Derechos humanos

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Los derechos humanos se entiende comúnmente como "inalienables fundamentales los derechos a los que es de por sí una persona con derecho simplemente porque él o ella es un ser humano ". [1] Los derechos humanos se concibe como universales (aplicables en todas partes) y igualitario (el mismo para todos) . Estos derechos pueden existir como derechos naturales , o como derechos legales , tanto nacionales y el derecho internacional . [2] La doctrina de los derechos humanos en la práctica internacional, en el marco del derecho internacional, las instituciones mundiales y regionales, en las políticas de los estados y en las actividades de organizaciones no gubernamentales, ha sido una piedra angular de la política pública en todo el mundo. La idea de los derechos humanos [3] establece que "si el discurso público de la sociedad en tiempos de paz global puede decirse que tiene un lenguaje moral común, es la de los humanos derechos ". A pesar de ello, las fuertes afirmaciones hechas por la doctrina de los derechos humanos siguen provocando escepticismo considerable y debates sobre el contenido, la naturaleza y la justificación de los derechos humanos a este día. En efecto, la cuestión de qué se entiende por un "derecho" es en sí mismo polémico y objeto de debate filosófico continuado. [4]

Muchas de las ideas básicas que animó el movimiento de derechos humanos desarrollados en las postrimerías de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y las atrocidades cometidas por el Holocausto , que culminó con la adopción de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos en París por la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas en 1948. El mundo antiguo no tenía el concepto de derechos humanos universales. [5] Las sociedades antiguas tenían "elaborados sistemas de deberes ... concepciones de la justicia, la legitimidad política y el florecimiento humano que buscaban darse cuenta de la dignidad humana, floreciente, o el bienestar totalmente independiente de los derechos humanos ". [6] El concepto moderno de derechos humanos se desarrollaron durante el período moderno temprano , junto a la secularización europeo de ética judeo-cristiana . [7] El verdadero precursor del discurso de los derechos humanos fue el concepto de derechos naturales que apareció como parte de la medieval La ley natural tradición que llegó a ser prominente durante la Ilustración con filósofos como John Locke , Francis Hutcheson , y Burlamaqui Jean-Jacques , y un lugar destacado en el discurso político de la Revolución Americana y la Revolución Francesa .

A partir de este fundamento, los argumentos modernos sobre derechos humanos, surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Gelificación como el activismo social y la retórica política en muchas naciones lo puso en la agenda mundial. [8]

Todos los seres humanos nacen libres e iguales en dignidad y derechos. Dotados como están de razón y conciencia, deben comportarse fraternalmente los unos a los otros en un espíritu de hermandad.

Contenido

Historia del concepto

La Declaración de Derechos
La Declaración de Derechos (1688 o 1689)
La Declaración de Derechos (1688 o 1689)
Creado 1689
Ratificado 16 de diciembre 1689
Ubicación Archivos Nacionales del Reino Unido
Autor (s) Parlamento de Inglaterra
Propósito Asegúrese de ciertas libertades y garantizar la supremacía política protestante.

El sentido moderno de los derechos humanos se remonta a Renacimiento europeo y la reforma protestante , junto con la desaparición de la feudal autoritarismo y conservadurismo religioso que dominaba las Edad Media . Los derechos humanos se definen como resultado de los eruditos europeos que intentan formar una "versión secularizada de la ética judeo-cristiana". [7] Aunque las ideas de derechos y libertades han existido en alguna forma durante gran parte de la historia humana, que no se parecen a los modernos concepción de los derechos humanos. Según Jack Donnelly, en el mundo antiguo ", las sociedades tradicionales suelen tener sistemas complejos de deberes ... concepciones de la justicia, la legitimidad política y la prosperidad humana que trataba de darse cuenta de la dignidad humana, floreciente, o bien ser completamente independiente de los derechos humanos derechos. Estas instituciones y prácticas alternativas, en lugar de formulaciones diferentes, los derechos humanos ". [6] La opinión más generalizada es que el concepto de derechos humanos se desarrollaron en Occidente, y que si bien las culturas anteriores tuvo importantes conceptos éticos, por lo general carecían de una concepción de los derechos humanos. Por ejemplo, McIntyre afirma que no hay palabra "derecho" en cualquier idioma antes de 1400. [5] fueros medievales de la libertad, como el Inglés Carta Magna no eran cartas de derechos humanos, sino que fueron la base [10] y constituye una tipo de acuerdo político limitado y legales para hacer frente a las circunstancias específicas de políticas, en el caso de la Carta Magna después de ser reconocido en el curso de los primeros debates modernos sobre derechos. [11] Uno de los registros más antiguos de los derechos humanos es el estatuto de Kalisz (1264 ), dando privilegios a la minoría judía en el reino de Polonia , como la protección contra la discriminación y la incitación al odio. [12] La base de las interpretaciones jurídicas más modernas de los derechos humanos se remonta a la historia reciente de Europa. Los Doce Artículos (1525) se considera como el primer registro de los derechos humanos en Europa. Eran parte de las demandas planteadas a los campesinos la Liga de Suabia en los campesinos alemanes guerra en Alemania.

La primera conceptualización de los derechos humanos se le atribuye a las ideas sobre los derechos naturales que emanan de la ley natural . En particular, la cuestión de los derechos universales fue presentado por el examen de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas por parte de los clérigos españoles, como Francisco de Vitoria y Bartolomé de Las Casas . En el debate de Valladolid , Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda , quien sostenía una visión aristotélica de la humanidad como dividida en clases de valor diferente, discutió con Las Casas, quien argumentó a favor de la igualdad de derechos a la libertad de la esclavitud de todos los seres humanos sin distinción de raza o religión. [13] En Gran Bretaña, en 1683, el Inglés Carta de Derechos (o "Ley Declarar los Derechos y Libertades de la reserva de estabilización y la sucesión de la Corona") y el escocés reclamación de derecho cada hecho ilegal una serie de acciones represivas gubernamentales . Dos grandes revoluciones se produjeron durante el siglo 18, en los Estados Unidos (1776) y en Francia (1789), dando lugar a la adopción de la Declaración de Independencia de los Estados Unidos y la francesa Declaración de los Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano , respectivamente, ambos de los cuales establecido ciertos derechos legales . Además, la Declaración de Derechos de Virginia de 1776 codificadas en ley una serie de fundamentales derechos civiles y las libertades civiles.

Declaración de los Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano aprobada por la Asamblea Nacional de Francia , 26 de agosto de 1789.
Sostenemos que estas verdades son evidentes: que todos los hombres son creados iguales, que son dotados por su Creador de ciertos derechos inalienables, que entre éstos están la Vida, la Libertad y la búsqueda de la felicidad.
-Estados Unidos Declaración de la Independencia de 1776

Estos fueron seguidos por la evolución de la filosofía de los derechos humanos por parte de filósofos como Thomas Paine , John Stuart Mill y Hegel GWF durante los siglos 18 y 19. El término derechos humanos probablemente se empezó a usar en algún momento entre las Paine Derechos del Hombre y William Lloyd Garrison 's 1831 escritos de El Libertador , en el que declaró que él estaba tratando de reclutar a sus lectores en "la gran causa de los derechos humanos".

