Música folklórica

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Música folklórica

Béla Bartók grabación eslovacos cantantes campesinos en 1908
Tradiciones Lista de las tradiciones musicales populares
Músicos Lista de los músicos populares
Instrumentos Los instrumentos populares

La música folclórica incluye tanto música tradicional y el género que se desarrolló al mismo durante el renacimiento popular del siglo 20. El término se originó en el siglo 19, pero a menudo se aplica a la música que es más antiguo que eso. Algunos tipos de música popular también se llaman las músicas del mundo .

Música popular tradicional ha sido definido de varias maneras: como la música transmitida por vía oral, como la música de las clases bajas, y como música de compositores desconocidos. Se ha contrastado con estilos comerciales y clásica. Un significado frecuencia dada es la de canciones antiguas, sin compositores conocidos, y otra es la música que ha sido transmitida y desarrollada por un proceso de transmisión oral o realizadas por cliente durante un periodo largo de tiempo.

A partir de mediados del siglo 20 una nueva forma de música folclórica popular evolucionó desde la música folclórica tradicional. Este proceso y período se llama el renacimiento popular (segundo) y alcanzó un cenit en la década de 1960. Este tipo de música es a veces llamada música popular contemporánea o música folk revival para distinguirlo de las formas populares anteriores. [1] más pequeños avivamientos similares han ocurrido en otras partes del mundo en otras ocasiones, pero la música folclórica mandato no ha sido tradicionalmente aplicado a la nueva música creada durante los avivamientos. Este tipo de música popular también incluye los géneros de fusión, como el folk rock , folk metal , popular eléctrico , entre otros. Mientras que la música popular contemporánea es un género generalmente distinta de la música popular tradicional, en Inglés que comparte el mismo nombre, y que a menudo comparte los mismos intérpretes y lugares como la música popular tradicional. Incluso las canciones individuales puede ser una mezcla de los dos.

Contenido

[ editar ] La música popular tradicional

Música popular tradicional
Orígenes estilísticos Música tradicional
Orígenes culturales Naciones o regiones
Los instrumentos típicos Ver instrumentos folklóricos
Formas derivadas

(Lista completa)
Géneros de fusión
Otros temas
Las raíces del renacimiento

[ editar ] Definiciones

Una definición coherente de la música popular tradicional es difícil de alcanzar. La música tradicional términos, canción popular y danza folclórica son expresiones relativamente recientes. Son extensiones del término folklore , que fue acuñado en 1846 por el anticuario inglés William Thoms para describir "las tradiciones, costumbres y supersticiones de las clases incultas". [2] El término se deriva de la expresión alemana Volk , en el sentido de "el pueblo en su conjunto", aplicado a la música popular y nacional por Johann Gottfried Herder y los románticos alemanes hace más de medio siglo antes. [3] música folclórica tradicional también incluye la mayor parte de música indígena

Sin embargo, a pesar del montaje de un enorme cuerpo de trabajo durante unos dos siglos, aún no existe una determinada definición de la música popular lo que (o folclore , o la gente) es. [4] La música folclórica tienden a tener ciertas características [2] pero es evidente que no se pueden diferenciar en términos puramente musicales. Uno de los significados dan a menudo es el de "canciones antiguas, sin compositores conocidos", [5] Otra es que la música que ha sido sometido a un proceso evolutivo "proceso de transmisión oral .... la forja y re-configuración de la música por la comunidad que le dan su carácter popular ". [6]

Tales definiciones dependen "(cultural) procesos en lugar de tipos abstractos musicales ...", en "continuidad y transmisión oral ... vista como característica un lado de una dicotomía culturales, el otro lado del cual se encuentra no sólo en la parte baja capas de feudal, capitalista y algunas sociedades orientales pero también en sociedades 'primitivas' y en partes de las "culturas populares". [7] Una definición ampliamente utilizada es simplemente "música folclórica es lo que el pueblo canta". [8]

Para Scholes, [2] , así como por Cecil Sharp y Béla Bartók , [9] había una sensación de la música del país, a diferencia de la de la ciudad. La música folclórica ya estaba "visto como la expresión auténtica de una forma de vida ya ha pasado o sobre a desaparecer (o en algunos casos, para ser preservado o restablecido de alguna manera)", [10] especialmente en "una comunidad sin la influencia de la música de arte" [ 6] y por la canción comercial e impresos. Lloyd rechazó en favor de una simple distinción de clase económica [9] sin embargo, para él la música popular era cierto, en Charles Seeger palabras 's ", asociado a una clase inferior" [11] cultural y socialmente en las sociedades estratificadas. En estos términos la música popular puede ser visto como parte de un "esquema que comprende cuatro tipos musicales:. 'Primitivos' o 'tribal', 'elite' o 'arte', 'populares', y 'populares'" [12]

La música en este género también se llama a menudo la música tradicional. Aunque el término es generalmente solamente descriptiva, en algunos casos, la gente lo usa como el nombre de un género. Por ejemplo, el Premio Grammy utilizado anteriormente "música tradicional" para la música popular que no es la música popular contemporánea.

[ editar ] Características

Desde una perspectiva histórica, la música folclórica tradicional tenía las siguientes características: [11]

  • Se transmite a través de una tradición oral . Antes del siglo 20, los trabajadores ordinarios agrícolas y obreros solían ser analfabetos. Adquirieron canciones de memorizarlas. En primer lugar, esto no fue mediada por los libros, soportes para grabar o transmitir. Los cantantes pueden extender su repertorio utilizando hojas sueltas, libros de canciones o CD, pero estas mejoras secundarias son de la misma naturaleza que las canciones de la Primaria con experiencia en la carne.
  • La música era a menudo relacionado con la cultura nacional. Era culturalmente determinado, a partir de una determinada región o cultura. En el contexto de un grupo de inmigrantes, la música popular adquiere una nueva dimensión para la cohesión social. Esto es particularmente evidente en los Estados Unidos, donde los americanos polacos, americanos escocés, irlandés americanos, asiático-americanos y otros se esfuerzan por subrayar sus diferencias con respecto a la corriente principal. Ellos aprenden canciones y danzas que se originan en los países de sus abuelos.
  • Se conmemoran eventos históricos y personales. En ciertos días del año, como la Pascua, Primero de Mayo y Navidad, canciones en particular celebrar el ciclo anual. Bodas, cumpleaños y funerales también puede observarse con cantos, bailes y trajes especiales. Las fiestas religiosas suelen tener un componente de música folk. Música coral en estos eventos trae a los niños y los cantantes no profesionales a participar en un espacio público, dando una vinculación emocional que no está relacionado con las cualidades estéticas de la música.
  • Las canciones se han realizado, por costumbre, durante un largo período de tiempo, generalmente de varias generaciones.

Como un efecto secundario, las características siguientes están a veces presentes:

  • No hay derechos de autor sobre las canciones. Cientos de canciones populares del siglo 19 han sabido autores, pero han continuado en la tradición oral hasta el punto en que se consideran tradicionales con fines de edición musical. Esto se ha vuelto mucho menos frecuente desde 1940. Hoy en día, casi todas las canciones folk que se registra se le atribuye un arreglista.
  • La fusión de culturas: De la misma manera que la gente pueda tener un fondo mixto, con padres originarios de distintos continentes, así también la música puede ser una mezcla de influencias. Un patrón rítmico concreto, o un instrumento característico, es suficiente para dar un toque tradicional a la música, incluso cuando se ha formado recientemente. Es fácil de reconocer la presencia de una gaita o una tabla en una pieza de música. Los jóvenes son por lo general mucho menos ofendido por la dilución o adaptación de las canciones de esta manera. Igualmente una guitarra eléctrica se puede añadir a una vieja canción. Los factores relevantes pueden incluir instrumentos, afinaciones, voces, frases, temas, e incluso los métodos de producción.
  • No comercial.

[ editar ] Orígenes

Indios siempre se distingue entre la música clásica y popular, aunque en el pasado indio música clásica incluso solía confiar en la transmisión no escrita de repertorio.

Durante la mayor parte de la prehistoria humana y de la historia, escuchar música grabada no era posible. La música fue hecha por gente común, tanto durante su trabajo y el ocio. El trabajo de la producción económica a menudo era manual y comunal. Mano de obra incluye a menudo cantando por los trabajadores, lo que sirvió para varios propósitos prácticos. Redujo el tedio de las tareas repetitivas, mantuvo el ritmo durante empuja y tira sincronizados, y se mueve al ritmo de muchas actividades como la siembra, la escarda, siega, la trilla, el tejido y la molienda. En el tiempo libre, cantando y tocando instrumentos musicales eran formas comunes de entretenimiento e historia-decía-incluso más común que hoy en día, cuando las tecnologías activadas eléctricamente y la alfabetización generalizada crea otras formas de entretenimiento e intercambio de información competitiva. [13]

Las opiniones difieren sobre los orígenes de la música popular:. Fue dicho por algunos como arte musical cambió y degradado probablemente por transmisión oral, por otros adaptados a la singularidad de la carrera que lo ha producido [2] Tradicionalmente, la transmisión cultural de la música popular Es a través de aprendizaje de oído , aunque la notación también se pueden usar. La competición de teorías individuales y colectivos de composición establecer demarcaciones distintas y las relaciones de la música popular con la música de las sociedades tribales por un lado y de "arte" y "corte" música por el otro. Las culturas tradicionales que no se basan en la música escrita o tenían menos estratificación social no podía ser fácilmente categorizadas. En la proliferación de géneros musicales populares, un poco de música popular tradicional se convirtió también se refirió a "Músicas del mundo" o "Roots Music".

La concepción americana de "composición popular" a menudo ha dibujado en la música afroamericana .

