellular phone antenna network was severely damaged and completely inoperable for several months.

As the US military and rescue services regained control over the city, there were restrictions on the activity of the media. On September 9, the military leader of the relief effort announced that reporters would have "zero access" to efforts to recover bodies in New Orleans. Immediately following this announcement, CNN filed a lawsuit and obtained a temporary restraining order against the ban. The next day the government backed down and reversed the ban. [ 162 ]

Retirement

Because of the large death toll and destruction of property along the Gulf Coast , the name Katrina was officially retired on April 6, 2006 by the World Meteorological Organization at the request of the US government. The name will never again be used for another North Atlantic hurricane . It was replaced by Katia on List III of the Atlantic hurricane naming lists , which was used in the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season . [ 163 ]

Reconstruction

Volunteers from AmeriCorps in New Orleans, January 2006

Reconstruction of each section of the southern portion of Louisiana has been addressed in the Army Corps LACPR (Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration) Final Technical Report, which identifies areas to not be rebuilt and areas where buildings need to be elevated. [ 164 ]

The Technical Report includes:

  • locations of possible new levees to be built
  • suggested existing levee modifications
  • "Inundation Zones", "Water depths less than 14 feet, Raise-In-Place of Structures", "Water depths greater than 14 feet, Buyout of Structures", "Velocity Zones" and "Buyout of Structures" areas for five different scenarios.

The US Army Corps of Engineers submitted the report to the US Congress for consideration, planning, and response in mid-2009.

Representation in other media

  • Hurricane Katrina has also been the subject of several documentary films, including Spike Lee 's When the Levees Broke , and Darren Martinez 's film, Hellp . [ 165 ]
  • An episode of the Fox TV series House , first broadcast on May 16, 2006, featured a teenage victim of Hurricane Katrina in the medical storyline.
  • An episode of the BBC show Top Gear was praised for being one of the first to show the full scale of the destruction after the waters had receded.
  • David Eggars ' non-fiction book, Zeitoun , featured an Arab-American family man caught in an anti-terrorist round-up as he was trying to help neighbors in the aftermath of the hurricane.