En el siglo 19, los derechos humanos se convirtió en una preocupación central por la cuestión de la esclavitud . Algunos de los reformadores, tales como William Wilberforce en Inglaterra, trabajaron hacia la abolición de la esclavitud . Esto se logró en el Imperio Británico por la trata de esclavos Ley de 1807 y la Ley de Abolición de la Esclavitud 1833 . En los Estados Unidos, todos los estados del norte habían abolido la esclavitud entre 1777 y 1804, a pesar de que los estados del sur se aferró con fuerza a la "institución peculiar". Los conflictos y debates sobre la expansión de la esclavitud a los nuevos territorios constituían una de las razones de los estados del sur ' secesión y la guerra civil americana . Durante el período de reconstrucción inmediatamente después de la guerra, varias enmiendas a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos se hicieron. Estos incluyeron la enmienda 13 , que prohíbe la esclavitud, la enmienda 14 , asegurando la plena ciudadanía y derechos civiles a todas las personas nacidas en los Estados Unidos, y la 15 ª Enmienda , que garantiza a los afroamericanos el derecho al voto.

Muchos grupos y movimientos han logrado profundos cambios sociales a lo largo del siglo 20, en nombre de los derechos humanos. En Europa y América del Norte, los sindicatos provocó las leyes que concedan a los trabajadores el derecho de huelga, el establecimiento de condiciones mínimas de trabajo y prohibir o regular el trabajo infantil . Los derechos de las mujeres movimiento logró ganar para muchas mujeres el derecho a votar . movimientos de liberación nacional en muchos países lograron expulsar coloniales poderes. Uno de los más influyentes fue Mahatma Gandhi movimiento 's para liberar a su país natal, la India del dominio británico. Traslados por largo oprimidas minorías raciales y religiosas tuvieron éxito en muchas partes del mundo, entre ellos el africano Movimiento de Derechos Civiles estadounidense , y más recientemente diversas identidades políticas movimientos, en nombre de las mujeres y las minorías en los Estados Unidos.

La creación del Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja , el 1864 del Código Lieber y el primero de los Convenios de Ginebra de 1864 sentó las bases del derecho internacional humanitario , para seguir desarrollándose después de las dos guerras mundiales.

Las guerras mundiales, y las enormes pérdidas de vidas y graves violaciones de los derechos humanos que tuvieron lugar durante los mismos, eran una fuerza impulsora detrás del desarrollo de los modernos instrumentos de derechos humanos . La Liga de las Naciones fue creada en 1919 en las negociaciones sobre el Tratado de Versalles después de la final de la Primera Guerra Mundial . Las metas de la Liga incluían el desarme, la prevención de la guerra a través de la seguridad colectiva, la solución de controversias entre los países mediante la negociación y la diplomacia, y la mejora del bienestar global. Consagrados en su Carta fue el mandato de promover muchos de los derechos incluidos posteriormente en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos.

En el 1945 Conferencia de Yalta , las potencias aliadas acordaron la creación de un nuevo organismo para suplantar el papel de la Liga, lo que iba a ser el de las Naciones Unidas . Las Naciones Unidas han desempeñado un papel importante en la internacional de los derechos humanos la ley desde su creación. Después de las guerras mundiales, las Naciones Unidas y sus miembros desarrollaron gran parte del discurso y los cuerpos de ley que ahora conforman el derecho internacional humanitario y derecho internacional de los derechos humanos .

Filosofía

La filosofía de los derechos humanos intenta examinar la base fundamental del concepto de los derechos humanos y examina críticamente su contenido y justificación. Varios enfoques teóricos han sido propuestas para explicar cómo y por qué los derechos humanos se han convertido en una parte de las expectativas sociales.

Una de las más antiguas filosofías occidentales de los derechos humanos es que son producto de una ley natural, proveniente de diferentes razones filosóficas o religiosas. Otras teorías sostienen que el comportamiento humano codificar los derechos morales, que es un producto humano social desarrollado por un proceso de evolución biológica y social (asociado a Hume ). Los derechos humanos también se describen como un patrón sociológico de la configuración de la regla (como en la teoría sociológica de la ley y la obra de Weber ). Estos enfoques incluyen la noción de que los individuos de una sociedad aceptan las reglas de la autoridad legítima a cambio de la seguridad y el beneficio económico (como en Rawls ) - un contrato social. Las dos teorías que dominan la discusión contemporánea de derechos humanos son la teoría del interés y la teoría de la voluntad. Interés teoría sostiene que la función principal de los derechos humanos es proteger y promover ciertos intereses humanos esenciales, mientras que la teoría de la voluntad de los intentos de establecer la validez de los derechos humanos basado en la singular capacidad humana para la libertad. [14]

Las críticas a

Los fuertes reclamos hechos por los derechos humanos de universalidad han llevado a la crítica persistente. Los filósofos que han criticado el concepto de derechos humanos incluyen Jeremy Bentham , Edmund Burke , Friedrich Nietzsche y Karl Marx . Políticos profesor de filosofía Charles Blattberg argumenta que el debate sobre los derechos humanos, al ser abstracta, desmotiva a la gente de la defensa de los valores que los derechos están destinados a afirmar. [15] La enciclopedia del Internet de la filosofía presta especial atención a dos tipos de críticas: la universalidad de un cuestionamiento derechos humanos y el negarles una base objetiva. [16] Alain Pellet , un estudioso del derecho internacional, critica el "derechismo humano" enfoque de negar el principio de la soberanía y reclamando un lugar especial para los derechos humanos entre las ramas del derecho internacional, [17 ] Alain de Benoist preguntas locales de derechos humanos de la igualdad humana. [18] David Kennedy había enumerado las preocupaciones pragmáticas y cargas polémicas sobre los derechos humanos en 2002 en Harvard Derechos Humanos Diario. [19]

Clasificación

Los derechos humanos pueden ser clasificados y organizados en un número de maneras diferentes, a nivel internacional, la clasificación más común de los derechos humanos ha sido la de dividir en los derechos civiles y políticos y los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales .

Los derechos civiles y políticos consagrados en los artículos 3 a 21 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos (DUDH) y en el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos ( PIDCP ). Los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales consagrados en los artículos 22 a 28 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos (DUDH) y en el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales ( PIDESC ).

Indivisibilidad

La Declaración incluye tanto los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales y los derechos civiles y políticos, ya que se basa en el principio de que los diferentes derechos sólo puede existir con éxito en combinación:

El ideal del ser humano libre, libertades civiles y políticas y liberado del temor y la miseria sólo se puede lograr si se crean condiciones que permitan a cada persona gozar de sus derechos civiles y políticos, tanto como de sus derechos sociales, económicos y culturales.
-Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos y el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales, 1966

Esto se lleva a cabo para ser verdad, porque sin derechos civiles y políticos, el público no puede hacer valer sus derechos económicos, sociales y culturales. Del mismo modo, sin medios de vida y una sociedad de trabajo, el público no puede asegurar o hacer uso de los derechos civiles o políticos (conocido como la tesis estómago lleno).