El término Inglés " folklore ", para describir la música popular tradicional y la danza, entró en el vocabulario de muchas naciones de Europa continental, cada uno de los cuales tenía sus canciones folk-recolectores y evangelistas. [2] La distinción entre "auténticos" popular y nacional y popular canción en general siempre ha sido flojo, sobre todo en Estados Unidos y Alemania [2] - por ejemplo los compositores populares como Stephen Foster . podría denominarse "folk" en Estados Unidos [2] [14] El Consejo Internacional de Música Folk definición permite que el término "también puede ser aplicada a la música que se originó con un compositor individual y posteriormente ha sido absorbido por la tradición no escrita, que viven en una comunidad. Pero el término no incluye una canción, un baile o canción que se ha hecho cargo de ready-made y no ha cambiado ". [15]

El post-Segunda Guerra II renacimiento popular en Estados Unidos y en Gran Bretaña comenzó un nuevo género de música, folk contemporáneo y trajo un significado adicional a la música folclórica plazo. La popularidad de los "contemporáneos" grabaciones folklóricas provocó la aparición de la categoría "Folk" en los Premios Grammy de 1959: en 1970, el término fue abandonado en favor de "Mejor Grabación étnica o tradicional (incluyendo blues tradicional)", mientras que 1987 trajo un distinción entre "Mejor Grabación de Folk Tradicional" y "Mejor Disco Folk Contemporáneo". Después de que tenían una "música tradicional", categoría que posteriormente evolucionó hacia los demás. El término "popular", a principios del siglo 21, podría cubrir cantante de canciones escritores , como Donovan , de Escocia y estadounidenses Bob Dylan , que surgió en la década de 1960 y mucho más. Esto completó un proceso donde "música popular" ya no significa sólo la música popular tradicional. [5]

[ editar ] Objeto

Armenia músicos tradicionales

Aparte de la música instrumental que forma parte de la música popular tradicional, especialmente la música de baile tradiciones, la música popular tradicional es mucho música vocal , ya que el instrumento que hace que esta música es por lo general muy bien. Como tal, la música folk más tradicional tiene significativas letras .

Verso narrativo ocupa un lugar preponderante en la música popular tradicional de muchas culturas. Esto incluye formas tales como la tradicional poesía épica , gran parte del cual estaba destinado originalmente para el desempeño oral, a veces acompañado por instrumentos. Muchos poemas épicos de diferentes culturas han armado a partir de los pedazos más pequeños del verso narrativo tradicional, lo que explica su estructura episódica y con frecuencia sus medias res en desarrollo de la trama. Otras formas de poesía narrativa tradicional relacionar los resultados de batallas y otras tragedias o desastres naturales .

A veces, como en el triunfante Cantar de Deborah se encuentra en el bíblico Libro de los Jueces , estas canciones celebran la victoria. Lamentos de batallas perdidas y las guerras, y las vidas perdidas en ellos, son igualmente prominente en muchas tradiciones, estos lamentos mantener viva la causa por la que se libró la batalla. Los relatos de las canciones tradicionales a menudo también recuerdo héroes populares como John Henry a Robin Hood . Algunos relatos de canciones tradicionales recordar sobrenaturales acontecimientos o muertes misteriosas.

Himnos y otras formas de música religiosa son a menudo de origen tradicional y desconocido. Western notación musical fue creado originalmente para preservar las líneas de canto gregoriano , que antes se enseñaba su invención como una tradición oral en monásticas comunidades. Canciones tradicionales como Verdes crecen los juncos, oh presente lore religiosa en una forma mnemotécnica. En el mundo occidental, villancicos y otras canciones tradicionales de preservar la tradición religiosa en forma de canción.

Canciones de trabajo frecuentemente ofrecen llamada y respuesta y las estructuras están diseñadas para permitir a los trabajadores que cantan ellos para coordinar sus esfuerzos, de acuerdo con los ritmos de las canciones. Son con frecuencia, aunque no siempre compuesto,. En la American fuerzas armadas , una tradición viva de llamadas jody ("cantos Duckworth") se cantan mientras los soldados están en marcha. Marineros profesionales hicieron uso de una gran cantidad de canciones de marineros . Amo la poesía , a menudo de carácter trágico o lamentable, prominente figura en muchas tradiciones populares. rimas infantiles y versos sin sentido también son temas frecuentes de canciones tradicionales.

[ edit ] transformaciones y variaciones de canciones populares

Músicos tradicionales coreanos
Naxi músicos tradicionales

Música transmitida de boca en boca a través de una comunidad, con el tiempo, desarrolla muchas variantes, ya que este tipo de transmisión no puede producir, palabra por palabra y exactitud nota por nota. De hecho, muchos cantantes tradicionales son muy creativos y deliberadamente modificar el material del que aprender.

Por ejemplo, las palabras de " Soy un hombre al que no reúnen todos los días "(Roud 975) se conocen desde un costado en la Biblioteca Bodleian . [16] La cita es casi seguro que antes de 1900, y parece ser irlandés . En 1958, la canción fue grabada en Canadá (Mi nombre es Pat y yo estoy orgulloso de eso). Viajero escocés Jeannie Robertson de Aberdeen, hizo la siguiente versión grabada en 1961. Lo ha cambiado para hacer referencia a la "Jock Stewart", uno de sus parientes, y no hay referencias irlandesas. En 1976, artista escocés Archie Fisher alterado deliberadamente la canción a eliminar la referencia a un perro de recibir un disparo. En 1985, The Pogues llevó al punto de partida mediante la restauración de todas las referencias irlandesas.

Debido a la proliferación de variantes naturalmente, es ingenuo creer que existe tal cosa como el single "auténtico" de una balada como " Barbara Allen ". Los investigadores de campo en el canto tradicional (véase más adelante) se han encontrado con innumerables versiones de esta balada en todo el mundo de habla Inglés, y estas versiones a menudo difieren mucho unos de otros. Ninguno fiable puede presumir de ser el original, y es muy posible que lo que el "original" fue, dejó de ser cantado hace siglos. Cualquier versión puede poner el mismo derecho a la autenticidad, siempre que sea verdaderamente una comunidad de canto tradicional, y no el trabajo de un editor externo.

Cecil Sharp tuvo una idea influyente sobre el proceso de variación popular: le parecía que las variantes en competencia de una canción tradicional que someterse a un proceso biológico similar a la selección natural : sólo las nuevas variantes que fueron los más atractivos para los cantantes ordinarias podría ser recogido por los demás y en adelante transmitida en el tiempo. Por lo tanto, con el tiempo esperaríamos que cada canción tradicional para convertirse en cada vez más atractivo estéticamente - significaría que se compone colectivamente a la perfección, por así decirlo, por la comunidad.

Un interés literario en la balada popular no era nueva, sino que se remonta a Thomas Percy y William Wordsworth . Inglés isabelino y compositores Stuart había evolucionado a menudo su música a partir de temas populares, el clásico juego estaba basado en estilizadas danzas folklóricas y Joseph Haydn uso @ s de melodías populares que se indique lo contrario. Pero la aparición del término "popular" coincidió con una "explosión de sentimiento nacional en toda Europa", que fue particularmente fuerte en los bordes de Europa, donde la identidad nacional fue más afirmado. compositores nacionalistas surgieron en Europa Central, Rusia, Escandinavia, España y Gran Bretaña: la música de Dvorak , Smetana , Grieg , Rimsky-Korsakov , Brahms , Liszt , de Falla , Wagner , Sibelius , Vaughan Williams , Bartók y muchos otros se basó en melodías populares.

[ edit ] las formas regionales

Mientras que la pérdida de la música popular tradicional en la cara de la subida de la música popular es un fenómeno mundial, no es una ocurrencia a una velocidad uniforme en todo el mundo. Mientras que incluso muchas culturas tribales están perdiendo música popular tradicional y las culturas populares, el proceso está más avanzado ", donde la industrialización y comercialización de la cultura son los más avanzados". [17] Sin embargo, en los países o regiones donde la música popular tradicional es una insignia de la diversidad cultural o nacional identidad, la pérdida de la música tradicional puede ser más lento, lo que se lleva a cabo para ser verdad, por ejemplo, en el caso de Bangladesh , Hungría , India , Irlanda , Escocia , Letonia , Turquía , Portugal , Bretaña y Galicia , Grecia y Creta todos que conservan su música tradicional, hasta cierto punto, en algunos ámbitos, ha sido la disminución de la música tradicional y la pérdida de las tradiciones invertidos.

Esto es más evidente en las agencias de turismo marca algunas regiones con la palabra " celta ". Guía de libros y carteles de Irlanda , Escocia en gaélico, Inglés, dórico y Escocia, Cornualles , Bretaña y Nueva Escocia se refieren a actuaciones en directo de música. Los gobiernos locales a menudo patrocina y promueve actuaciones durante la temporada turística, y revive las tradiciones perdidas.

[ editar ] La música folclórica temprano, trabajo de campo y de becas

Mucho de lo que se sabe acerca de pre-grabación era de la música folclórica viene a nosotros del trabajo de campo académico y escritos.

[ edit ] 19 Europa del siglo

A partir del siglo 19, las personas interesadas - los académicos y estudiosos aficionado - comenzó a tomar nota de lo que se estaba perdiendo, y allí creció diversos esfuerzos encaminados a preservar la música de la gente. Uno de estos esfuerzos destacado fue la colección de Francis James Child a finales del siglo 19 de los textos de más de 300 baladas en las tradiciones inglesas y escoceses (llamados baladas infantiles ), la mayoría de las cuales son anteriores al siglo 16. [8]

Simultáneamente con el Niño vino el reverendo Sabine Baring-Gould , y más tarde y de forma más significativa de Sharp Cecil quien trabajó en el siglo 20 para preservar una gran masa de Inglés rural canción tradicional, la música y la danza, en el marco de lo que se convirtió y sigue siendo el Inglés Folk Danza y Sociedad de la canción (EFDSS). Sharp también trabajó en los Estados Unidos, grabando las canciones tradicionales de las Montañas Apalaches en 1916-1918 en colaboración con Maud Karpeles y Olive Dame Campbell y es considerado el primer gran estudioso que abarca la música popular estadounidense. [18]

Campbell y Sharp están representados bajo otros nombres por los actores de la película moderna Songcatcher . A lo largo de la década de 1960 y principios de los a mediados de los años 1970, American erudito Bertrand Bronson Harris publicó una exhaustiva colección de cuatro volúmenes de las variaciones entonces conocidos, tanto de los textos y las melodías asociadas con lo que llegó a ser conocido como el Canon Niño. También adelantó algunas teorías importantes sobre el funcionamiento de la tradición oral-auditivo.