Véase también

Referencias

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Knabb, Richard D; Rhome, Jamie R.; Brown, Daniel P (December 20, 2005; updated August 10, 2006). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005" (PDF). National Hurricane Center . Consultado el 2006-05-30.  
  2. ^ a b "The deadliest, costliest and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts)" . National Climatic Data Center, National Hurricane Center . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011-08-10. p. 47 . Retrieved 2011-08-10 .  
  3. ^ Rappaport, Ed. "Preliminary Report for Hurricane Andrew" . Centro Nacional de Huracanes. Consultado el 2008-04-10.  
  4. ^ a b Swenson, Dan D; Marshall, Bob (May 14, 2005). "Flash Flood: Hurricane Katrina's Inundation of New Orleans, August 29, 2005" (SWF). Times-Picayune .  
  5. ^ "Letter from Ray Seed, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering to the President, American Society of Civil Engineers" (PDF) . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .  
  6. ^ Nossiter, Adam (2008-02-01). "In Court Ruling on Floods, More Pain for New Orleans" . New Orleans (La): New York Times . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .  
  7. ^ a b c d United States Congress (February 19, 2006). A Failure of Initiative: Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina (PDF). Washington, DC : Government Printing Office . Archived from the original on Marcj 26, 2009 . Consultado el 20/05/2011.  
  8. ^ Rosenthal, Sandy (October 11, 2011). "Insistent Appeals to Evacuate Did Not Warn That the Levees Could Break" . Huffington Post .  
  9. ^ Leben, Robert; Born, George; Scott, Jim (September 15, 2005). "CU-Boulder Researchers Chart Katrina's Growth In Gulf Of Mexico" . University of Colorado at Boulder . Archived from the original on March 1, 2009 . Consultado el 2011-05-20.  
  10. ^ Spann, James. "Models Shifting West," "NHC Shifting Track To MS Coast" and "Late Katrina Thoughts" from the ABC33/40 Weather Blog August 26, 2005. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
  11. ^ Stewart, Stacy (August 26, 2005). "Hurricane Katrina Discussion No. 14, 5:00 pm EDT" . Centro Nacional de Huracanes. Retrieved 2006-09-16 .  
  12. ^ Amanda Ripley (2005-10-23). "Hurricane Katrina: How the Coast Guard Got it Right" . Time Magazine .  
  13. ^ Bruce Jones and David Callahan. "Leadership Talent Emerges During Hurricane Katrina Aviation Rescue Operations" . Guardacostas de Estados Unidos. Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  14. ^ Stephen Barr (September 6, 2005). "Coast Guard's Response to Katrina a Silver Lining in the Storm" . Washington Post. Retrieved 2006-08-29 .  
  15. ^ Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Louisiana ." White House . August 27, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  16. ^ "Transcripts, tape show Bush, Brown warned on Katrina" . CNN.com. March 2, 2006 . Consultado el 2007-04-22.  
  17. ^ "NWS bulletin" [ dead link ] . National Weather Service /New Orleans, Louisiana. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  18. ^ "Congressional Reports: S. Rpt. 109-322 - Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared" . Gpoaccess.gov . Consultado el 2008-10-27.  
  19. ^ "Former FEMA Director Testifies Before Congress" . nytimes.com. 2005-09-27 . Retrieved 2007-09-01 .  
  20. ^ Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Mississippi ." White House. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  21. ^ Bush, George W. " Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Alabama ." White House. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  22. ^ Kathleen Blanco (2005-08-28). "Governor Blanco asks President to Declare an Emergency for the State of Louisiana due to Hurricane Katrina" . Government of the State of Louisiana . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  23. ^ Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness. "Louisiana Citizen Awareness and Disaster Evacuation Guide" . Consultado el 2006-07-20.  
  24. ^ "State Of Louisiana Emergency Operations Plan Supplement 1C" . July 2000. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006 . Consultado el 2011-05-20.  
  25. ^ Todd Litman (April 13, 2006). "Lessons From Katrina and Rita: What Major Disasters Can Teach Transportation Planners" . Victoria Transport Policy Institute. p. 5. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009 . Consultado el 2011-05-20.  
  26. ^ Salatheia Bryant and Cynthia Leonor Garza. "School bus comandeered by renegade refugees first to arrive at Astrodome" . Houston Chronicle . Archived from the original on July 15, 2006 . Retrieved 2010-08-25 .  