La indivisibilidad e interdependencia de todos los derechos humanos ha sido confirmado por el 1993 Declaración de Viena y Programa de Acción :

Todos los derechos humanos son universales, indivisibles e interdependientes y están relacionados. La comunidad internacional debe tratar los derechos humanos globalmente de manera justa y equitativa, en pie de igualdad y dándoles a todos el mismo.

Esta declaración fue aprobada de nuevo en la Cumbre Mundial de 2005 en Nueva York (párrafo 121).

Si bien aceptada por los signatarios de la Declaración Universal , la mayoría no en la práctica dar el mismo peso a los diferentes tipos de derechos. Algunas culturas occidentales a menudo han dado prioridad a los derechos civiles y políticos, a veces a expensas de los derechos económicos y sociales, como el derecho al trabajo , a la educación , salud y vivienda. Igualmente, los países ex bloque soviético y los países asiáticos han tendido a dar prioridad a los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, pero con frecuencia no se otorgan derechos civiles y políticos.

Categorización

Los opositores a la indivisibilidad de los derechos humanos sostienen que los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales son fundamentalmente diferentes de los derechos civiles y políticos y requieren enfoques completamente diferentes. Los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales se argumenta que:

  • positivo, lo que significa que requieren disposición activa de los derechos por parte del Estado (en comparación con el estado que se requiere sólo para prevenir la violación de los derechos)
  • intensivo de recursos, lo que significa que son caros y difíciles de proporcionar
  • progresiva, lo que significa que va a tomar mucho tiempo para poner en práctica
  • vago, lo que significa que no puede ser medida cuantitativamente, y si se proporcionan adecuadamente o no es difícil juzgar
  • ideológicamente divisivo / político, lo que significa que no hay consenso sobre lo que debe y no debe ser proporcionado como un derecho
  • socialista , en oposición a capitalista
  • no justiciable, lo que significa que su disposición, o la violación de ellos, no puede ser juzgado en un tribunal de justicia
  • aspiraciones o metas, en lugar de verdaderos derechos "legales"

Del mismo modo los derechos civiles y políticos se clasifican como:

  • negativo, lo que significa que el Estado puede protegerlos simplemente no tomar ninguna medida
  • sin costo
  • inmediata, lo que significa que se pueda proporcionar inmediatamente si el Estado decide
  • precisa, es decir, su disposición es fácil juzgar y medir
  • non-ideological/non-political
  • capitalista
  • justiciable
  • verdaderos derechos "legales"

Olivia Ball y Paul Gready argumentar que por tanto los derechos civiles y políticos y los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, es fácil encontrar ejemplos que no encajan en la clasificación anterior. Entre varios otros, ponen de relieve el hecho de que el mantenimiento de un sistema judicial, un requisito fundamental del derecho civil al debido proceso ante la ley y otros derechos relacionados con el proceso judicial, es positivo, muchos recursos, progresiva y vaga, mientras que el derecho social a la vivienda es preciso, justiciable y puede ser un verdadero "legal" a la derecha. [20]

Tres generaciones

Otra categorización, ofrecido por Karel Vasak , es que hay tres generaciones de derechos humanos : la primera generación de los derechos civiles y políticos (derecho a la vida ya la participación política), la segunda generación de los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales (derecho a la subsistencia) y la tercera generación de solidaridad derechos (derecho a la paz, el derecho a un medio ambiente limpio). Fuera de estas generaciones, la tercera generación es el más debatido y carece de reconocimiento legal y político. Esta clasificación está reñida con la indivisibilidad de los derechos, ya que implícitamente se afirma que algunos derechos pueden existir sin los demás. Priorización de los derechos por razones pragmáticas, es sin embargo una necesidad ampliamente aceptada. Derechos humanos experto Philip Alston sostiene:

Si cada posible elemento de derechos humanos se considera esencial o necesario, entonces nada va a ser tratado como si fuera realmente importante. [21]

Él, y otros, exhortan a la prudencia con la priorización de los derechos:

[L] a llamar para dar prioridad no es para sugerir que cualquier violaciónes de los derechos obvios pueden ser ignorados.
-Philip Alston [21]
Prioridades, en su caso, deben adherirse a los conceptos básicos (como los intentos razonables de realización progresiva) y principios (como la no discriminación, la igualdad y la participación.
-Olivia Ball, Paul Gready [22]

Algunos derechos humanos se dice que son " derechos inalienables ". Los derechos inalienables plazo (o derechos inalienables) se refiere a "un conjunto de derechos humanos que son fundamentales, no son otorgados por el poder humano, y no puede ser entregado".

La protección internacional

A raíz de las atrocidades de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hubo un aumento de la preocupación por la protección social y jurídica de los derechos humanos como las libertades fundamentales. La fundación de la Naciones Unidas y las disposiciones de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas sirvieron de base para un sistema completo de leyes y prácticas internacionales para la protección de los derechos humanos. Desde entonces, el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos se ha caracterizado por un sistema vinculado de convenciones, tratados, organizaciones y organismos políticos, en lugar de una sola entidad o conjunto de leyes. [23]

Carta de las Naciones Unidas

Las disposiciones de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas proporcionan una base para el desarrollo de la protección internacional de los derechos humanos. [23] En el preámbulo de la Carta establece que los miembros de "reafirmar la fe en los derechos fundamentales del hombre, en la igualdad de derechos de hombres y mujeres", y el artículo 1 (3) de las Naciones Unidas para los estados carta que uno de los propósitos de las Naciones Unidas es "realizar la cooperación internacional en la solución de problemas internacionales de carácter económico, social, cultural o humanitario, y en el desarrollo y estímulo del respeto a los derechos humanos . y las libertades fundamentales de todos, sin hacer distinción por motivos de raza, sexo, idioma o religión " [24] El artículo 55 establece que:

La Organización promoverá: a) niveles de vida más elevados, trabajo permanente para todos, y condiciones de progreso económico y social y el desarrollo, b) la solución de problemas internacionales económicos, sociales, de salud y otros problemas conexos; c) Cooperación internacional cultural y educativo; d ) el respeto universal y la observancia de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, sin hacer distinción por motivos de raza, sexo, idioma o religión.