Actividad similar también en marcha en otros países. Uno de los más extensos fue tal vez el trabajo realizado en Riga por Krisjanis Barons que entre los años comprendidos entre 1894 y 1915 publicó seis volúmenes incluidos los textos de 217 996 canciones populares de Letonia, la dainas Latvju. En Noruega, la labor de coleccionistas como Ludvig Mathias Lindeman fue ampliamente utilizado por Edvard Grieg en sus Piezas líricas para piano y en otras obras, que se hizo inmensamente popular.

Alrededor de este tiempo, los compositores de música clásica desarrolló un fuerte interés en la recolección tradicional de la canción, y un número de destacados compositores llevaron a cabo su propio trabajo de campo en la canción tradicional. Entre ellos Percy Grainger y Ralph Vaughan Williams en Inglaterra y Béla Bartók en Hungría. Estos compositores, como muchos de sus predecesores, tanto los arreglos hechos de canciones populares y tradicionales en el material incorporado originales composiciones clásicas. El dainas Latviju son ampliamente utilizados en las obras clásicas corales de Andrejs Jurāns , Cimze Jānis y Melngailis Emilis .

[ editar ] América del Norte

Ubicaciones en el sur de los Apalaches y Centroamérica visitado por los británicos folclorista Cecil Sharp en 1916 (azul), 1917 (verde) y 1918 (rojo). Agudo buscó "viejo mundo" baladas inglesas y escocesas se transmite a los habitantes de la región de sus antepasados ​​británicos. Él recogió cientos de baladas tales, las áreas más productivas son las montañas Blue Ridge de Carolina del Norte y las montañas de Cumberland de Kentucky.

Primeras estudiosos norteamericanos estaban con la Folklore Society The American (AFS), que surgió a finales de 1800. Sus estudios se amplió para incluir música del nativo americano, pero todavía se trata de música popular como un elemento histórico conservado en sociedades aisladas y [19] , ya que es un tipo muy popular de la música. En América del Norte, durante los años 1930 y 1940, la Biblioteca del Congreso trabajó a través de las oficinas de la música tradicional de los coleccionistas Robert Gordon Winslow , Alan Lomax y otros para capturar la mayor cantidad de material de campo Norte América como sea posible. Lomax fue el primer estudioso destacado a estudiar música folclórica típicamente americano como el de los vaqueros y los negros del sur. Su primera gran obra fue publicada en 1911, canciones de vaqueros y otras baladas fronterizas. [20] y fue posiblemente la gente más prominente erudito EE.UU. música de su tiempo, en particular durante los inicios del renacimiento folk en la década de 1930 y principios de 1940.

Las personas que han estudiado canto tradicional a veces la esperanza de que su trabajo sería restaurar la música tradicional a la gente. Por ejemplo, Cecil Sharp campaña, con cierto éxito, de tener canciones tradicionales inglesas (en sus propias versiones fuertemente editadas y expurgada) que se enseñan a los escolares.

Un tema fuerte entre los estudiosos populares en las primeras décadas del siglo 20 fue el regionalismo. Esto tendía a reconocer la diversidad de la música popular (y las culturas relacionadas) sobre la base de las regiones de los EE.UU. en lugar de basarse sólo en sus raíces. Más tarde, una dinámica de clase y circunstancias se añadió a esto. [21]

Los regionalistas más destacados fueron figuras literarias con un interés particular en el folklore. Carl Sandburg menudo viajó a los EE.UU. como un escritor y poeta. También recopiló canciones en sus viajes y, en 1927, publicó en un libro americano Songbag. "En sus colecciones de canciones populares, Sandburg añadido una clase dinámica de la comprensión popular de la música popular americana. Este fue el último elemento de la base sobre la que los evangelistas populares de música antigua construyeron su propia visión del americanismo. Trabajan Sandburg estadounidenses de clase se unió a la étnica racial y regionalmente diversos ciudadanos que otros estudiosos, intelectuales públicos, y folcloristas celebran sus propias definiciones del folk americano, las definiciones que los evangelistas populares utilizados en la construcción de su propio conocimiento de la música folk estadounidense y una identidad americana general ". [22]

Antes de la década de 1930, los grandes temas de escala y los vínculos entre los fueron atraídos principalmente por estudiosos de la música popular y coleccionistas. La década de 1930 marcó el inicio de los temas de mayor escala, elementos comunes, temas y vínculos en la música folclórica en desarrollo en la población y los profesionales, así, a menudo relacionados con la gran depresión. [23] Regionalismo y el pluralismo cultural, creció como influencias y temas. Durante este tiempo la música popular comenzó a enredarse con temas de activismo político y social y los movimientos. [23] Dos acontecimientos relacionados fueron interés los EE.UU. del Partido Comunista en la música popular como una forma de llegar e influir en los estadounidenses, [24] gente prominente y políticamente activo músicos y académicos al ver el comunismo como un posible sistema mejor, a través de la lente de la Gran Depresión. [25] Woody Guthrie es un gran ejemplo de un compositor y artista con tal perspectiva.

Gran parte del crecimiento de la música popular en la década de 1930 fue en el área de actuación en directo, sobre todo en las fiestas populares que se inició durante la década de 1930. [26] El presidente Franklin Roosevelt era un fan de la música folk, conciertos populares alojado en la Casa Blanca y frecuentado a menudo fiestas populares. [27]

Los renovadores del folk americano de la música de la década de 1930 se acercó a la música popular de diferentes maneras. [28] "Los tradicionalistas como Sarah Gertrude Knott y John Lomax vieron música popular como las tradiciones culturales de una época pasada. folkloristas funcionalistas como Botkin y Alan Lomax reconocer que, a pesar de sus raíces En el pasado, la música popular continuó siendo culturalmente relevante para las comunidades que mantienen las tradiciones. izquierdistas renovadores como Charles Seeger y Gellert Lawrence interpreta música popular como una forma cultural popular que viene del pueblo y fue escrito para las personas de tal manera que que podría ser utilizado en el 'pueblo' luchas por los derechos sociales y políticos. A pesar de los evangelistas las opiniones diversas y opiniones políticas diferentes en cuanto a la naturaleza de la música popular auténtica, todos compartían una comprensión de americanismo que basa la identidad nacional en el pluralismo cultural y político democracia " [28] A finales de la década de 1930 que, junto con los músicos y otros habían convertido la música folk estadounidense en un movimiento social. [28]

A veces los músicos populares se convirtieron en eruditos y aboga por ellos mismos. Por ejemplo, Jean Ritchie (nacido en 1922) fue el hijo menor de una familia numerosa de Viper, Kentucky que había conservado muchas de las viejas canciones de los Apalaches tradicionales. Ritchie, viviendo en una época en que los Apalaches se había abierto a la influencia exterior, fue estudiado en la universidad y en última instancia, se mudó a Nueva York, donde hizo una serie de grabaciones clásicas del repertorio familiar y publicó una recopilación importante de estas canciones. (Véase también Hedy West )

En enero de 2012, el American Folklife Center de la Biblioteca del Congreso , con la Asociación para la Equidad de la Cultura, anunciaron que iban a liberar el vasto archivo de Lomax de 1946 y más tarde se graba en forma digital. Lomax pasado los últimos 20 años de su vida trabajando en un proyecto interactivo multimedia informática educativa que llamó Jukebox Global , que incluye 5.000 horas de grabaciones de sonido, 400.000 metros de película, cintas de video y fotografías 3000 5000. [29] A partir de marzo, 2012 esto se ha logrado. Aproximadamente 17.400 de Lomax grabaciones de 1946 y posteriormente se han hecho en línea libre disponible. [30] [31]

Esto es material de archivo independiente Alan Lomax, iniciada en 1946, que ha sido digitalizado y ofrecido por la Asociación para la Equidad Cultural. Esto es "distinto de los anteriores, miles de grabaciones en acetato y discos de aluminio que hizo desde 1933 hasta 1942 bajo los auspicios de la Biblioteca del Congreso. Esta colección, que anteriormente incluye la famosa Jelly Roll Morton, Woody Guthrie, Leadbelly, y Muddy sesiones de Aguas, así como las colecciones de hechos prodigiosos Lomax en Haití y Kentucky del este (1937) - es la procedencia del American Folklife Center " [30] en la Biblioteca del Congreso

[ editar ] Nacional y las formas regionales

[ editar ] África

África es un continente vasto y sus regiones y naciones tienen distintas tradiciones musicales. La música del norte de África en su mayor parte tiene una historia diferente de la del África subsahariana tradiciones musicales africanas . [32]

Las formas de la música y de la danza de la diáspora africana , incluyendo música afroamericana y muchos caribeños géneros como el soca , calypso y Zouk , y la música de América Latina géneros como la samba , rumba , salsa , y otra clave (ritmo) a base de géneros, se fundaron en diversos grados en la música de los esclavos africanos , que a su vez ha influido en la música popular africana .

[ editar ] Asia

Paban Das Baul , baul cantante en Nine Lives concierto de 2009.

Muchas civilizaciones asiáticas distinguir entre los estilos de arte / corte / clásica y la música "folk", a pesar de las culturas que no dependen en gran medida de la notación musical y tienen mucho arte anónimo que distinguir las dos maneras diferentes de los sugeridos por los eruditos occidentales. Por ejemplo, la tarde Lohar Alam es un buen ejemplo de un cantante de folk clásico del sur de Asia de gran reputación. [ cita requerida ]

[ edit ] Folk music of China

Archaeological discoveries date Chinese folk music back 7000 years; it is largely based on the pentatonic scale .

Han traditional weddings and funerals usually include a form of oboe called a suona and apercussive ensembles called a chuigushou . Ensembles consisting of mouth organs ( sheng ), shawms ( suona ), flutes ( dizi ) and percussion instruments (especially yunluo gongs ) are popular in northern villages; their music is descended from the imperial temple music of Beijing , Xi'an , Wutai shan and Tianjin . Xi'an drum music, consisting of wind and percussive instruments, is popular around Xi'an, and has received some commercial popularity outside of China. Another important instrument is the sheng , pipes , an ancient instrument that is ancestor of all Western free reed instruments, such as the accordion . Parades led by Western-type brass bands are common, often competing in volume with a shawm/chuigushou band.