  27. ^ Lundy, Kay; Lundy, Karen; Janes, Sharyn (2009). Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health . Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-7637-1786-5 . Consultado el 20/05/2011.  
  28. ^ Brown, Aaron (August 29, 2005). "Hurricane Katrina Pummels Three States" . CNN . Consultado el 20/05/2011.  
  29. ^ "Service Alert: Hurricane Katrina Update - City of New Orleans, Crescent, Sunset Limited - Revised Service Information" . Amtrak . September 1, 2005. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008 . Consultado el 2011-05-20.  
  30. ^ " Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number 15 ," and " Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number 21 ." National Hurricane Center. August 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  31. ^ Drye, Willie. " Hurricane Katrina Pulls Its Punches in New Orleans ." National Geographic . August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  32. ^ Staff Writer. " Katrina Heads for New Orleans [ dead link ] ." Fox News / Associated Press . August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  33. ^ Staff Writer." 26,000 shelter at Superdome ." Times-Picayune. August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  34. ^ Diary From the Dome is a 2008 memoir written by a tourist who was stuck inside the Superdome during Katrina and the levee failures. It offers an overview of the conditions inside the stadium as well as a critique of the media's coverage of the disaster.
  35. ^ Staff writer. " Hurricane Katrina Situation Report No. 3 ." Florida State Emergency Response Team. August 26, 2005. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
  36. ^ a b c " Reports of Missing and Deceased ." Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals. August 2, 2006. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  37. ^ a b Andersen, Christine F. et al. (2007). "The New Orleans Hurricane Protection System: What Went Wrong and Why" (PDF). American Society of Civil Engineers Hurricane Katrina External Review Panel. Archived from the original on 2008-06-24 . Consultado el 2008-08-27.  
  38. ^ a b c d e f United States Department of Commerce (June 2006). "Hurricane Katrina Service Assessment Report" (PDF) . Retrieved 2006-07-14 .  
  39. ^ Beven II, John L., Lixion A Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Famie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart (March 2008). "Annual Summary: Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review ( American Meteorological Society ) 136 (3): 1131–1141. Bibcode : 2008MWRv..136.1109B . doi : 10.1175/2007MWR2074.1 . Consultado el 2008-09-08.  
  40. ^ " The Aftermath of Katrina: Transcript of CNN Live Saturday ." CNN. September 3, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  41. ^ Clark, Lesley (2010-06-27). "Spill colors fabric of Gulf coastal life" . The Sun News . Consultado el 2010-07-01.  
  42. ^ Devenas, Andy " Marathon Tornado Survey Report ." National Weather Service Forecast Office Key West, Florida Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  43. ^ Staff Writer. " Hurricane Katrina batters western Cuba [ dead link ] ."
  44. ^ a b c Staff Writer. " Hurricane Katrina Situation Report#11 ." Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) United States Department of Energy . August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  45. ^ "FEMA: Louisiana Katrina Surge Inundation Map, January 2006" (PDF) . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .  
  46. ^ Cannizaro, Steve. " List of Missing Residents Down to 47, and More... " St. Bernard Parish Government (press release). December 17, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  47. ^ "Current Housing Unit Damage Estimates, Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma" (PDF). US Department of Housing and Urban Development. February 12, 2006 . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .   [ enlace roto ]
  48. ^ Rosenzweig, C., G. Casassa, DJ Karoly, A. Imeson, C. Liu, A. Menzel, S. Rawlins, TL Root, B. Seguin, P. Tryjanowski. (2007). "Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability". Chapter 1 in Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , (ML Parry, OF Canziani, JP Palutikof, PJ van der Linden and CE Hanson, Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. (url : http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter1.pdf ). Pp 92. Accessed 19 December 2011.