De particular importancia es el artículo 56 de la Carta: "Todos los Miembros se comprometen a tomar medidas conjunta o separadamente, en cooperación con la Organización, para la realización de los propósitos consignados en el Artículo 55." Se trata de una disposición de un tratado vinculante aplicable tanto a la organización y de sus miembros y se ha llevado a constituir una obligación legal para los miembros de las Naciones Unidas. [23] En general, las referencias a los derechos humanos en la Carta son de carácter general y vago. La Carta no contiene derechos legales específicos, ni tampoco obliga a los procedimientos de aplicación para proteger estos derechos. [25] A pesar de esto, la importancia de la adhesión a los derechos humanos en la Carta de la ONU no debe ser subestimada. La importancia de los derechos humanos en el escenario mundial puede atribuirse a la importancia de los derechos humanos dentro del marco de las Naciones Unidas y la Carta de las Naciones Unidas puede ser visto como el punto de partida para el desarrollo de una amplia gama de declaraciones, tratados, la aplicación y los mecanismos de aplicación , los órganos de las Naciones Unidas, los comités y los informes sobre la protección de los derechos humanos. [25] Los derechos consagrados en la Carta de la ONU se codificaron y se define en la Carta Internacional de Derechos Humanos, que componen la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos , el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles Derechos Civiles y Políticos y el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales .

Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos

"No es un tratado ... [En el futuro, se] puede muy bien convertirse en el internacional Carta Magna ". [26] Eleanor Roosevelt con el texto en español de la Declaración Universal en 1949.

La Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos (DUDH) fue adoptada por la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas [9] en 1948, en parte como respuesta a las atrocidades de la Segunda Guerra Mundial . Aunque la DUDH fue una resolución no vinculante, que ahora es considerado por alguno para haber adquirido la fuerza de la internacional consuetudinario que pueda invocarse en circunstancias apropiadas las judicaturas nacionales y otros. [27] La Declaración insta a los países miembros a promover un número de humanos, los derechos civiles, económicos y sociales, que afirman estos derechos como parte de la "base de la libertad , la justicia y la paz en el mundo ". La declaración fue el primer esfuerzo internacional legal para limitar el comportamiento de los Estados y presionar sobre ellos derechos de sus ciudadanos, siguiendo el modelo de la dualidad derecho-deber .

... Reconocimiento de la dignidad intrínseca y de los derechos iguales e inalienables derechos de todos los miembros de la familia humana es el fundamento de la libertad, la justicia y la paz en el mundo.
-Preámbulo de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, 1948

La DUDH fue enmarcada por los miembros de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, con el ex primera dama Eleanor Roosevelt como Presidente, quien comenzó a discutir una Carta Internacional de Derechos en 1947. Los miembros de la Comisión no respondió de inmediato un acuerdo sobre la forma de dicha declaración de derechos, y si, o cómo, se debe cumplir. La Comisión procedió a formular la Declaración Universal y los tratados que se acompañan, pero la DUDH se convirtió rápidamente en una prioridad. [28] Ley profesor canadiense John Humphrey y abogado francés René Cassin fueron responsables de gran parte de la investigación transnacional y la estructura del documento, respectivamente, donde los artículos de la declaración interpretativa eran del principio general del preámbulo. El documento fue estructurado por Cassin para incluir los principios básicos de la dignidad, la libertad, la igualdad y la fraternidad en los dos primeros artículos, seguido sucesivamente por los derechos relativos a las personas, los derechos de las personas en relación con cada uno de los demás grupos y, espirituales, políticas públicas y derechos, y los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales. Los últimos tres artículos lugar, según Cassin, los derechos en el contexto de los límites, deberes y el orden social y político en el que se van a realizar. [28] Humphrey y Cassin destinado a los derechos de la Declaración Universal de ser legalmente exigible a través de algunos medios, como se refleja en la cláusula tercera del preámbulo: [28]

Considerando que es esencial que el hombre no se vea compelido a recurrir, como último recurso de la rebelión contra la tiranía y la opresión, que los derechos humanos sean protegidos por un régimen de derecho.
-Preámbulo de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, 1948

Parte de la DUDH fue investigado y escrito por un comité de expertos internacionales en materia de derechos humanos, incluidos los representantes de todos los continentes y todas las religiones más importantes, y sobre la base de consultas con líderes como Mahatma Gandhi. [29] [30] La inclusión de la sociedad civil, los derechos políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales [28] [31] se basa en la suposición de que todos los derechos humanos son indivisibles y que los diferentes tipos de derechos enumerados están íntimamente ligados. Este principio no se oponía a continuación, por cualquier estado miembro (la declaración fue aprobada por unanimidad, RSS de Bielorrusia , Checoslovaquia , Polonia , Arabia Saudita , RSS de Ucrania , Unión Sudafricana , URSS , Yugoslavia .), sin embargo, este principio fue posteriormente objeto de importantes desafíos. [31]

La Declaración Universal se bifurca en los tratados, un Pacto de Derechos Civiles y Políticos y otro sobre los derechos sociales, económicos y culturales, debido a las preguntas sobre la relevancia y la pertinencia de las disposiciones económicas y sociales en los pactos de derechos humanos. Ambos pactos comienzan con el derecho de los pueblos a la libre determinación ya la soberanía sobre sus recursos naturales. [32] Este debate sobre si los derechos humanos son más importantes que los derechos económicos ha continuado hasta el día de hoy.

Los redactores de los Convenios inicialmente previsto sólo un instrumento. Los borradores originales incluían sólo los derechos políticos y civiles, sino también los derechos económicos y sociales también fueron propuestos. El desacuerdo sobre qué derechos son derechos humanos básicos como resultado la existencia de dos convenios. El debate era si los derechos económicos y sociales son aspiraciones, en contraste con los derechos humanos básicos que todas las personas poseen puramente por ser humanos, porque los derechos económicos y sociales dependen de la riqueza y de la disponibilidad de recursos. Además, los derechos sociales y económicos deben ser reconocidos depende de la ideología o las teorías económicas, en contraste con los derechos humanos fundamentales, que se definen exclusivamente por la naturaleza (la capacidad mental y física) de los seres humanos. Se debatió si los derechos económicos eran temas apropiados para las obligaciones vinculantes y si la falta de consenso sobre tales derechos podría diluir la fuerza de la política de los derechos civiles. Hubo un acuerdo amplio y claro reconocimiento de que los medios necesarios para hacer cumplir o inducir al cumplimiento de compromisos socio-económicas eran diferentes de los medios necesarios para derechos civiles y políticos. [33]

Este debate y el deseo de un mayor número de firmantes de la ley de derechos humanos llevó a los dos pactos. El bloque soviético y una serie de países en desarrollo habían defendido la inclusión de todos los derechos en una resolución llamada unidad. Ambos convenios permiten a los Estados a derogar algunos derechos. [ cita requerida ] Los partidarios de un solo tratado no podría obtener el consenso suficiente. [34] [35]

Los tratados internacionales

En 1966, el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos (PIDCP) y el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales (PIDESC) fue adoptado por la ONU , entre ellos lo que los derechos contenidos en la Declaración Universal vinculante para todos los Estados que tienen firmado el presente tratado, la creación de la ley de derechos humanos.