In southern Fujian and Taiwan , Nanyin or Nanguan is a genre of traditional ballads. They are sung by a woman accompanied by a xiao and a pipa , as well as other traditional instruments. The music is generally sorrowful and typically deals with a love-stricken women. Further south, in Shantou , Hakka and Chaozhou , erxian and zheng ensembles are popular. Sizhu ensembles use flutes and bowed or plucked string instruments to make harmonious and melodious music that has become popular in the West among some listeners. These are popular in Nanjing and Hangzhou , as well as elsewhere along the southern Yangtze area. Sizhu has been secularized in cities but remains spiritual in rural areas. Jiangnan Sizhu (silk and bamboo music from Jiangnan ) is a style of instrumental music, often played by amateur musicians in tea houses in Shanghai ; it has become widely known outside of its place of origin. Guangdong Music or Cantonese Music is instrumental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas. It is based on Yueju (Cantonese Opera) music, together with new compositions from the 1920s onwards. Many pieces have influences from jazz and Western music, using syncopation and triple time. This music tells stories, myths and legends. One of the most popular folk songs of China is Mo Li Hua ("Beautiful Jasmine").

[ edit ] Traditional folk music of Sri Lanka

The genre of Sri Lankan music is known as Oriental music . The art, music and dances of Sri Lanka were derived from the elements of nature, and have been enjoyed and developed in the Buddhist environment. [ 33 ] The music is of several types and uses only a few types of instruments. The folk songs and poems were used in social gatherings to work together. The Indian influenced classical music has grown to be unique. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] The traditional drama, music and songs are typically Sri Lankan. The temple paintings and carvings used birds, elephants, wild animals, flowers and trees, and the Traditional 18 Dances display the dancing of birds and animals. Por ejemplo:

  • Mayura Wannama – The dance of the Peacock
  • Hanuma Wannama – The dance of the Monkey
  • Gajaga Wannama – The dance of the elephant

Musical types include:

  • Local drama music includes Kolam, Nadagam and Noorthy types. Kolam music is based on low country tunes and it is not a developed form of music. It is limited to approximately 3-4 notes and is used by the ordinary people for pleasure and entertainment.
  • Nadagam music is a more developed form of drama influenced from South Indian street drama which was introduced by some south Indian Artists. Phillippu Singho from Negombo in 1824 Performed “Harishchandra Nadagama” in Hnguranketha which was originally written in Telingu language. Later “Maname”, “Sanda kinduru” and few others were introduced. Don Bastian of Dehiwala introduced Noorthy firstly by looking at Indian dramas and then John De Silva developed it as did Ramayanaya in 1886.
  • Sinhala light music is currently the most popular type of music in Sri Lanka and enriched with the influence of folk music, kolam music, nadagam music, noorthy music, film music, classical music, western music and others. Some artists visited India to learn music and later started introducing light music. Ananda Samarakone was the pioneer of this and also composed the national anthem.
Sri Lankan Ravanahatha

The classical Sinhalese Orchestra consists of five categories of instruments. But, the drum is the king of local percussion instruments and without it, there will be no dance. [ 38 ] The vibrant beat of the rhythm of the drums form the basic of the dance. The dancers feet bounce off the floor and they leap and swirl in patterns that reflect the complex rhythms of the drum beat. This drum beat may seem simple on the first hearing but it takes a long time to master the intricate rhythms and variations, which the drummer sometimes can bring to a crescendo of intensity. There are six common types of drums falling within 3 styles (one faced. two faced, and flat faced):

  • The typical Sinhala Dance is identified as the Kandyan dance and the Gatabera drum is indispensable to this dance.
  • Yak-bera is the demon drum or the, drum used in low country dance in which the dancers wear masks and perform devil dancing, which has become a highly developed form of art.
  • The Dawula is a barrel shaped drum, and it was used as a companion drum in the past, to keep strict time with the beat.
  • The Thammattama is flat, two faced drum. The drummer strikes the drum on the two surfaces on top with sticks, unlike the others where you drum on the sides. This is a companion drum to the afore mentioned Dawula.
  • A small double headed hand drum, used to accompany songs. It is mostly heard in the poetry dances (vannam).
  • The Rabana is a flat faced circular drum and comes in several sizes. The large Rabana has to be placed on the floor like a circular short-legged table and several people (especially the womenfolk) can sit around it and beat on it with both hands. This is used in festivals such as the Sinhalese New Year and ceremonies such as weddings. The resounding beat of the Rabana symbolizes the joyous moods of the occasion. The small Rabana is a form of mobile drum beat since the player carries it wherever he goes.

Other instruments include:

  • The "Thalampata" - 2 small cymbals joined together by a string.
  • The wind section, is dominated by an instrument akin to the clarinet. This is not normally used for the dances. This is important to note because the Sinhalese dance is not set to music as the western world knows it; rhythm is king.
  • The flutes of metal such as silver & brass produce shrill music to accompany Kandyan Dances, while the plaintive strains of music of the reed flute may pierce the air in devil-dancing. The conch-shell (Hakgediya) is another form of a natural instrument, and the player blows it to announce the opening of ceremonies of grandeur.
  • The Ravanahatha (ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron or ravana hasta veena) is a bowed fiddle popular in Western India. It is believed to have originated among the Hela civilisation of Sri Lanka in the time of King Ravana. The bowl is made of cut coconut shell, the mouth of which is covered with goat hide. A dandi, made of bamboo, is attached to this shell. The principal strings are two: one of steel and the other of a set of horsehair. The long bow has jingle bells [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Sri Lankan composer Dinesh Subasinghe brought few changes in to this ancient instrument, he brought a unique style and technique to play it like a Sarangi, in year 2007 for the first time he brought this instrument to electronic media in Sri Lanka and in to the recording music industry, he also used this instrument for ARRahman's rhymes school cd and for some Indian Tamil movies. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ]

[ editar ] Australia

Folk song traditions were taken to Australia by early settlers from England, Scotland and Ireland and gained particular foothold in the rural outback . The rhyming songs, poems and tales written in the form of bush ballads often relate to the itinerant and rebellious spirit of Australia in The Bush , and the authors and performers are often referred to as bush bards. [ 44 ] The 19th century was the golden age of bush ballads. Several collectors have catalogued the songs including John Meredith whose recording in the 1950s became the basis of the collection in the National Library of Australia . [ 44 ]

The songs tell personal stories of life in the wide open country of Australia. Typical subjects include mining, raising and droving cattle, sheep shearing , wanderings, war stories, the 1891 Australian shearers' strike , class conflicts between the landless working class and the squatters (landowners), and outlaws such as Ned Kelly , as well as love interests and more modern fare such as trucking . [ 45 ] The most famous bush ballad is Waltzing Matilda , which has been called "the unofficial national anthem of Australia." [ 46 ]

Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders , who are collectively called Indigenous Australians ; it incorporates a variety of distinctive traditional music styles practiced by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles of and fusion with European traditions as interpreted and performed by indigenous Australian artists. Music has formed an integral part of the social , cultural and ceremonial observances of these peoples, down through the millennia of their individual and collective histories to the present day. The traditional forms include many aspects of performance and musical instrumentation unique to particular regions or Indigenous Australian groups . Equal elements of musical tradition are common through much of the Australian continent, and even beyond. The culture of the Torres Strait Islanders is related to that of adjacent parts of New Guinea and so their music is also related. Music is a vital part of Indigenous Australians' cultural maintenance. [ 47 ]

[ editar ] Europa

Scottish traditional musicians in Edinburgh
[ edit ] Celtic traditional music

Celtic music is a term used by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples . These traditions include Irish , Scottish , Manx , Cornish , Welsh , Breton traditions. Asturian and galician music is often included, though there is no significant research showing that this has any close musical relationship. Brittany 's Folk revival began in the 1950s with the "bagadoù" and the "kan-ha-diskan" before growing to world fame through Alan Stivell 's work since the mid-1960s. [ 48 ]

In Ireland , The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem (although its members were all Irish-born, the group became famous while based in New York's Greenwich Village), The Dubliners , Clannad , Planxty , The Chieftains , The Pogues , The Corrs , The Irish Rovers , and a variety of other folk bands have done much over the past few decades to revitalise and re-popularise Irish traditional music . These bands were rooted, to a greater or lesser extent, in a tradition of Irish music and benefited from the efforts of artists such as Seamus Ennis and Peter Kennedy . [ 48 ]

In Scotland , Capercaillie , Runrig , Jackie Leven , Julie Fowlis , Karine Polwart , Alasdair Roberts , Dick Gaughan , Wolfstone , Corries , Boys of the Lough , and The Silencers have keep Scottish folk vibrant and fresh by mixing traditional Scottsh and Gaelic folks songs with more contemporary genres. These artists have also been commercially successful in continental Europe and North America.

[ edit ] Central and Eastern Europe

During the Communist era national folk dancing in the Eastern Block was actively promoted by the state. Dance troupes from Russia and Poland toured non-communist Europe from about 1937 to 1990. The Red Army Choir recorded many albums. Eastern Europe is also the origin of the Jewish Klezmer tradition.

The polka is a central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Se originó a mediados del siglo 19 en Bohemia . Polka is still a popular genre of folk music in many European countries and is performed by folk artists in Poland , Latvia , Lithuania , Czech Local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries , United Kingdom , Republic of Ireland , Latin America (especially Mexico ), and in the United States .

German Volkslieder perpetuated by Liederhandschriften manuscripts like Carmina Burana date back to medieval Minnesang and Meistersinger traditions. Those folk songs revived in the late 18th century period of German Romanticism , first promoted by Johann Gottfried Herder and other advocates of the Enlightenment , later compiled by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano ( Des Knaben Wunderhorn ) as well as by Ludwig Uhland .