  49. ^ Murphy, Verity. " Fixing New Orleans' thin grey line ." BBC News . October 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  50. ^ Gordon, Meghan. " Causeway closed but hardly damaged ." Times Picayune. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  51. ^ Transcript from, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer . " Hurricane Damages Gulf Coast ." PBS . August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  52. ^ Mowbray, Rebecca. " Evacuations to hotels come with own set of hazards ." Times-Picayune. August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  53. ^ Christine Gibson [ dead link ] "Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters," American Heritage , Aug./Sept. 2006.
  54. ^ Staff Writer (2006-05-28). "[[Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport]]" . Archived from the original on 2006-03-12 . Retrieved 2006-06-05 .   EnlaceWiki incrustada en el título URL ( ayuda )
  55. ^ Warner, Coleman; Travis, Robert. " Where They Died ." Times-Picayune. October 23, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  56. ^ O'Neill, Ann. " Identifying victims a grueling task ." CNN. September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  57. ^ a b Thevenot, Brian; Russell, Gordon. " Reports of anarchy at Superdome overstated ." Seattle Times. September 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  58. ^ Left to Die in a New Orleans Prison , Democracy Now/AlterNet , 27 Sept 2005. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012.
  59. ^ The Fate of Prisoners during Hurricane Katrina , The Society Pages , 27 Aug 2011. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012.
  60. ^ Doing “Katrina Time”—Torture in New Orleans Prisons , Revolution Newspaper , 8 Oct 2006. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012.
  61. ^ New Orleans prisoners left to drown after Katrina struck , World Socialist Web Site , 1 Oct 2005. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012.
  62. ^ Abandoned & Abused: Report on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans Prisons (PDF) ( [1] ), American Civil Liberties Union , 9 Aug 2006. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012.
  63. ^ a b Haley Babour (January 6, 2006). "Information Relating to the Federal Appropriations for Katrina Recovery" . Office of the Governor, Mississippi . Consultado el 2006-09-27.  
  64. ^ a b Staff Writer. " Mississippi Coast Areas Wiped Out ." CBS News . September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  65. ^ Federal Emergency Management Agency (November 2005). "Mississippi Hurricane Katrina Surge Inundation and Advisory Base Flood Elevation Map Panel Overview" (PDF). FEMA . Consultado el 2006-07-16.  
  66. ^ Associated Press, "Katrina at a Glance" (August 31, 2005), page 4A, Mobile Register , web: MobileRegister-083105-PDF .
  67. ^ Westbrook, Robby; WFO Peachtree City Staff. " Katrina Spawns Tornadoes in Georgia - August 29, 2005 ." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . December 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  68. ^ Staff Writer. " Tropical Summary Message ." The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  69. ^ "Hurricane Katrina Rainfall Summary" . Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . 2005 . Retrieved 2006-11-04 .  
  70. ^ NCDC (2005). "Event Report for Arkansas" . Retrieved 2006-11-04 .   [ enlace roto ]
  71. ^ Staff Writer. " Gov. Fletcher Declares Three Kentucky Counties Disaster Areas ." WKYT . Accessed on April 18, 2006. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  72. ^ Blanton, Carla; Goins, Michael; Whitaker, Jodi. " Governor Fletcher declares state of emergency in Kentucky ." Commonwealth of Kentucky (Press Release). August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  73. ^ Staff Writer. " Hopkinsville Swamped By Floodwaters; 10-Year-Old Drowns ." WAVE (TV) . September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  74. ^ " Hurricane Katrina: Event Record Details [ dead link ] ." Satellite and Information Service; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Accessed May 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  75. ^ Perreault, Bob. " Brockville May Have Set Rain Record ." CFRA (AM) . September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  76. ^ Staff Writer. " Remnants of Hurricane Katrina washes out roads in Quebec's north shore ." Canadian Press . September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  77. ^ Blake, Eric S; Kimberlain, Todd B; Berg, Robert J; Cangialosi, John P; Beven II, John L; National Hurricane Center (February 12, 2013) (PDF). Hurricane Sandy: October 22 – 29, 2012 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013 . http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182012_Sandy.pdf . Retrieved February 17, 2013 .