Desde entonces numerosos otros tratados ( proyectos de ley ) se han ofrecido a nivel internacional. Ellos son generalmente conocidos como los instrumentos de derechos humanos. Algunos de los más significativos, se hace referencia (con PIDCP y PIDESC) como "los siete tratados básicos", son:

Customary international law

In addition to protection by international treaties, customary international law may protect some human rights, such as the prohibition of torture, genocide and slavery and the principle of non-discrimination. [ 36 ]

International humanitarian law

The Geneva Conventions came into being between 1864 and 1949 as a result of efforts by Henry Dunant , the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross . The conventions safeguard the human rights of individuals involved in armed conflict, and build on the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 , the international community's first attempt to formalize the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law. The conventions were revised as a result of World War II and readopted by the international community in 1949.

United Nations system

Structure of the United Nations Human Rights Bodies and Mechanisms

Under the mandate of the UN charter, the and the multilateral UN human rights treaties, the United Nations (UN) as an intergovernmental body seeks to apply international jurisdiction for universal human-rights legislation. [ 37 ] Within the UN machinery, human-rights issues are primarily the concern of the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations Human Rights Council , and there are numerous committees within the UN with responsibilities for safeguarding different human-rights treaties. The most senior body of the UN in the sphere of human rights is the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The United Nations has an international mandate to:

achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, gender, language, or religion.
—Article 1–3 of the United Nations Charter

Political bodies

Consejo de Seguridad

The United Nations Security Council has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and is the only body of the UN that can authorize the use of force. It has been criticised for failing to take action to prevent human rights abuses, including the Darfur crisis , the Srebrenica massacre and the Rwandan Genocide . [ 38 ] For example, critics blamed the presence of non-democracies on the Security Council for its failure regarding. [ 39 ]

On April 28, 2006 the Security Council adopted resolution 1674 that reaffirmed the responsibility to protect populations from genocide , war crimes , ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity " and committed the Security Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict. [ 40 ]

General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly , under Article 13 of the UN Charter, has the power to initiate studies and make recommendations on human rights issues. [ 41 ] Under this provision, the general assembly passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, and since then a wide variety of other human rights instruments. [ 41 ] The assembly has several subsidiary organs that deal with specific human rights issues, such as the Special Committee on Decolonisation and the Special Commission against Apartheid (no longer operational). In addition the general assembly has set up a number of subsidiary organs that consider human rights issues in a number of high-profile contexts: such as the UN Council on Namibia, the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practises in the Occupied territories and the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable rights of the Palestine People. [ 42 ]

Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council , created at the 2005 World Summit to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights , has a mandate to investigate violations of human rights. [ 43 ] The Human Rights Council is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly [ 44 ] and reports directly to it. It ranks below the Security Council, which is the final authority for the interpretation of the United Nations Charter . [ 45 ] Forty-seven of the one hundred ninety-one member states sit on the council, elected by simple majority in a secret ballot of the United Nations General Assembly . Members serve a maximum of six years and may have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses. The Council is based in Geneva , and meets three times a year; with additional meetings to respond to urgent situations. [ 46 ]

Independent experts ( rapporteurs ) are retained by the Council to investigate alleged human rights abuses and to provide the Council with reports.

The Human Rights Council may request that the Security Council take action when human rights violations occur. This action may be direct actions, may involve sanctions , and the Security Council may also refer cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC) even if the issue being referred is outside the normal jurisdiction of the ICC. [ 47 ]

Treaty bodies

In addition to the political bodies whose mandate flows from the UN charter, the UN has set up a number of treaty-based bodies, comprising committees of independent experts who monitor compliance with human rights standards and norms flowing from the core international human rights treaties. They are supported by and are created by the treaty that they monitor, With the exception of theCESCR, which was established under a resolution of the Economic and Social Council to carry out the monitoring functions originally assigned to that body under the Covenant, they are technically autonomous bodies, established by the treaties that they monitor and accountable to the state parties of those treaties - rather than subsidiary to the United Nations. Though in practise they are closely intertwined with the United Nations system and are supported by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the UN Center for Human Rights. [ 48 ]

  • The Human Rights Committee promotes participation with the standards of the ICCPR . The eighteen members of the committee express opinions on member countries and make judgments on individual complaints against countries which have ratified an Optional Protocol to the treaty. The judgments, termed "views", are not legally binding.
  • The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights monitors the ICESCR and makes general comments on ratifying countries performance. It will have the power to receive complaints against the countries that opted into the Optional Protocol once it has come into force. It is important to note that unlike the other treaty bodies, the economic committee is not an autonomous body responsible to the treaty parties, but directly responsible to the Economic and Social Council and ultimately to the General Assembly. This means that the Economic Committee faces particular difficulties at its disposal only relatively "weak" means of implementation in comparison to other treaty bodies. [ 49 ] Particular difficulties noted by commentators include: perceived vagueness of the principles of the treaty, relative lack of legal texts and decisions, ambivalence of many states in addressing economic, social and cultural rights, comparatively few non-governmental organisations focused on the area and problems with obtaining relevant and precise information. [ 49 ] [ 50 ]
  • The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors the CERD and conducts regular reviews of countries' performance. It can make judgments on complaints against member states allowing it, but these are not legally binding. It issues warnings to attempt to prevent serious contraventions of the convention.
  • The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women monitors the CEDAW . It receives states' reports on their performance and comments on them, and can make judgments on complaints against countries which have opted into the 1999 Optional Protocol.
  • The Committee Against Torture monitors the CAT and receives states' reports on their performance every four years and comments on them. Its subcommittee may visit and inspect countries which have opted into the Optional Protocol.
  • The Committee on the Rights of the Child monitors the CRC and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years. It does not have the power to receive complaints.
  • The Committee on Migrant Workers was established in 2004 and monitors the ICRMW and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years. It will have the power to receive complaints of specific violations only once ten member states allow it.
  • The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was established in 2008 to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities . It has the power to receive complaints against the countries which have opted into the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities .

Each treaty body receives secretariat support from the Human Rights Council and Treaties Division of Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva except CEDAW, which is supported by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW). CEDAW formerly held all its sessions at United Nations headquarters in New York but now frequently meets at the United Nations Office in Geneva; the other treaty bodies meet in Geneva. The Human Rights Committee usually holds its March session in New York City.