The Volksmusik and folk dances genre, especially in the Alpine regions of Bavaria , Austria , Switzerland ( Kuhreihen ) and South Tyrol , up to today has clinged on rustic communities against the backdrop of industrialisation —Low German shanties or the Wienerlied ( Schrammelmusik ) being notable exceptions. Slovene folk music in Upper Carniola and Styria also originated from the Alpine traditions. Traditional Volksmusik is not to be confused with commercial Volkstümliche Musik variations, strongly related to German Schlager music . [ citation needed ]

The Hungarian group Muzsikás played numerous American tours and participated in the Hollywood movie The English Patient while the singer Márta Sebestyén worked with the band Deep Forest . The Hungarian táncház movement, started in the 1970s, involves strong cooperation between musicology experts and enthusiastic amateurs. [ citation needed ] However, traditional Hungarian folk music and folk culture barely survived in some rural areas of Hungary, and it has also begun to disappear among the ethnic Hungarians in Transylvania . The táncház movement revived broader folk traditions of music, dance, and costume together and created a new kind of music club. The movement spread to ethnic Hungarian communities elsewhere in the world.

[ edit ] Balkan music

The Balkan folk music was influenced by the mingling of Balkan ethnic groups in the period of Ottoman Empire . It comprises the music of Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Bulgaria , Greece , Montenegro , Serbia , Romania , Republic of Macedonia , Albania , Turkey , the historical states of Yugoslavia or the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and geographical regions such as Thrace . Some music is characterised by complex rhythm.

An important part of the whole Balkan folk music is the music of the local Romani ethnic minority. A female choir from Bulgarian State Radio recorded Le Mystère des Voix Bulgares .

[ edit ] Nordic folk music

Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European , especially Scandinavian , countries. The Nordic countries are generally taken to include Iceland , Norway , Finland , Sweden and Denmark . Sometimes it is taken to include Greenland and historically the Baltic countries of Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania .

The many regions of the Nordic countries share certain traditions, many of which have diverged significantly. It is possible to group together the Baltic states (or, sometimes, only Estonia) and parts of northwest Russia as sharing cultural similarities, contrasted with Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Atlantic islands of, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Greenland's Inuit culture has its own musical traditions, influenced by Scandinavian culture. Finland shares many cultural similarities with both the Baltic nations and the Scandinavian nations. The Saami of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia have their own unique culture, with ties to the neighboring cultures.

Swedish folk music is a genre of music based largely on folkloric collection work that began in the early 19th century in Sweden . [ 49 ] The primary instrument of Swedish folk music is the fiddle . Another common instrument , unique to Swedish traditions, is the nyckelharpa . Most Swedish instrumental folk music is dance music ; the signature music and dance form within Swedish folk music is the polska . Vocal and instrumental traditions in Sweden have tended to share tunes historically, though they have been performed separately. [ 50 ] Beginning with the folk music revival of the 1970s, vocalists and instrumentalists have also begun to perform together in folk music ensembles .

[ edit ] Latin and South America

Andean music comes from the general area inhabited by Quechuas , Aymaras and other peoples that roughly in the area of the Inca Empire prior to European contact. It includes folklore music of parts of Argentina , Bolivia , Ecuador , Chile , Colombia , Peru and Venezuela . Andean music is popular to different degrees across Latin America, having its core public in rural areas and among indigenous populations. The Nueva Canción movement of the 70s revived the genre across Latin America and bought it to places where it was unknown or forgotten.

Nueva canción (Spanish for 'new song') is a movement and genre within Latin American and Iberian music of folk music, folk-inspired music and socially committed music. It some respects its development and role is similar to the second folk music revival. This includes evolution of this new genre from traditional folk music, essentially contemporary folk music except that that English genre term is not commonly applied to it. Nueva cancion is recognized as having played a powerful role in the social upheavals in Portugal, Spain and Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s.

Nueva cancion first surfaced during the 1960s as "The Chilean New Song" in Chile . The musical style emerged shortly afterwards in Spain and other areas of Latin America where it came to be known under similar names. Nueva canción renewed traditional Latin American folk music, and was soon associated with revolutionary movements, the Latin American New Left , Liberation Theology , hippie and human rights movements due to political lyrics. It would gain great popularity throughout Latin America , and is regarded as a precursor to Rock en español .

Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Chile , Bolivia , Peru , and Argentina .

Trova and Son are styles of traditional Cuban music originating in the province of Oriente that includes influences from Spanish song and dance such as Bolero and contradanza as well as Afro-Cuban rhythm and percussion elements.

[ editar ] América del Norte

[ editar ] Estados Unidos

American traditional music is also called roots music. Roots music is a broad category of music including bluegrass , country music , gospel , old time music , jug bands , Appalachian folk , blues , Cajun and Native American music . The music is considered American either because it is native to the United States or because it developed there, out of foreign origins, to such a degree that it struck musicologists as something distinctly new. It is considered "roots music" because it served as the basis of music later developed in the United States, including rock and roll , contemporary folk music, rhythm and blues , and jazz . Some of these genres are considered to be traditional folk music.

  • Oklahoma and southern US plains Before recorded history American Indians in this area used songs and instrumentation; music and dance remain the core of ceremonial and social activities. [ 53 ] "Stomp dance" remains at its core, a "call and response" form; instrumentation is provided by rattles or shackles worn on the legs of women. [ 53 ] "Other southeastern nations have their own complexes of sacred and social songs, including those for animal dances and friendship dances, and songs that accompany stickball games. Central to the music of the southern Plains Indians is the drum, which has been called the heartbeat of Plains Indian music. Most of that genre can be traced back to activities of hunting and warfare, upon which plains culture was based." [ 53 ] The drum is central to the music of the southern plains Indians. During the reservation period, they used music to relieve boredom. Neighbors gathered, exchanged and created songs and dances; this is a part of the roots of the modern inter-tribal powwow. Another common instrument is the courting flute. [ 53 ] African American folk music in the area has roots in slavery and emancipation. "Sacred music, both a capella and instrumentally accompanied, is at the heart of the tradition. Early spirituals framed Christian beliefs within native practices and were heavily influenced by the music and rhythms of Africa." [ 53 ] Spirituals are prominent, and often use a call and response pattern. [ 53 ] "Gospel developed after the Civil War (1861–65). It relied on biblical text for much of its direction, and the use of metaphors and imagery was common. Gospel is a "joyful noise," sometimes accompanied by instrumentation and almost always punctuated by hand clapping, toe tapping, and body movement." [ 53 ] "Shape-note or sacred harp singing developed in the early 19th century as a way for itinerant singing instructors to teach church songs in rural communities. They taught using song books in which musical notations of tones were represented by geometric shapes that were designed to associate a shape with its pitch. Sacred harp singing became popular in many Oklahoma rural communities, regardless of ethnicity." [ 53 ] Later the blues tradition developed, with roots in and parallels to sacred music. [ 53 ] Then jazz developed, born from a blend of "blend of ragtime, gospel, and blues" [ 53 ] "Anglo-Scots-Irish music traditions gained a place in Oklahoma after the Land Run of 1889. Because of its size and portability, the fiddle was the core of early Oklahoma Anglo music, but other instruments such as the guitar, mandolin, banjo, and steel guitar were added later. Various Oklahoma music traditions trace their roots to the British Isles, including cowboy ballads, western swing, and contemporary country and western." [ 53 ] "Mexican immigrants began to reach Oklahoma in the 1870s, bringing beautiful canciones and corridos love songs, waltzes, and ballads along with them. Like American Indian communities, each rite of passage in Hispanic communities is accompanied by traditional music. The acoustic guitar, string bass, and violin provide the basic instrumentation for Mexican music, with maracas, flute, horns, or sometimes accordion filling out the sound." [ 53 ] Other Europeans (such as Bohemians and Germans) settled in the late 19th century. Their social activities centered on community halls, "where local musicians played polkas and waltzes on the accordion, piano, and brass instruments." [ 53 ] Later Asians contributed to the musical mix. "Ancient music and dance traditions from the temples and courts of China, India, and Indonesia are preserved in Asian communities throughout the state, and popular song genres are continually layered on to these classical music forms" [ 53 ]
[ editar ] Canadá

Canada's traditional folk music is particularly diverse. [ 54 ] "Traditional folk music of European origin has been present in Canada since the arrival of the first French and British settlers in the 16th and 17th centuries." [ 54 ] "They fished the coastal waters and farmed the shores of what became Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the St Lawrence River valley of Quebec." [ 54 ]

The fur trade and its voyageurs brought this farther north and west into Canada; later lumbering operations and lumberjacks continued this process. [ 54 ]

"Agrarian settlement in eastern and southern Ontario and western Quebec in the early 19th century established a favorable milieu for the survival of many Anglo-Canadian folksongs and broadside ballads from Great Britain and the US. Despite massive industrialization, folk music traditions have persisted in many areas until today. In the north of Ontario, a large Franco-Ontarian population kept folk music of French origin alive. [ 54 ]

Populous Acadian communities in the Atlantic provinces contributed their song variants to the huge corpus of folk music of French origin centred in the province of Quebec. A rich source of Anglo- Canadian folk music can be found in the Atlantic region, especially Newfoundland. Completing this mosaic of musical folklore is the Gaelic music of Scottish settlements, particularly in Cape Breton, and the hundreds of Irish songs whose presence in eastern Canada dates from the Irish famine of the 1840s, which forced the large migrations of Irish to North America." [ 54 ]

"Knowledge of the history. of Canada is essential in understanding the mosaic of Canadian folk song. Part of this mosaic is supplied by the folk songs of Canada brought by European and Anglo-Saxon settlers to the new land. Cartier's historical journey, in 1535, to the territory that was to become Canada initiated the immigration of the French. Without too much delay people came from Great Britain, Germany, and other European countries to live in close proximity. Each brought a wealth of folk music from his homeland and some of it has survived to this day. Barbeau has estimated that well over ten thousand French folk songs and their variants have been collected in Canada. Many of the ancient ones have been forgotten in France." [ 11 ]

[ edit ] Folk music revivals

"Folk music revival" refers to either a period of renewed interest in traditional folk music, or to an event or period which transforms it; the latter usually includes a social activism component. The most prominent instance of the former is the British folk revival of approximately 1890–1920. The most prominent and influential instance of the latter (to the extent that it is usually called " the folk music revival")is the folk revival of the mid 20th century, centered in the English-speaking world which gave birth to contemporary folk music. See the " Contemporary folk music " section for a description of this revival.

One earlier revival influenced western classical music . Such composers as Percy Grainger , Ralph Vaughan Williams and Béla Bartók , made field recordings or transcriptions of folk singers and musicians.