  78. ^ St. Onge, Jeff; Epstein, Victor. " Ex-chief says FEMA readiness even worse ." Boston.com. April 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  79. ^ Fagot, Caryl; Winbush, Debra. " Hurricane Katrina/Hurricane Rita Evacuation and Production Shut-in Statistics Report as of Wednesday, February 22, 2006 ." US Government Minerals Management Service . February 22, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  80. ^ a b c d e Sheikh, Pervaze A. (October 18, 2005). "The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources" (PDF). Congressional Research Service . Archived from the original on June 24, 2008 . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  81. ^ Burton, Mark L.; Hicks, Michael J. " Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages ." Marshall University : Center for Business and Economic Research. September 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  82. ^ Anthony E. Ladd, John Marszalek, and Duane A. Gill. The Other Dispora: New Orleans Student Evacuation Impacts and Responses Surrounding Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  83. ^ Mema Ayi (August 30, 2006). "Katrina evacuees at home in Chicago" . Chicago Defender . Archived from the original on 2007-12-12 . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  84. ^ Greg Stone, Tim Grant, and Nathaniel Weaver (2006). "Rapid Population Estimate Project: January 28 – 29, 2006 Survey Report" (PDF). Emergency Operations Center, City of New Orleans . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  85. ^ Christie, Les. " Growth states: Arizona overtakes Nevada: Texas adds most people overall; Louisiana population declines nearly 5% ." CNN. December 22, 2006. Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  86. ^ Staff Writer. " More Bad News Blows In From Katrina ." CBS News. May 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  87. ^ United States Geological Survey (September 14, 2005). "Daupin Island — Pre- and Post-Storm 3D Topography" . Hurricane Katrina Impact Studies . USGS . Retrieved 2006-06-05 .  
  88. ^ United States Geological Survey (September 14, 2005). "Before and After Photo Comparisons: Chandeleur Islands" . Hurricane Katrina Impact Studies . USGS . Retrieved 2006-06-05 .  
  89. ^ "USGS Reports Latest Land Change Estimates for Louisiana Coast", USGS National Wetlands Research Center, Oct 3, 2006 , accessed May 7, 2008
  90. ^ a b United States Fish and Wildlife Service (September 9, 2005). "US Fish and Wildlife Service Conducting Initial Damage Assessments to Wildlife and National Wildlife Refuges" . USFWS . Retrieved 2006-06-05 .  
  91. ^ a b c Miguel Llanos (September 19, 2005). "44 oil spills found in southeast Louisiana" . MSNBC (MSNBC) . Retrieved 2006-06-15 .  
  92. ^ Mike Tidwell (2006). The Ravaging Tide: Strange Weather, Future Katrinas, and the Coming Death of America's Coastal Cities . Free Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-7432-9470-X . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  93. ^ KLRT FOX 16, " Photos : Story in Pictures-- Hurricane Katrina : Aug 31: Looting in Mississippi ." FOX16 Nowcaster Community ( Little Rock, Arkansas ). August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.
  94. ^ Rosenblatt, Sarah; James Rainey (2005-09-27). "Rita's Aftermath; Katrina Takes a Toll on Truth, News Accuracy" . Main News; Part A; National Desk ( Los Angeles Times ). p. A16. Archived from the original on 2005-10-04.  
  95. ^ Tapper, Jake. " Amid Katrina Chaos, Congressman Used National Guard to Visit Home ." ABC News . September 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  96. ^ Staff Writer. " Police kill at least 5 in New Orleans ." MSNBC . September 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  97. ^ Staff Writer. " At the Train Station, New Orleans' Newest Jail is Open For Business ." KOMO-TV . September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  98. ^ Schubert, Elizabeth. " Some Katrina Evacuees at Camp Dawson Have Criminal Records [ dead link ] ." Associated Press. September 18, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  99. ^ " Louisiana Gangs That Fled Katrina Heighten Houston Murder Rate ." Bloomberg.com . March 3, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  100. ^ a b US Government (2006). "The FEDERAL RESPONSE TO HURRICANE KATRINA: LESSONS LEARNED" (PDF) . Consultado el 2008-06-06.   [ enlace roto ]
  101. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (July 2006). Coast Guard: Observations on the Preparation, Response, and Recovery Missions Related to Hurricane Katrina (PDF) . Retrieved 2006-08-27 .  
  102. ^ United States Congress (September 21, 2005). Senate Resolution 246: To express the sense of the Senate regarding the missions and performance of the United States Coast Guard in responding to Hurricane Katrina. (PDF). Government Printing Office . Retrieved 2006-08-27 .  