Regional human rights regimes

International human rights regime's are in several cases "nested" within more comprehensive and overlapping regional agreements. These regional regimes can be seen as relatively independently coherent human rights sub-regimes. [ 51 ] Three principle regional human rights instruments can be identified, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights , the American Convention on Human Rights (the Americas) and the European Convention on Human Rights . The European Convention on Human Rights has since 1950 defined and guaranteed human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. [ 52 ] All 47 member states of the Council of Europe have signed the Convention and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg . [ 52 ]

Non-governmental actors

Non-governmental Organizations

International non-governmental human rights organizations such as Amnesty International , Human Rights Watch , International Service for Human Rights and FIDH monitor what they see as human rights issues around the world and promote their views on the subject. Human rights organizations have been said to ""translate complex international issues into activities to be undertaken by concerned citizens in their own community". [ 53 ] Human rights organizations frequently engage in lobbying and advocacy in an effort to convince the United Nations, supranational bodies and national governments to adopt their policies on human rights. Many human-rights organizations have observer status at the various UN bodies tasked with protecting human rights. A new (in 2009) nongovernmental human-rights conference is the Oslo Freedom Forum , a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum." The same article noted that human-rights advocates are more and more divided amongst themselves over how violations of human rights are to be defined, notably as regards the Middle East. [ 54 ]

There is criticism of human-rights organisations who use their status but allegedly move away from their stated goals. For example, Gerald M. Steinberg , an Israel-based academic, maintains that NGOs take advantage of a " halo effect " and are "given the status of impartial moral watchdogs" by governments and the media. [ 55 ] Such critics claim that this may be seen at various governmental levels, including when human-rights groups testify before investigation committees. [ 56 ]

Human rights defenders

A human rights defender is someone who, individually or with others, acts to promote or protect human rights. Human rights defenders are those men and women who act peacefully for the promotion and protection of those rights.

Corporations

Multinational companies play an increasingly large role in the world, and have been responsible for numerous human rights abuses. [ 57 ] Although the legal and moral environment surrounding the actions of governments is reasonably well developed, that surrounding multinational companies is both controversial and ill-defined. [ citation needed ] Multinational companies' primary responsibility is to their shareholders , not to those affected by their actions. Such companies may be larger than the economies of some of the states within which they operate, and can wield significant economic and political power. No international treaties exist to specifically cover the behavior of companies with regard to human rights, and national legislation is very variable. Jean Ziegler , Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on the right to food stated in a report in 2003:

[T]he growing power of transnational corporations and their extension of power through privatization, deregulation and the rolling back of the State also mean that it is now time to develop binding legal norms that hold corporations to human rights standards and circumscribe potential abuses of their position of power.
—Jean Ziegler [ 58 ]

In August 2003 the Human Rights Commission's Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights produced draft Norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights . [ 59 ] These were considered by the Human Rights Commission in 2004, but have no binding status on corporations and are not monitored. [ 60 ]

Human rights violations

Human rights violations occur when actions by state (or non-state) actors abuse, ignore, or deny basic human rights (including civil, political, cultural, social, and economic rights). Furthermore, violations of human rights can occur when any state or non-state actor breaches any part of the UDHR treaty or other international human rights or humanitarian law. In regard to human rights violations of United Nations laws, Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council (or an appointed authority) as the only tribunal that may determine UN human rights violations.

Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations committees, national institutions and governments and by many independent non-governmental organizations , such as Amnesty International , International Federation of Human Rights , Human Rights Watch , World Organisation Against Torture , Freedom House , International Freedom of Expression Exchange and Anti-Slavery International . These organisations collect evidence and documentation of alleged human rights abuses and apply pressure to enforce human rights laws.

Wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity , including genocide , are breaches of International humanitarian law and represent the most serious of human rights violations.

In efforts to eliminate violations of human rights, building awareness and protesting inhumane treatment has often led to calls for action and sometimes improved conditions. The UN Security Council has interceded with peace keeping forces, and other states and treaties (NATO) have intervened in situations to protect human rights.

Substantive rights

Right to life

Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
—Article 6.1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The right to life is the essential right that a human being has the right not to be killed by another human being. The concept of a right to life is central to debates on the issues of abortion , capital punishment , euthanasia , self defense and war . According to many human rights activists, the death penalty violates this right. [ 61 ] The United Nations has called on states retaining the death penalty to establish a moratorium on capital punishment with a view to its abolition. [ 62 ] States which do not do so face considerable moral and political pressure.

Freedom from torture

Throughout history, torture has been used as a method of political re-education , interrogation, punishment, and coercion. In addition to state-sponsored torture, individuals or groups may be motivated to inflict torture on others for similar reasons to those of a state; however, the motive for torture can also be for the sadistic gratification of the torturer, as in the Moors murders .

Torture is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries in the 21st century. It is considered to be a violation of human rights, and is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights . Signatories of the Third Geneva Convention and Fourth Geneva Convention officially agree not to torture prisoners in armed conflicts. Torture is also prohibited by the United Nations Convention Against Torture , which has been ratified by 147 states. [ 63 ]

National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and similar ill-treatment are immoral, as well as impractical. [ 64 ] Despite these international conventions, organizations that monitor abuses of human rights (eg Amnesty International , the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims ) report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world. [ 65 ] Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments currently practice torture, some of them openly. [ 66 ]

Freedom from slavery

Freedom from slavery is an internationally recognized human right. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states:

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. [ 67 ]

Despite this, the number of slaves today is higher than at any point in history , [ 68 ] remaining as high as 12 million [ 69 ] to 27 million, [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Most are debt slaves , largely in South Asia , who are under debt bondage incurred by lenders , sometimes even for generations. [ 73 ] Human trafficking is primarily for prostituting women and children into sex industries . [ 74 ]

Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group , Anti-Slavery International , Free the Slaves , the Anti-Slavery Society , and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to rid the world of slavery.

Right to a fair trial

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. [ 75 ]

The right to a fair trial has been defined in numerous regional and international human rights instruments . It is one of the most extensive human rights and all international human rights instruments enshrine it in more than one article. [ 76 ] The right to a fair trial is one of the most litigated human rights and substantial case law has been established on the interpretation of this human right. [ 77 ] Despite variations in wording and placement of the various fair trial rights, international human rights instrument define the right to a fair trial in broadly the same terms. [ 78 ] The aim of the right is to ensure the proper administration of justice. As a minimum the right to fair trial includes the following fair trial rights in civil and criminal proceedings: [ 79 ]

  • the right to be heard by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal
  • the right to a public hearing
  • the right to be heard within a reasonable time
  • the right to counsel
  • the right to interpretation [ 79 ]

Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without censorship. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. In practice, the right to freedom of speech is not absolute in any country and the right is commonly subject to limitations, such as on libel, slander, obscenity, incitement to commit a crime, etc. The right to freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Article 19 of the ICCPR states that "[e]veryone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice".

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
—Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion are closely related rights that protect the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to think and freely hold conscientious beliefs and to manifest religion or belief in teaching , practice, worship , and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion . [ 80 ] The freedom to leave or discontinue membership in a religion or religious group—in religious terms called " apostasy "—is also a fundamental part of religious freedom, covered by Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . [ 81 ]

Human rights groups such as Amnesty International organises campaigns to protect those arrested and or incarcerated as a prisoner of conscience because of their conscientious beliefs, particularly concerning intellectual, political and artistic freedom of expression and association. [ 82 ] In legislation, a conscience clause is a provision in a statute that excuses a health professional from complying with the law (for example legalising surgical or pharmaceutical abortion ) if it is incompatible with religious or conscientious beliefs. [ 83 ]

Rights debates

Events and new possibilities can affect existing rights or require new ones. Advances of technology, medicine, and philosophy constantly challenge the status quo of human rights thinking.

Right to keep and bear arms

The right to keep and bear arms for defense is described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others. [ 84 ] In countries with an English common law tradition, a long standing common law right to keep and bear arms has long been recognized, as pre-existing in common law, prior even to the existence of national constitutions. [ 85 ]

Future generations

In 1997 UNESCO adopted the Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generation Towards the Future Generation . The Declaration opens with the words:

Mindful of the will of the peoples, set out solemnly in the Charter of the United Nations , to 'save succeeding generations from the scourge of war' and to safeguard the values and principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , and all other relevant instruments of international law.
—Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generation Towards the Future Generation

Article 1 of the declaration states "the present generations have the responsibility of ensuring that the needs and interests of present and future generations are fully safeguarded." The preamble to the declaration states that "at this point in history, the very existence of humankind and its environment are threatened" and the declaration covers a variety of issues including protection of the environment , the human genome , biodiversity , cultural heritage, peace , development, and education . The preamble recalls that the responsibilities of the present generations towards future generations has been referred to in various international instruments, including the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO 1972), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992), the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (World Conference on Human Rights, 1993) and a number of UN General Assembly resolutions relating to the protection of the global climate for present and future generations adopted since 1990. [ 86 ]

Sexual orientation and gender identity

Sexual orientation and gender identity rights relate to the expression of sexual orientation and gender identity based on the right to respect for private life and the right not to be discriminated against on the ground of " other status " as defined in various human rights conventions, such as article 17 and 26 in the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and article 8 and article 14 in the European Convention on Human Rights.

Through the way many because of their religious beliefs claim that they support human rights in general while denying that LGBT rights are human rights, LGBT rights stand prominent in the very defense of the universal principle of the human rights. If human rights are understood in a way that makes it possible to exclude the basic rights of certain groups only because of certain religious and cultural prejudices, we find that the principle of universality is taken right out of the human rights, and human rights are transformed to a set of rules only reflecting certain historically values. [ 87 ]

Homosexuality is illegal in 76 countries [ citation needed ] , and is punishable by execution in seven countries. [ 88 ] The criminalization of private, consensual, adult sexual relations, especially in countries where corporal or capital punishment is involved, is one of the primary concerns of LGBT human rights advocates. [ 89 ]

Other issues include: government recognition of same-sex relationships , LGBT adoption , sexual orientation and military service , immigration equality, anti-discrimination laws , hate crime laws regarding violence against LGBT people, sodomy laws , anti-lesbianism laws, and equal age of consent for same-sex activity. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] [ 94 ] [ 95 ]

A global charter for sexual orientation and gender identity rights has been proposed in the form of the ' Yogyakarta Principles ', a set of 29 principles whose authors say they apply International Human Rights Law statutes and precedent to situations relevant to LGBT people's experience. [ 96 ] The principles were presented at a United Nations event in New York on November 7, 2007, co-sponsored by Argentina , Brazil and Uruguay .

The principles have been acknowledged with influencing the French proposed UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity , which focuses on ending violence, criminalization and capital punishment and does not include dialogue about same-sex marriage or right to start a family. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] The proposal was supported by 67 of the then 192 member countries of the United Nations, including all EU member states and the United States. An alternative statement opposing the proposal was initiated by Syria and signed by 57 member nations, including all 27 nations of the Arab League as well as Iran and North Korea . [ 99 ] [ 100 ]

Trade

Although both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights emphasize the importance of a right to work, neither of these documents explicitly mention trade as a mechanism for ensuring this fundamental right. And yet trade plays a key role in providing jobs. [ 101 ]

Some experts argue that trade is inherent to human nature and that when governments inhibit international trade they directly inhibit the right to work and the other indirect benefits, like the right to education, that increased work and investment help accrue. [ 102 ] Others have argued that the ability to trade does not affect everyone equally—often groups like the rural poor, indigenous groups and women are less likely to access the benefits of increased trade. [ 103 ]

On the other hand, others think that it is no longer primarily individuals but companies that trade, and therefore it cannot be guaranteed as a human right. [ citation needed ] Additionally, trying to fit too many concepts under the umbrella of what qualifies as a human right has the potential to dilute their importance. Finally, it is difficult to define a right to trade as either "fair" [ 104 ] or "just" in that the current trade regime produces winners and losers but its reform is likely to produce (different) winners and losers. [ 105 ]

Agua

In November 2002, the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a non-binding comment affirming that access to water was a human right:

the human right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity. It is a prerequisite for the realization of other human rights.
—United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

This principle was reaffirmed at the 3rd and 4th World Water Councils in 2003 and 2006. This marks a departure from the conclusions of the 2nd World Water Forum in The Hague in 2000, which stated that water was a commodity to be bought and sold, not a right. [ 106 ] There are calls from many NGOs and politicians to enshrine access to water as a binding human right, and not as a commodity. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] According to the United Nations, nearly 900 million people lack access to clean water and more than 2.6 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. On July 28, 2010, the UN declared water and sanitation as human rights. By declaring safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right, the UN General Assembly made a step towards the Millennium Development Goal to ensure environmental sustainability, which in part aims to "halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation".

Reproductive rights

Reproductive rights are rights relating to reproduction and reproductive health . [ 109 ] The World Health Organisation defines reproductive rights as follows:

Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.

Reproductive rights were first established as a subset of human rights at the United Nations 1968 International Conference on Human Rights. [ 111 ] The sixteenth article of the resulting Proclamation of Teheran states, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children." [ 111 ] [ 112 ]

Reproductive rights may include some or all of the following rights: the right to legal or safe abortion , the right to control one's reproductive functions , the right to quality reproductive healthcare , and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion , discrimination , and violence . [ 113 ]

Reproductive rights may also be understood to include education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections , and freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception, protection from gender-based practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and male genital mutilation (MGM). [ 109 ] [ 111 ] [ 113 ] [ 114 ]

Information and communication technologies

In October 2009, Finland 's Ministry of Transport and Communications announced that every person in Finland would have the legal right to Internet access. [ 115 ] Since July 2010, the government has legally obligated telecommunications companies to offer broadband Internet access to every permanent residence and office. The connection must be "reasonably priced" and have a downstream rate of at least 1 Mbit/s. [ 116 ]

In March 2010, the BBC , having commissioned an opinion poll , reported that "almost four in five people around the world believe that access to the internet is a fundamental right." [ 117 ] The poll, conducted by the polling company GlobeScan for the BBC World Service , collated the answers of 27,973 adult citizens across 26 countries to find that 79% of adults either strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement: "access to the internet should be a fundamental right of all people". [ 118 ]

Relationship with other topics

Human rights and the environment

There are two basic conceptions of environmental human rights in the current human rights system. The first is that the right to a healthy or adequate environment is itself a human right (as seen in both Article 24 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights , and Article 11 of the San Salvador Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights ). [ 119 ] [ 120 ] The second conception is the idea that environmental human rights can be derived from other human rights, usually – the right to life, the right to health, the right to private family life and the right to property (among many others). This second theory enjoys much more widespread use in human rights courts around the world, as those rights are contained in many human rights documents.

The onset of various environmental issues , especially climate change , has created potential conflicts between different human rights. Human rights ultimately require a working ecosystem and healthy environment, but the granting of certain rights to individuals may damage these. Such as the conflict between right to decide number of offspring and the common need for a healthy environment, as noted in the tragedy of the commons . [ 121 ] In the area of environmental rights, the responsibilities of multinational corporations, so far relatively unaddressed by human rights legislation, is of paramount consideration. [ citation needed ]

Environmental Rights revolve largely around the idea of a right to a livable environment both for the present and the future generations.

National security

With the exception of non-derogable human rights (international conventions class the right to life, the right to be free from slavery, the right to be free from torture and the right to be free from retroactive application of penal laws as non-derogable), [ 122 ] the UN recognises that human rights can be limited or even pushed aside during times of national emergency – although

the emergency must be actual, affect the whole population and the threat must be to the very existence of the nation. The declaration of emergency must also be a last resort and a temporary measure.
—United Nations. The Resource [ 122 ]

Rights that cannot be derogated for reasons of national security in any circumstances are known as peremptory norms or jus cogens . Such United Nations Charter obligations are binding on all states and cannot be modified by treaty.

Examples of national security being used to justify human rights violations include the Japanese American internment during World War II , [ 123 ] Stalin's Great Purge , [ 124 ] and the modern-day abuses of terror suspects rights by some countries, often in the name of the War on Terror . [ 125 ] [ 126 ]

Relativism and universalism

Relativists argue that human rights must avoid pushing the values of a single culture at the expense of others. " The White Man's Burden " is seen as an example of the West using the spread of Western culture as a justification for colonization.
Universalists argue that some practices violate the norms of all human cultures. They point out that although Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Africa, no religion supports the practice, and the tradition is in violation of women's rights.

The UDHR enshrines universal rights that apply to all humans equally, whichever geographical location, state, race or culture they belong to. However, in academia there is a dispute between scholars that advocate moral relativism and scholars that advocate moral universalism . Relativists do not argue against human rights, but concede that human rights are social constructed and are shaped by cultural and environmental contexts. Universalists argue that human rights have always existed, and apply to all people regardless of culture, race, sex, or religion.

More specifically, proponents of cultural relativism argue for acceptance of different cultures, which may have practices conflicting with human rights. Relativists caution that universalism could be used as a form of cultural, economic or political imperialism. The White Man's Burden is used as an example of imperialism and the destruction of local cultures justified by the desire to spread Eurocentric values. [ 127 ] In particular, the concept of human rights is often claimed to be fundamentally rooted in a politically liberal outlook which, although generally accepted in Europe, Japan or North America, is not necessarily taken as standard elsewhere. [ citation needed ]

Opponents of relativism argue that some practices exist that violate the norms of all human cultures. A common example is female genital mutilation , which occurs in different cultures in Africa, Asia and South America [ citation needed ] . It is not mandated by any religion, but has become a tradition in many cultures. It is considered a violation of women's and girl's rights by much of the international community, and is outlawed in some countries.

The former Prime Ministers of Singapore , Lee Kuan Yew , and of Malaysia , Mahathir bin Mohamad both claimed in the 1990s that Asian values were significantly different from Western values and included a sense of loyalty and foregoing personal freedoms for the sake of social stability and prosperity, and therefore authoritarian government is more appropriate in Asia than democracy. Lee Kuan Yew argued that:

What Asians value may not necessarily be what Americans or Europeans value. Westerners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective, and efficient.
Lee Kuan Yew , 'Democracy, Human Rights and the Realities', Tokyo, Nov 10, 1992 [ 128 ]

In response, critics have pointed out that cultural relativism could be used as a justification for authoritarianism. An example is in 1981, when the Iranian representative to the United Nations , Said Rajaie-Khorassani, articulated the position of his country regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by saying that the UDHR was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law. [ 129 ] The Asian Values argument was criticized by Mahathir's former deputy:

To say that freedom is Western or unAsian is to offend our traditions as well as our forefathers, who gave their lives in the struggle against tyranny and injustices.
A. Ibrahim in his keynote speech to the Asian Press Forum title Media and Society in Asia , December 2, 1994

and by Singapore's opposition leader Chee Soon Juan , who states that it is racist to assert that Asians do not want human rights. [ 130 ]

Defenders of moral universalism argue that relativistic arguments neglect the fact that modern human rights are new to all cultures, dating back no further than the UDHR in 1948. They argue that the UDHR was drafted by people from many different cultures and traditions, including a US Roman Catholic, a Chinese Confucian philosopher, a French zionist and a representative from the Arab League, amongst others, and drew upon advice from thinkers such as Mahatma Gandhi. [ 31 ] Michael Ignatieff has argued that cultural relativism is almost exclusively an argument used by those who wield power in cultures which commit human rights abuses, and that those whose human rights are compromised are the powerless. [ 131 ] This reflects the fact that the difficulty in judging universalism versus relativism lies in who is claiming to represent a particular culture.

Although the argument between universalism and relativism is far from complete, it is an academic discussion in that all international human rights instruments adhere to the principle that human rights are universally applicable. The 2005 World Summit reaffirmed the international community's adherence to this principle:

The universal nature of human rights and freedoms is beyond question.
—2005 World Summit, paragraph 121

Véase también

Referencias

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Bibliografía

Libros

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  • Ignatieff, Michael (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry (3. print. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08893-4 .

Artículos

Online

Misceláneo

Otras lecturas

  • Abouharb, R. and D. Cingranelli (2007). "Human Rights and Structural Adjustment". New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Barsh, R. (1993). “Measuring Human Rights: Problems of Methodology and Purpose.” Human Rights Quarterly 15: 87-121.
  • Chauhan, OP (2004). Human Rights: Promotion and Protection . Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 81-261-2119-X
  • Forsythe, David P. (2000). Human Rights in International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. International Progress Organization. ISBN 3-900704-08-2
  • Forsythe, Frederick P.(2009, Encyclopedia of Human Rights (New York: Oxford University Press)
  • Landman, Todd (2006). Studying Human Rights . Oxford and London: Routledge ISBN 0-415-32605-2
  • Robertson, Arthur Henry; Merrills, John Graham (1996). Human Rights in the World: An Introduction to the Study of the International Protection of Human Rights . Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4923-7 .
  • Gerald M. Steinberg, Anne Herzberg and Jordan Berman (2012). Best Practices for Human Rights and Humanitarian NGO Fact-Finding . Martinus Nijhoff Publishers / Brill ISBN 9789004218116
  • Steiner, J. & Alston, Philip . (1996). International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-825427-X
  • Shute, Stephen & Hurley, Susan (eds.). (1993). On Human Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-05224-X

Enlaces externos