In Spain, Isaac Albéniz (1860–1909) produced piano works reflect his Spanish heritage, including the Suite Iberia (1906–1909). Enrique Granados (1867–1918) composed zarzuela , Spanish light opera, and Danzas Españolas - Spanish Dances. Manuel de Falla (1876–1946) became interested in the cante jondo of Andalusian flamenco , the influence of which can be strongly felt in many of his works, which include Nights in the Gardens of Spain and Siete canciones populares españolas ("Seven Spanish Folksongs", for voice and piano). Composers such as Fernando Sor and Francisco Tarrega established the guitar as Spain's national instrument. Modern Spanish folk artists abound ( Mil i Maria , Russian Red , et al.) modernizing while respecting the traditions of their forebears.

Flamenco grew in popularity through the 20th century, as did northern styles such as the Celtic music of Galicia . French classical composers, from Bizet to Ravel , also drew upon Spanish themes, and distinctive Spanish genres became universally recognized.

Folk music revivals or roots revivals also encompass a range of phenomena around the world where there is a renewed interest in traditional music. This is often by the young, often in the traditional music of their own country, and often included new incorporation of social awareness, causes, and evolutions of new music in the same style. Nueva canción , a similar evolution of a new form of socially committed music occurred in several Spanish speaking countries.

[ edit ] First British folk revival

The "first" British folk revival was a roots revival which occurred approximately 1890–1920 and was marked by heightened interest in traditional music and its preservation. It arose from earlier developments, perhaps combined with changes in the nature of British identity, led to a much more intensive and academic attempt to record what was seen as a vanishing tradition, and is now usually referred to as the first English or British folk revival.

[ edit ] Contemporary folk music

Starting in the mid-20th century a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. The most common name for this new form of music is also "folk music", but is often called "contemporary folk music" or "folk revival music" to make the distinction. [ 1 ] This type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock , electric folk , and others. While contemporary folk music is a genre generally distinct from traditional folk music, it often shares the same English name, performers and venues as traditional folk music; even individual songs may be a blend of the two.

Definitions of "contemporary folk music" are generally vague and variable. Here it is taken to mean all music that is called folk that is not traditional music, a set of genres that began with and then evolved from the folk revival of the mid-20th century. According to Hugh Blumenfeld, for the American folk scene, in general it is:

  • "Anglo-American, embracing acoustic and/or tradition-based music from the UK and the United States.
  • Mainly European in its musical origins and linguistically predominantly English-based.
  • The few exceptions to this model are derived mainly from prevailing political/historical conditions in the Anglo-American world and the demographics of folk fans: Celtic music, blues, some Central and South American music, Native American music, and Klezmer." [ 55 ] This is the common use of the term "contemporary folk music", but is not the only case of evolution of new forms from traditional ones. Nueva canción , a similar evolution of a new form of socially committed music, occurred in several Spanish-speaking countries, for example.

Contemporary country music descends ultimately from a rural American folk tradition but has evolved differently. Bluegrass music is a professional development of American old time music , intermixed with blues and jazz .

[ edit ] Folk revival of the mid-20th century in Britain and America

Woody Guthrie
Pete Seeger

While the Romantic nationalism of the folk revival had its greatest influence on art-music, the "second folk revival" of the later 20th century brought a new genre of popular music with artists marketed through concerts, recordings and broadcasting. This is the genre that remains as "contemporary folk music" even when traditional music is considered to be a separate genre. One of the earliest figures in this revival was Woody Guthrie., [ 56 ] who sang traditional songs in the 1930s and 1940s as well as composing his own. Among Guthrie's friends and followers as a collector, performer, and composer was Pete Seeger .

In the 1930s Jimmie Rodgers , in the 1940s Burl Ives , in the early 1950s Seeger's group The Weavers and Harry Belafonte , and in the late 1950s The Kingston Trio as well as other professional, commercial groups became popular. In 1963–1964, the ABC television network aired the Hootenanny television series devoted to this brand of folk music and also published the associated magazine ABC-TV Hootenanny . Starting in 1950 the Sing Out! , Broadside , and The Little Sandy Review magazines helped spread both traditional and composed songs, as did folk-revival-oriented record companies.

In the United Kingdom , the folk revival fostered young artists like The Watersons , Martin Carthy and Roy Bailey and a generation of singer-songwriters such as Bert Jansch , Ralph McTell , Donovan and Roy Harper ; all seven achieved initial prominence in the 1960s. Bob Dylan , Paul Simon and Tom Paxton visited Britain for some time in the early 1960s, the first two especially making later use of the traditional English material they heard.

In 1950, prominent American folklorist and collector of traditional songs Alan Lomax came to Britain and met AL 'Bert' Lloyd and Ewan MacColl , a meeting credited as inaugurating the second British folk revival. In London the colleagues opened The Ballads and Blues Club, eventually renamed the Singers' Club, possibly the first folk club in the UK; it closed in 1991. As the 1950s progressed into the 1960s, the folk revival movement gathered momentum in both Britain and America. The mid and late 1960s saw fusion forms of folk (such as folk rock) achieve prominence never before seen by folk music, but the early 1960s were perhaps the zenith of non-fusion folk music prominence in the music scene.

According to some, [ who? ] during the Depression , folk music reflected social realities of poverty and disempowerment of common people through vernacularized lyrics expressing the harsh realities of hard times and poverty. Often newly composed songs in traditional style by writers like Guthrie also featured a humorous and satirical tone. Most of the audience for folk music in those years were part of the working class, and many of these songs expressed resistance to the social order and an anger towards the government. [ 57 ]

[ edit ] Major performers who emerged from the 1940s to the early 1960s

Some major folk music performers who emerged during 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s were:

Burl Ives
  • Woody Guthrie (1912 –1967) is best known as an American singer-songwriter and folk musician, whose musical legacy includes hundreds of political, traditional and children's songs, ballads and improvised works. He frequently performed with the slogan This Machine Kills Fascists displayed on his guitar. His best-known song is " This Land Is Your Land ". Many of his recorded songs are archived in the Library of Congress . [ 58 ] In the 1930s Guthrie traveled with migrant workers from Oklahoma to California while learning, rewriting, and performing traditional folk and blues songs along the way. Many the songs he composed were about his experiences in the Dust Bowl era during the Great Depression , earning him the nickname the "Dust Bowl Balladeer". [ 59 ] Throughout his life, Guthrie was associated with United States communist groups, though he was never formally joined the Party. [ 60 ] Guthrie fathered American folk musician Arlo Guthrie . During his later years Guthrie served as a figurehead in the folk movement, providing inspiration to a generation of new folk musicians, including mentor relationships with Ramblin' Jack Elliott and Bob Dylan . Such songwriters as Bob Dylan , Phil Ochs , Bruce Springsteen , Pete Seeger , Joe Strummer and Tom Paxton have acknowledged their debt to Guthrie as an influence.
  • Burl Ives - as a youth, Ives dropped out of college to travel around as an itinerant singer during the early 1930s, earning his way by doing odd jobs and playing his banjo and guitar. In 1930, he had a brief, local radio career on WBOW radio in Terre Haute, Indiana, and in the 1940s he had his own radio show, titled The Wayfaring Stranger, titled after one of the popular ballads he sang. The show was very popular, and in 1946 Ives was cast as a singing cowboy in the film Smoky . Ives went on to play parts in other popular film as well. His first book, The Wayfaring Stranger , was published in 1948. [ 61 ]
  • Pete Seeger had met and been influenced by many important folk musicians (and singer-songwriters with folk roots), especially Woody Guthrie and Leadbelly . Seeger had labor movement involvements, and he met Guthrie at a "Grapes of Wrath" migrant workers' concert on March 3, 1940, and the two thereafter began a musical collaboration (which included the Almanac Singers ) and then formed The Weavers . As a songwriter, Seeger authored or co-authored " Where Have All the Flowers Gone? ", " If I Had a Hammer (The Hammer Song) ", (composed with Lee Hays of The Weavers), and " Turn, Turn, Turn! ", all three of which have been recorded by many artists both in and outside the folk revival movement and are still sung throughout the world. In 1948, Seeger wrote the first version of his now-classic How to Play the Five-String Banjo , an instructional book that many banjo players credit with starting them off on the instrument. He has recorded, sung, and performed for more than seventy years and has become the most powerful force in the American folk revival after Guthrie. [ 62 ]
  • The Weavers were formed in 1947 by Pete Seeger, Ronnie Gilbert , Lee Hays , and Fred Hellerman . After they debuted at the Village Vanguard in New York in 1948, they were then discovered by arranger Gordon Jenkins and signed with Decca Records , releasing a series of successful but heavily orchestrated single songs. The group's political associations in the era of the Red Scare forced them to break up in 1952; they re-formed in 1955 with a series of successful concerts and album recordings on Vanguard Records. A fifth member, Erik Darling , sometimes sat in with the group when Seeger was unavailable and ultimately replaced Seeger in The Weavers when the latter resigned from the quartet in a dispute about its commercialism in general and its specific agreement to record a cigarette commercial. [ 63 ]
  • Harry Belafonte , another influential performer, started his career as a club singer in New York to pay for his acting classes. In 1952, he signed a contract with RCA Victor and released his first record album, Mark Twain and Other Folk Favorites . His breakthrough album Calypso (1956) was the first LP to sell over a million copies. The album spent 31 weeks at number one, 58 weeks in the top ten, and 99 weeks on the US charts. It introduced American audiences to Calypso music and Belafonte was dubbed the "King of Calypso." Belafonte went on to record in many genres, including blues, American folk, gospel , and more. In 1959, he starred in Tonight With Belafonte a nationally televised special that introduced Odetta in her debut to a prime time audience. She sang Water Boy and performed a duet with Belafonte of There's a Hole in My Bucket that hit the national charts in 1961. [ 64 ]
Odetta performing in 2006
  • Odetta - In 1953 singers Odetta and Larry Mohr recorded an LP that was released in 1954 as Odetta and Larry , an album that was partially recorded live at San Francisco's Tin Angel bar. Odetta enjoyed a long and respected career with a repertoire of traditional songs and blues until her death in 2009. [ 64 ]
  • The Kingston Trio was formed in 1957 in the Palo Alto, California area by Bob Shane , Nick Reynolds , and Dave Guard , who were just out of college. They were greatly influenced by the Weavers, the calypso sounds of Belafonte, and other semi-pop folk artists such as the Gateway Singers and The Tarriers . The unprecedented popularity and album sales of this group from 1957 to 1963 (including fourteen top ten and five number one LPs on the Billboard charts [ 65 ] ) was a significant factor in creating a commercial and mainstream audience for folk-styled music where little had existed prior to their emergence. [ 66 ] The Kingston Trio's success was followed by other highly successful pop-folk acts, such as The Limeliters .
The Limeliters
  • The Limeliters are an American folk music group, formed in July 1959 by Lou Gottlieb (bass), Alex Hassilev (baritone), and Glenn Yarbrough (tenor). The group was active from 1959 until 1965, when they disbanded. After a hiatus of sixteen years Yarbrough, Hassilev, and Gottlieb reunited and began performing as The Limeliters again.
  • Joan Baez 's career began in 1958 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where at 17 she gave her first coffee-house concert. She was invited to perform at the premiere Newport Folk Festival in 1959 by pop folk star Bob Gibson , after which Baez was sometimes called "the barefoot Madonna ", gaining renown for her clear voice and three-octave range. She recorded her first album for a Vanguard Records the following year – a collection of laments and traditional folk ballads from the British Isles, accompanying the songs with guitar. Her second LP release went gold, as did her next (live) albums. One record featured her rendition of a song by the then-unknown Bob Dylan. In the early 1960s, Baez moved into the forefront of the American folk-music revival. Increasingly, her personal convictions – peace, social justice, anti-poverty – were reflected in the topical songs that made up a growing portion of her repertoire, to the point that Baez became a symbol for these particular concerns.
  • The Chad Mitchell Trio began in 1959 and emerged in the early 1960s. The group performed a mix of creatively arranged traditional songs and contemporary numbers that frequently included satiric and political overtones.
  • Bob Dylan often performed and sometimes toured with Joan Baez, starting when she was a singer of mostly traditional songs. As Baez adopted some of Dylan's songs into her repertoire and even introduced Dylan to her avid audiences, a large following on the folk circuit, it helped the young songwriter to gain initial recognition. By the time Dylan recorded his first LP (1962) he had developed a style reminiscent of Woody Guthrie. He began to write songs that captured the "progressive" mood on the college campuses and in the coffee houses. Though by 1964 there were many new guitar-playing singer/songwriters, it is arguable that Dylan eventually became the most popular of these younger folk-music-revival performers.
  • Peter, Paul and Mary debuted in the early 1960s and were an American trio who ultimately became one of the biggest musical acts of the 1960s. The trio was composed of Peter Yarrow , Paul Stookey and Mary Travers . They were one of the main folk music torchbearers of social commentary music in the 1960s. As the decade passed, their music incorporated more elements of pop and rock.
  • The Seekers , an Australian folk and pop music group, were formed in 1962. They moved to the UK in 1963 and blended traditional music, contemporary folk music and pop, an illustration of the rapid evolution and diversification of the genre. The Seekers enjoyed great popularity in the English-speaking world with hit songs like "I Know I'll Never Find Another You", "A World Of Our Own," and "Georgy Girl".
  • Canada's duo of Ian Tyson and Sylvia Fricker, performing as Ian & Sylvia , released their first album in 1963. The duo featured a creative mix of traditional American and Canadian folk songs in both English and French as well as contemporary singer-songwriter compositions by Dylan and Paxton, and numbers that they themselves composed like " Four Strong Winds " and "Someday Soon" by Tyson and " You Were On My Mind " by Fricker.