  103. ^ "USCG Message Traffic: Award of the Presidential Unit Citation to the Coast Guard" . United States Coast Guard. May 25, 2006 . Retrieved 2008-11-15 .  
  104. ^ " Special Defense Department Briefing with Commander of Joint Task Force Katrina ". United States Department of Defense , News Transcript. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  105. ^ Phillips, Kyra. " Bush Discusses Displaced Students; Department of Defense Briefs Press on Katrina Response (CNN Live Transcript) ." CNN. September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  106. ^ California Political Desk. " Pelosi: Davis Report on Katrina Leaves Unfinished Business ." California Chronicle . February 15, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  107. ^ Baker, Peter; Goldstein, Amy. " Congress Approves $51.8 Billion For Victims ." Washington Post . September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  108. ^ Bush, George W. " President Asks Bush and Clinton to Assist in Hurricane Relief ." White House, Press Release. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  109. ^ "Proclamation by the President: Honoring the Memory of the Victims of Hurricane Katrina" . Whitehouse.gov. Consultado el 2008-10-27.  
  110. ^ Times-Picayune, September 26, 2005, page A-12. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  111. ^ Foster, Mary. " Judge: FEMA Off Hook For Hotel Costs ." CBC News . February 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  112. ^ Al Showers (2010-03-30). "Hancock Co. woman struggles to get out of FEMA trailer" . WLOX Channel 13 . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  113. ^ Treaster, Joseph B. (September 4, 2005). "Law Officers, Overwhelmed, Are Quitting the Force" . New York Times . Retrieved 2006-06-24 .  
  114. ^ Quigley, Bill (2006-02-21). "Six Months After Katrina: Who Was Left Behind Then and Who is Being Left Behind Now?" . Retrieved 2008-11-15 .  
  115. ^ Clark, Heather. " Linguists Vote 'Truthiness' Word of 2005 ." ABC News. January 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  116. ^ David Kirkpatrick and Scott Shane (September 15, 2005). "Ex-FEMA Chief Tells of Frustration and Chaos" . The New York Times. Consultado el 2010-05-13.  
  117. ^ Meserve, Jeanne; Barrett, Ted. " Admiral takes over Katrina relief ." CNN. September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  118. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (September 2, 2005). "President Arrives in Alabama, Briefed on Hurricane Katrina" . The White House . Retrieved 2006-07-19 .  
  119. ^ de Moraes, Lisa (2005-09-03). "Kanye West's Torrent of Criticism, Live on NBC" . The Washington Post . Consultado el 2008-09-01.  
  120. ^ CHAPPELL, BILL (2010-11-03). "Bush Says Kanye West's Attack Was Low Point Of His Presidency; West Agrees" . NPR . Retrieved 2011-08-28 .  
  121. ^ Langer, Gary. " Poll: Bush Not Taking Brunt of Katrina Criticism ." ABC News. September 12, 2005. Retrieved on July 15, 2006.
  122. ^ Staff Writer. " Poll: Most Americans believe New Orleans will never recover ." CNN. September 8, 2005. Retrieved on July 15, 2006.
  123. ^ "Ex-cop gets 8 years for role in post-Katrina shootings" . CNN. December 2, 2010.  
  124. ^ " Venezuela and Cuba offer US aid ." Al Jazeera , September 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  125. ^ " Venezuela and Cuba offer aid to Katrina victims ." The Free Press , Volume 1, Issue 4. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  126. ^ " From abroad, offers of aid for Katrina victims ." People's Weekly World , September 10, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  127. ^ " France, Cuba, Venezuela among those offering aid ." USA Today , Sept 2, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  128. ^ Tuesday, September 6, 2005, 3:47 pm Press Release: New Zealand Government. "Scoop: Further NZ assistance in wake of Hurricane Katrina" . Scoop.co.nz . Consultado el 2008-10-27.  
  129. ^ Staff Writer. " US Grateful for Pakistan's Assistance for Hurricane Katrina Victims ." Embassy of the United States. September 8, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  130. ^ Staff Writer. " Asian nations offer US assistance ." BBC News. September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  131. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs. " Israel Aids Hurricane Katrina Victims ." MFA . September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  132. ^ Jewish Virtual Library. " Israel's Aid to Hurricane Katrina Victims ." Jewish Virtual Library .
  133. ^ Staff Writer. " US rejects British Katrina beef ." BBC News. October 15, 2005.