[ edit ] The mid-1960s through the early 1970s

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan during the civil rights " March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom ", August 28, 1963.

The large musical, political, lifestyle, and counterculture changes most associated with "the 60s" occurred during the second half of the decade and the first year or two of the 1970s. Folk music underwent a related rapid evolution and expansion at that same time. Major changes occurred through the evolution of established performers such as Bob Dylan , Joan Baez , Judy Collins , The Seekers and Peter Paul and Mary , and also through the creation of new fusion genres with rock and pop. Dylan's use of electric instruments helped inaugurate the genres of folk rock and country rock , particularly by his album John Wesley Harding . [ 71 ]

These changes represented a further departure from traditional folk music. The Byrds with hits such as Seeger's " Turn! Turn! Turn! " were emblematic of a new term folk rock . Barry McGuire left The New Christy Minstrels and recorded Eve of Destruction in 1965. Other performers such as Simon & Garfunkel and The Mamas & the Papas created new hard-to-classify music that was folk-inflected and often included in discussions of folk rock. [ 71 ]

During this period, the term "protest music" was often used to characterize folk music with topical political themes. Folk singers and songwriters such as Phil Ochs , Buffy Sainte-Marie , Arlo Guthrie and Tom Paxton followed in Woody Guthrie's footsteps, writing " protest music " and topical songs and expressing support for various causes including the American Civil Rights Movement and anti-war causes associated with the Vietnam War . A number of performers who had begun their careers singing largely traditional material, as typified by Baez and Collins, began to write their own material.

The Canadian performers Gordon Lightfoot , Leonard Cohen , Bruce Cockburn and Joni Mitchell represented such fusions and enjoyed great popularity in the US; all three were eventually invested with the Order of Canada . Many of the acid rock bands of San Francisco began by playing acoustic folk and blues. The Smothers Brothers television shows featured many folk performers, including the formerly blacklisted Pete Seeger . [ 72 ]

Bonnie Koloc is a Chicago-based American folk music singer-songwriter who made her recording debut in 1971, three years after several popular recordings by Melanie , who had released her first album in 1968 with a folk/pop blend.

The late 1960s saw the advent of electric folk groups. This is a form of folk rock, with a focus on indigenous (European, and, emblematically, English) songs. A key electric folk moment was the release of Fairport Convention 's album Liege and Lief . Guitarist Richard Thompson declared that the music of the band demanded a corresponding "English Electric" style, while bassist Ashley Hutchings formed Steeleye Span to pursue a more traditional repertoire performed in the electric folk style. Exponents of electric folk music such as Fairport Convention , Pentangle , Alan Stivell and Mr. Fox saw electrification of traditional musical forms as a means to reach a far wider audience.

[ edit ] Mid-1970s through present day

Starting in the 1970s folk music was fueled by new singer-songwriters such as Steve Goodman , John Prine , Emmylou Harris , Joni Mitchell , John Denver , and many more. In the British Isles, The Pogues in the early 1980s and Ireland's The Corrs in the 1990s brought traditional tunes back into the album charts. The Corrs were active from 1990 to 2006 and performed Celtic and pop music, and created a blend of the two. Carrie Newcomer emerged with Stone Soup in 1984 and has been performing individually since 1991.

Malicorne [ who? ] , a French electric folk group emerged in 1973, starting with traditional music and then later blended it with pop. Canadian Stan Rogers wrote and performed folk music with strong historical and nautical themes, emerging in 1976. Si Kahn [ who? ] emerged in 1974 at the more political and topical end of the folk music spectrum.

In the 1980s, artists like The Knitters propagated cowpunk or folk punk , which eventually evolved into alt country . More recently the same spirit has been embraced and expanded on by artists such as Dave Alvin , Miranda Stone and Steve Earle .

In the second half of the 1990s, once more, folk music made an impact on the mainstream music via a younger generation of artists such as Eliza Carthy , Kate Rusby and Spiers and Boden . Hard rock and heavy metal bands such as Korpiklaani , Skyclad , Waylander and Finntroll meld elements from a wide variety of traditions, including in many cases instruments such as fiddles , tin whistles , accordions and bagpipes . Folk metal often favours pagan -inspired themes. Viking metal is defined in its folk stance, incorporating folk interludes into albums (eg, Bergtatt and Kveldssanger , the first two albums by once-folk metal, now- experimental band Ulver ).

[ edit ] Specialty sub-genres

Filk music can be considered folk music stylistically and culturally (though the 'community' it arose from, science fiction fandom , is an unusual and thoroughly modern one). [ 73 ] Neofolk began in the 1980s, fusing traditional European folk music with post-industrial music , historical topics, philosophical commentary, traditional songs and paganism . The genre is largely European.

Anti folk began in New York City in the 1980s. Folk punk , known in its early days as rogue folk, is a fusion of folk music and punk rock. It was pioneered by the London-based Irish band The Pogues in the 1980s. Industrial folk music is a characterization of folk music normally referred to under other genres, and covers music of or about industrial environments and topics, including related protest music.

Other sub-genres include Indie folk , Techno-folk , Freak folk and Americana and fusion genres such as folk metal , progressive folk , psychedelic folk , and neofolk .

[ edit ] Notable venues

The National Folk Festival (USA) is an itinerant folk festival in the United States . Since 1934, it has been run by the National Council for the Traditional Arts (NCTA) and has been presented in 26 communities around the nation. After leaving some of these communities, the National Folk Festival has spun off several locally run folk festivals in its wake including the Lowell Folk Festival , the Richmond Folk Festival, the American Folk Festival and, most recently, the Montana Folk Festival.

The National Folk Festival (UK) in England has been running for over thirty five years – starting off as a festival organized in Keele University .

The National Folk Festival is Australia's premier folk festival event and is attended by over 50,000 people.

The four-day Philadelphia Folk Festival began in 1962. It is sponsored by the non-profit Philadelphia Folksong Society. The event hosts contemporary and traditional artists in genres including World/Fusion, Celtic, Singer/Songwriter, Folk Rock, Country, Klezmer, and Dance. It is held annually on the third weekend in August. The event now hosts approximately 12,000 visitors, presenting bands on 6 stages.

The Newport Folk Festival is an annual folk festival held near Newport, Rhode Island. It ran most year from 1959 to 1970, and 1985 to the present, with an attendance of approximately 10,000 persons.

It is sometimes claimed that the earliest folk festival was the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, 1928, in Asheville, North Carolina, founded by Bascom Lamar Lunsford . Sidmouth Festival began in 1954, and Cambridge Folk Festival began in 1965. The Cambridge Folk Festival in Cambridge , England is noted for having a very wide definition of who can be invited as folk musicians. The "club tents" allow attendees to discover large numbers of unknown artists, who, for ten or 15 minutes each, present their work to the festival audience.

Stan Rogers is a lasting fixture of the Canadian folk festival Summerfolk , held annually in Owen Sound, Ontario , where the main stage and amphitheater are dedicated as the "Stan Rogers Memorial Canopy". The festival is firmly fixed in tradition, with Rogers' song " The Mary Ellen Carter " being sung by all involved, including the audience and a medley of acts at the festival.

The Canmore Folk Music Festival is Alberta's longest running folk music festival. The Feast of the Hunters' Moon in Indiana draws approximately 60,000 visitors per year.

Folk music is popular among some audiences today, with folk music clubs meeting to share traditional-style songs, and there are major folk music festivals in many countries, eg the Woodford Folk Festival , National Folk Festival and Port Fairy Folk Festival are amongst Australia's largest major annual events, attracting top international folk performers as well as many local artists.

Urkult Näsåker, Ångermanland held August each year [ 74 ] is purportedly Sweden's largest world-music festival.

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas y referencias

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  72. ^ Bianculli, David (2009). Dangerously Funny: The Uncensored Story of the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour . New York: Touchstone (Simon & Schuster). p. 382. ISBN 978-1-4391-0116-2 .
  73. ^ "Definition of filk by FilkOntario" . Filkontario.ca . http://www.filkontario.ca/html/whatisfilk.html . Retrieved 2012-12-29 .
  74. ^ http://www.urkult.se/ Festival website

[ editar ] Referencias

These are the references with multiple abbreviated cites with varying page numbers

[ editar ] Otras lecturas

(does not include those used as references)

[ edit ] Traditional folk music

  • Bayard, Samuel Preston (1950). "Prolegomena to a Study of the Principal Melodic Families of British-American Folksong", Journal of American Folklore pp. 1–44. Reprinted in McAllester, David Park (ed.) (1971) Readings in ethnomusicology New York: Johnson Reprint. OCLC 2780256
  • Bearman, CJ (2000). "Who Were the Folk? The Demography of Cecil Sharp's Somerset Folk Singers." The Historical Journal (September 2000) Vol. 43 No.3 pp. 751–75. JSTOR 3020977
  • Bevil, Jack Marshall (1984). Centonization and Concordance in the American Southern Uplands Folksong Melody: A Study of the Musical Generative and Transmittive Processes of an Oral Tradition . PhD Thesis, North Texas University, Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International. OCLC 12903203
  • Bevil, Jack Marshall (1986). " Scale in Southern Appalachian Folksong: a Reexamination ", College Music Symposium Vol. 26, 77–91. [ verification needed ]
  • Bevil, Jack Marshall (1987). "A Paradigm of Folktune Preservation and Change Within the Oral Tradition of a Southern Appalachian Community, 1916–1986." Unpublished. Read at the 1987 National Convention of the American Musicological Society, New Orleans.
  • Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Ballad As Song (Berkeley: University of California Press , 1969).
  • Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Singing Tradition of Child's Popular Ballads (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976).
  • Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads, with Their Texts, According to the Extant Records of Great Britain and North America , 4 volumes (Princeton and Berkeley: Princeton University and University of California Presses, 1959, ff.).
  • Cartwright, Garth (2005). Princes Amongst Men: Journeys with Gypsy Musicians . London: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-877-5
  • Carson, Ciaran (1997). Last Night's Fun: In and Out of Time with Irish Music . North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-515-1
  • Cowdery, James R. (1990). The Melodic Tradition of Ireland . Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-407-0
  • Farsani, Mohsen (2003) Lamentations chez les nomades bakhtiari d'Iran . Paris: Université Sorbonne Nouvelle.
  • Harker, David (1985). Fakesong: The Manufacture of British 'Folksong', 1700 to the Present Day . Milton Keynes [Buckinghamshire]; Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15066-7
  • Jackson, George Pullen (1933). White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands: The Story of the Fasola Folk, Their Songs, Singings, and "Buckwheat Notes" . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. LCCN 33-3792 OCLC 885331 Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing (2008) ISBN 978-1-4366-9044-7
  • Matthews, Scott (2008). "John Cohen in Eastern Kentucky: Documentary Expression and the Image of Roscoe Halcomb During the Folk Revival" . Southern 6) [ page needed ]
  • Karpeles, Maud. An Introduction to English Folk Song . 1973. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • Keller, Marcello Sorce (1984). "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: A Short History", Folklore Vol. 95, no. 1:100–104. JSTOR 1259763
  • Poladian, Sirvart. "Melodic Contour in Traditional Music," Journal of the International Folk Music Council III (1951), 30-34.
  • Poladian, Sirvart. "The Problem of Melodic Variation in Folksong," Journal of American Folklore (1942), 204-211.
  • Rooksby, Rikky, Dr Vic Gammon et al. The Folk Handbook . (2007). Backbeat
  • Sharp, Cecil. Folk Song: Some Conclusions . 1907. Charles River Books
  • Sharp, Cecil English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians . Collected by Cecil J. Sharp. Ed. Maud Karpeles. 1932. London. Oxford University Press .
  • Warren-Findley, Jannelle (1980). "Journal of a Field Representative : Charles Seeger and Margaret Valiant" Ethnomusicology , Vol. 24, No. 2 (May, 1980), pp. 169–210 JSTOR 851111

[ edit ] Contemporary folk music

  • Cantwell, Robert. When We Were Good: The Folk Revival . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-674-95132-8
  • Cohen, Ronald D., Folk music: the basics , Routledge, 2006.
  • Cohen, Ronald D., A history of folk music festivals in the United States , Scarecrow Press, 2008
  • Cohen, Ronald D. Rainbow Quest: The Folk Music Revival & American Society, 1940–1970 . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press , 2002. ISBN 1-55849-348-4
  • Cohen, Ronald D., ed. Wasn't That a Time? Firsthand Accounts of the Folk Music Revival. American Folk Music Series no. 4. Lanham, Maryland and Folkstone, UK: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1995.
  • Cohen, Ronald D., and Dave Samuelson. Songs for Political Action . Booklet to Bear Family Records BCD 15720 JL, 1996.
  • Cray, Ed, and Studs Terkel. Ramblin Man: The Life and Times of Woody Guthrie . WW Norton & Co., 2006.
  • Cunningham, Agnes "Sis", and Gordon Friesen. Red Dust and Broadsides: A Joint Autobiography . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press , 1999. ISBN 1-55849-210-0
  • De Turk, David A.; Poulin, A., Jr., The American folk scene; dimensions of the folksong revival , New York : Dell Pub. Co., 1967
  • Denisoff, R. Serge. Great Day Coming: Folk Music and the American Left . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
  • Denisoff, R. Serge. Sing Me a Song of Social Significance . Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972. ISBN 0-87972-036-0
  • Denning, Michael. The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century . London: Verso, 1996.
  • Dunaway, David. How Can I Keep From Singing: The Ballad of Pete Seeger . [1981, 1990] Villard, 2008. ISBN 0-306-80399-2
  • Eyerman, Ron, and Scott Barretta. "From the 30s to the 60s: The folk Music Revival in the United States". Theory and Society : 25 (1996): 501–43.
  • Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. Music and Social Movements. Mobilizing Traditions in the Twentieth Century . Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-62966-7
  • Filene, Benjamin. Romancing the Folk: Public Memory & American Roots Music . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8078-4862-X
  • Goldsmith, Peter D. Making People's Music: Moe Asch and Folkways Records . Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. ISBN 1-56098-812-6
  • Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Fariña and Richard Fariña . New York: North Point Press, 2001. ISBN 0-86547-642-X
  • Hawes, Bess Lomax. Sing It Pretty . Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008
  • Jackson, Bruce, ed. Folklore and Society. Essay in Honor of Benjamin A. Botkin. Hatboro, Pa Folklore Associates, 1966
  • Lieberman, Robbie. "My Song Is My Weapon:" People's Songs, American Communism, and the Politics of Culture, 1930–50 . 1989; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995. ISBN 0-252-06525-5
  • Lomax, Alan, Woody Guthrie, and Pete Seeger, eds. Hard Hit Songs for Hard Hit People . New York: Oak Publications, 1967. Reprint, Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
  • Lynch, Timothy. Strike Song of the Depression (American Made Music Series) . Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001.
  • Middleton, Richard (1990). Studying Popular Music . Milton Keynes; Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15276-7 (cloth), ISBN 0-335-15275-9 (pbk).
  • Reuss, Richard, with [finished posthumously by] Joanne C. Reuss. American Folk Music and Left Wing Politics. 1927–1957. American Folk Music Series no. 4 . Lanham, Maryland and Folkstone, UK: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 2000.
  • Rubeck, Jack; Shaw, Allan; Blake, Ben et al. The Kingston Trio On Record . Naperville, IL: KK, Inc, 1986. ISBN 978-0-9614594-0-6
  • Scully, Michael F. (2008). The Never-Ending Revival: Rounder Records and the Folk Alliance . Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Seeger, Pete. Where Have All the Flowers Gone: A Singer's Stories . Bethlehem, Pa.: Sing Out Publications, 1993.
  • Sharp, Charles David. Waitin' On Wings , What Would Woody Guthrie Say . Riverside, Mo.: Wax Bold Records, 2012.
  • Willens, Doris. Lonesome Traveler: The Life of Lee Hays . New York: Norton, 1988.
  • Weissman, Dick. Which Side Are You On? An Inside History of the Folk Music Revival in America . New York: Continuum, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-1698-5
  • Wolfe, Charles, and Kip Lornell. The Life and Legend of Leadbelly. New York: Da Capo [1992] 1999.

[ edit ] Covering both traditional music and contemporary folk music

  • Cooley, Timothy J. Making Music in the Polish Tatras: Tourists, Ethnographers, and Mountain Musicians . Indiana University Press, 2005 (Hardcover with CD). ISBN 0-253-34489-1
  • Czekanowska, Anna. Polish Folk Music: Slavonic Heritage – Polish Tradition – Contemporary Trends . Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology, Reissue 2006 (Paperback). ISBN 0-521-02797-7
  • Pegg, Carole (2001). "Folk Music". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan.
  • Van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music . Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4 .

[ editar ] Enlaces externos