  134. ^ Staff Writer. " US receives aid offers from around the world ." CNN. September 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  135. ^ " KATRINA AND RACISM: The World View ." Tolerance.org. September 19, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  136. ^ Jones, Steven T. (2006-02-22). "From here to Katrina" . San Francisco Bay Guardian . Retrieved 2006-05-18 .  
  137. ^ "Church Providing Relief to Hurricane Katrina Victims" . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints . 2005-09-01 . Retrieved 2010-01-15 .  
  138. ^ "Latter-day Saints to Mobilize Another 4,000 Volunteers in Chainsaw Brigade's Second Wave" . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . 2005-09-16 . Retrieved 2010-01-18 .  
  139. ^ "Mormon Helping Hands Make a Difference" . Meridian Magazine . 2005 . Retrieved 2010-01-18 .   [ enlace roto ]
  140. ^ Staff writer (2006). "Where Did The Money Go?" . Hurricane Katrina: One Year Later . Charity Navigator . Consultado el 2006-08-05.  
  141. ^ "Al Gore Airlifts Evacuees — Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum — FOXNews.com" . Webcache.googleusercontent.com. 2005-09-09. Retrieved 2012-02-19 .   [ enlace roto ]
  142. ^ Staff Writer (2005-09-16). ARRL President Submits Congressional Testimony on Hams' Katrina Response 24 (36). American Radio Relay League . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  143. ^ Rick Palm. " ARES E-Letter for September 22, 2005 ." The American Radio Relay League. September 22, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  144. ^ " Corporate Katrina gifts could top $1B ." CNN. September 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  145. ^ "A Year of Healing" (PDF). American Red Cross . 2006-09-29.  
  146. ^ "Hurricane Season 2005: Facts and Figures" . American Red Cross. 2006-09-29.   [ enlace roto ]
  147. ^ "Salvation Army Reflects on Largest Disaster Response Ever at One-Year Anniversary of Hurricane Katrina" . The Salvation Army . August 28, 2006 . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  148. ^ Warrick, Joby; Grunwald, Michael. " Investigators Link Levee Failures to Design Flaws ." Washington Post. October 24, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  149. ^ "75th Anniversary of the Great Flood of 1927" . Mvn.usace.army.mil . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .  
  150. ^ "Louisiana Nature Conservation, Environment Issues | The Nature Conservancy" . Nature.org. 2011-03-07 . Retrieved 2011-11-03 .  
  151. ^ Staff Writers " Problems with the design of levees ." Unregistered News . September 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2010-04-14.
  152. ^ Walsh, Bill (April 6, 2006). "Corps chief admits to 'design failure'" . Times Picayune . Retrieved 2006-04-09 .  
  153. ^ Crenson, Matt (2006-02-02). "Levee Repairs to Be Finished By First Day of Hurricane Season" . Associated Press . Retrieved 2008-05-12 .  
  154. ^ Burdeau, Cain (2008-02-12). "White House Budget for Levee Work Riles Many Louisiana Elected Officials" . Associated Press . Retrieved 2008-05-12 .  
  155. ^ Shields, Gerard (2008-05-03). "Jindal asks Bush for levee cash" . 2theadvocate.com . Retrieved 2008-05-12 .  
  156. ^ " Geraldo Rivera & Shepard Smith Unleashed [ dead link ] ." — Video. 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  157. ^ The Pulitzer Board (2006). "2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners — Breaking News Reporting" . Retrieved 2008-11-15 .  
  158. ^ The Pulitzer Board (2006). "2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners — Public Service" . Retrieved 2008-11-15 .  
  159. ^ Mark Glaser (September 13, 2005). "NOLA.com blogs and forums help save lives after Katrina" . Online Journalism Review . Retrieved 2006-08-02 .  
  160. ^ Paul Steiger (May 22, 2006). "Remarks at Pulitzer Prize luncheon" . The Pulitzer Board . Retrieved 2008-11-15 .  
  161. ^ Katy Bachman and Tony Sanders (2005-08-31). "Local Media Outlets Struggle to Carry On Post Katrina" . Billboard Radio Monitor . Retrieved 2010-04-14 .  
  162. ^ Staff Writer. " US won't ban media from New Orleans searches ." CNN. September 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  163. ^ "Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma "Retired" from List of Storm Names" . NOAA. April 6, 2006 . Retrieved August 28, 2006 .  
  164. ^ United States Army Corps of Engineers (2009). "The LACPR Home Page" . United States Army . Consultado el 09/08/2009.  
  165. ^ Britt, M. "Las Vegas Teen Helps Hurricane Victims In New Orleans", Las Vegas Daily Optic , December 19, 2005,

Otras lecturas

Enlaces externos

Disaster recovery:

Images: