Avicena

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Avicena (ابن سینا)
PUR Sīnā (پور سینا)
Avicena
Nombre y apellidos Abū 'Alī al-Husayn ibn' Abd Allah ibn Sīnā
Otros nombres Sharaf al-Mulk, Hujjat al-Haq, el jeque al-rayees
Nacido c. 980
Afshana cerca de Bukhara (capital del Imperio Samanid ), en el actual Uzbekistán
Murió 06 1037 (56-57 años)
Hamadan , Persia
Era Era medieval ( Edad de Oro Islámica )
Región Mayor Khorāsān bajo el imperio Samanid (19 años en Bukhara );
Khwarazm bajo las Samanids (13 años en Gorgānj );
Jorjan bajo las Ziyarids : 1012-1014 dC;
Persia bajo los Buyids ( Ray : durante 1 año; Hamadān : durante 9 años; Isfahan :. durante 13 años y murió en 1037 AD en Hamadān) [1]
Principales intereses La medicina , la filosofía , la lógica , la teología islámica ( kalam ), la física , la poesía , la ciencia
Ideas notables Padre de la moderna medicina , pionero de la aromaterapia
Las obras más importantes El Libro de la curación , el Canon de Medicina
Avicena
Avicennism
El Canon de Medicina
El Libro de la Curación
Hayy ibn Yaqdhan
La crítica de la filosofía de Avicena
Medicina unani

Abū ʿ Alī al-Husayn ibn ʿ Abd Allah ibn Sīnā [2] ( persa پور سينا Pur-e Sina [pu ː r si ː nɑ ː] "hijo de Sina";. c 980 - Junio ​​de 1037), más conocido como Avicena, o por su nombre latinizado Avicena , fue un persa [3] [4] [5] [6] erudito , que escribió cerca de 450 tratados sobre una amplia gama de temas, de los cuales alrededor de 240 han sobrevivido. En concreto, 150 de sus tratados supervivientes se concentran en la filosofía y 40 de ellos se concentran en la medicina. [7] [8]

Sus obras más famosas son El Libro de la curación , una vasta filosófico y científico enciclopedia y El Canon de Medicina , [9] que era un texto médico estándar en muchas universidades medievales. [10] El Canon de Medicina fue utilizado como un texto- libro en las universidades de Montpellier y Lovaina tan tarde como 1650. [11] Ibn Sina Canon de Medicina ofrece un sistema completo de medicina de acuerdo a los principios de Galeno (y Hipócrates ). [12] [13]

Su corpus incluye también la escritura en la filosofía , la astronomía , la alquimia , la geología , la psicología , la teología islámica , la lógica , las matemáticas , la física , así como la poesía . [14] Él es considerado como el más famoso e influyente pensador de la época dorada islámica . [ 15]

Contenido

Circunstancias

Avicena creado un extenso corpus de obras en lo que se conoce comúnmente como la Edad de Oro del Islam , en el que se estudiaron exhaustivamente las traducciones de greco-romano, persa y textos indios. Greco-romanas ( Medio y neoplatónica y aristotélica ) textos del Kindi escuela fueron comentados, redactado y desarrollado sustancialmente por los intelectuales islámicos, quienes también construyeron en persa y matemáticos indios sistemas, la astronomía , el álgebra , la trigonometría y la medicina . [16 ] La dinastía Samanid en la parte oriental de Persia , Gran Jorasán y Asia Central , así como la dinastía Buyid en la parte occidental de Persia y de Irak proporcionó un ambiente próspero para el desarrollo académico y cultural. Bajo los Samanids, Bukhara rivalizaba Bagdad como capital cultural del mundo islámico. [17]

El estudio del Corán y el Hadith prosperó en una atmósfera académica. Filosofía, Fiqh y la teología ( Kalam ) fueron desarrolladas, más notablemente por Avicena y sus opositores. Al-Razi y Al-Farabi había proporcionado la metodología y el conocimiento en la medicina y la filosofía. Avicena tenía acceso a las grandes bibliotecas de Balkh , Khwarezm , Gorgan , Rey , Isfahan y Hamadan . Varios de los textos (como el 'Ahd con Bahmanyar) muestran que debatía puntos filosóficos con los más grandes eruditos de la época. Aruzi Samarqandi describe cómo antes de Avicena fue Khwarezm había conocido Rayhan Biruni (un famoso científico y astrónomo), Abu Nasr iraquí ( un matemático de renombre), Abu Sahl Masihi (un filósofo respetado) y Abu al-Jair Khammar (un gran médico).

Biografía

Primeros años

La única fuente de información para la primera parte de la vida de Avicena es su autobiografía, según lo escrito por su Juzjani estudiante. En ausencia de cualquier otra fuente, es imposible estar seguro de qué parte de la autobiografía es exacta. Se ha señalado que él usa su autobiografía para avanzar en su teoría del conocimiento (que era posible para un individuo para adquirir conocimientos y comprender las ciencias filosóficas de Aristóteles sin profesor), y se ha cuestionado si el orden de los acontecimientos descritos se ajustó para ajustarse más estrechamente con el modelo aristotélico, en otras palabras, si Avicena describe a sí mismo como el estudio de las cosas en el orden "correcto". Sin embargo, dada la ausencia de cualquier otra prueba, la cuenta de Avicena tiene esencialmente ser tomadas en serio. [18]

Avicena nació c. 980 en Qishlak Afshona, un pueblo cerca de Bujara (en el actual Uzbekistán ), la capital de los Samanids , una dinastía persa en Asia Central y el Gran Jorasán . Su madre, llamada Setareh, era de Bukhara, [19] su padre, Abdullah, era un respetado Ismaili [20] estudioso de Balkh , una ciudad importante del imperio Samanid , en lo que hoy es la provincia de Balkh , Afganistán . Su padre estaba en el momento del nacimiento de su hijo, el gobernador en una de las Samanid fincas Nuh ibn Mansur de. Tenía a su hijo cuidadosamente educado en Bukhara. Pensamiento independiente de Ibn Sina fue servida por una inteligencia extraordinaria y memoria, lo que le permitió superar a sus maestros, a la edad de catorce años. Como dijo en su autobiografía, no había nada que él no había aprendido al llegar a los dieciocho años.

Se han propuesto un número de diferentes teorías respecto de Avicena Madhab . Medieval historiador Zahir al-Din al-Bayhaqi (d. 1169) considera Avicena a ser un seguidor de los Hermanos de la Pureza . [21] Por otra parte, Dimitri Gutas junto con Aisha Khan y Julio J. Janssens demostraron que Avicena fue un Sunni Hanafi . [21] [21] [22] Sin embargo, Shia faqih Nurullah Shushtari y Seyyed Hossein Nasr , además de Henry Corbin , han mantenido que era más probable un Doce chiítas . [21] [20] [23] Similar Existen desacuerdos sobre los antecedentes de la familia de Avicena, mientras que algunos escritores los suníes consideran, los escritores más recientes pensaban que eran chiítas. [22]

Según su autobiografía, Avicena había memorizado todo el Corán a la edad de 10. [9] Él aprendió la aritmética india de un indio verdulero, y comenzó a aprender más de un erudito errante que ganó el sustento curando a los enfermos y enseñar a los jóvenes. También estudió fiqh (jurisprudencia islámica) en el marco del Hanafi erudito Ismail al-Zahid. [24]

Cuando era adolescente, estaba muy conmovida por la Metafísica de Aristóteles , que no podía entender, hasta que leyó al-Farabi comentario 's en el trabajo. [20] Para el próximo año y medio, él estudió la filosofía , en la que encontrado mayores obstáculos. En estos momentos de la investigación desconcertado, dejaría sus libros, realizar las abluciones necesarias ( wudu ), y luego ir a la mezquita , y continuar en la oración ( salah ) hasta que la luz se rompió en sus dificultades. Profundo en la noche, él continuaría sus estudios, e incluso en sus sueños problemas sería perseguirlo y elaborar su solución. Cuarenta veces, se dice, se lee a través de la Metafísica de Aristóteles, hasta que las palabras fueron grabadas en su memoria, pero su significado era irremediablemente oscuras, hasta que un día encontró la iluminación, desde el pequeño comentario de Farabi , que compró a un puesto de libros para la pequeña suma de tres dirhams. Tan grande fue su alegría por el descubrimiento, realizado con la ayuda de una obra de la que había esperado único misterio, que se apresuró a dar gracias a Dios, y la limosna otorgado a los pobres.

Se volvió hacia la medicina a los 16 años, y no sólo aprendió la teoría médica, sino también por la asistencia gratuita a los enfermos tenían, según su propio relato, descubierto nuevos métodos de tratamiento. El adolescente alcanzó la categoría completa como un médico calificado a los 18 años, [9] y encontró que "la medicina no es ciencia dura y espinosa, como las matemáticas y la metafísica , por lo que pronto se hizo un gran avance, me convertí en un médico excelente y comencé a tratar a los pacientes , utilizando los recursos aprobados ". La fama de la joven médico se extendió rápidamente, y él trata a muchos pacientes sin pedir pago.

Edad adulta

Un dibujo de Avicena de 1271

Primera cita de Ibn Sina fue la de médico del emir , que le debía su recuperación de una grave enfermedad (997). Premio principal de Ibn Sina de este servicio es el acceso a la Real Biblioteca de los Samanids , clientes bien conocidos de becas y eruditos. Cuando la biblioteca fue destruida por un incendio poco después, los enemigos de Ibn Sina lo acusaron de quemarla, para que nunca para ocultar las fuentes de su conocimiento. Mientras tanto, ayudó a su padre en sus labores financieras, pero todavía encontró tiempo para escribir algunas de sus primeras obras.

Cuando Ibn Sina tenía 22 años de edad, perdió a su padre. La dinastía Samanid llegó a su fin en diciembre de 1004. Ibn Sina parece haber disminuido las ofertas de Mahmud de Ghazni , y se dirigió hacia el oeste a Urgench en la actual Turkmenistán , donde el visir , considerado como un amigo de los eruditos, le dio un pequeño estipendio mensual. La paga era pequeña, sin embargo, por lo que Ibn Sina vagaba de un lugar a otro a través de los distritos de Nishapur y Merv a las fronteras de Jorasán , en busca de una oportunidad para su talento. Qabus , el generoso gobernante de Dailam y el centro de Persia , el propio poeta y un erudito, con quien esperaba Ibn Sina de encontrar asilo, estaba en alrededor de esa fecha (1012) murieron de hambre por sus tropas que se habían rebelado. Mismo Ibn Sina fue en este momento golpeado por una grave enfermedad. Por último, en Gorgan , cerca del Mar Caspio , Ibn Sina se reunió con un amigo, que compró una vivienda cerca de su propia casa en la que Ibn Sina dio una conferencia sobre la lógica y la astronomía . Varios de los tratados de Ibn Sina fueron escritos para este patrón, y el comienzo de su Canon de Medicina también fechas de su estancia en Hircania .

Ibn Sina posteriormente se estableció en Rai , en las proximidades de la actual Teherán , (actual capital de Irán), la ciudad natal de Razi , donde Majd Addaula , un hijo de la última Buwayhid emir, era el gobernante nominal bajo la regencia de su madre ( Seyyedeh Khatun ). Una treintena de obras cortas de Ibn Sina se dice que se han formado en Rai . Peleas constantes que hizo estragos entre el regente y su segundo hijo, Shams al-Dawla , sin embargo, obligaron al estudioso de dejar el lugar. Después de una breve estancia en Qazvin pasó al sur de Hamadan en Shams al-Dawla, otro Buwayhid emir, se había establecido. En un primer momento, Ibn Sina entró en el servicio de una señora de alta alcurnia, pero el emir, al enterarse de su llegada, lo llamó como asistente médico, y lo envió de vuelta con regalos a su morada. Ibn Sina siquiera se planteó para el cargo de visir. El emir decretó que debía ser expulsado del país. Ibn Sina, sin embargo, se mantuvo oculto durante cuarenta días en sheikh casa de Ahmed Fadhel, hasta que un nuevo ataque de la enfermedad inducida por el emir para hacerlo volver a su puesto. Incluso durante este tiempo perturbado, Ibn Sina perseveró con sus estudios y la enseñanza. Todas las noches, los extractos de sus grandes obras, la Canon y la Sanatio, fueron dictadas y explicó a sus alumnos. A la muerte del emir Ibn Sina dejó de ser visir y se escondió en la casa de un boticario , donde, con una intensa asiduidad, continuó la composición de sus obras.

Mientras tanto, él había escrito a Abu Ya'far, el prefecto de la dinámica ciudad de Isfahan , que ofrece sus servicios. El nuevo emir de Hamadan, al enterarse de esta correspondencia y el descubrimiento de que Ibn Sina se escondía, él encarcelado en una fortaleza. Guerra por su parte continuó entre los gobernantes de Isfahan y Hamadan, en 1024 la antigua Hamadan capturado y sus aldeas, expulsando a los tayikos mercenarios . Cuando la tormenta había pasado, Ibn Sina volvió con el emir de Hamadan, y continuó sus trabajos literarios. Más tarde, sin embargo, acompañado de su hermano, un alumno favorito, y dos esclavos, Ibn Sina se escapó de la ciudad en el vestido de un Sufi ascética . Después de un peligroso viaje, llegaron a Isfahan, recibiendo una bienvenida de honor del príncipe.

Más tarde la vida y la muerte

La tumba de Avicena en Hamadan , Irán .
La vista interior de la tumba de Avicena en Hamadan, Irán.
La primera página de un manuscrito, escrito por Ibn Sina.

Los restantes diez o doce años de vida de Avicena se dedicaron al servicio de Abu Yafar 'Ala Addaula, a quien acompañó como médico y consejero literario y científico general, incluso en sus numerosas campañas.

Durante estos años comenzó a estudiar literatura asuntos y filología , instigó, se afirma, por las críticas a su estilo. Un severo cólico , que se apoderó de él en la marcha del ejército contra Hamadan, se comprobó mediante remedios tan violentas que Ibn Sina soportaba apenas. En una ocasión similar la enfermedad regresó, con la dificultad de llegar Hamadan, en donde, la búsqueda de la enfermedad gana terreno, se negó a mantener el régimen de impuesto, y se resignó a su destino.

Sus amigos le aconsejaron que se reduzca la velocidad y tomar la vida con moderación. Se negó, sin embargo, indica que: "Prefiero una vida corta con un ancho a uno estrecho con la longitud". [ cita requerida ] En su lecho de muerte, el remordimiento lo agarró, él otorgó sus bienes a los pobres, las ganancias injustas restaurados, liberó a sus esclavos y leer el Corán cada tres días hasta su muerte. Murió en junio de 1037, a los cincuenta y ocho años, en el mes de Ramadán y fue enterrado en Hamadan, Irán. [25]

Filosofía de Avicena

Avicena escribió extensamente sobre filosofía islámica temprana , especialmente las asignaturas lógica , la ética y la metafísica , incluyendo los tratados llamados Lógica y Metafísica. La mayoría de sus obras fueron escritas en árabe - que fue el científico de facto el idioma de la época en el Medio Oriente, y algunos fueron escritos en la lengua persa . De importancia lingüística aún hoy en día son pocos los libros que escribió en lengua persa casi puro (en particular la Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Filosofía de Ala 'ad-Dawla'). Comentarios de Avicena sobre Aristóteles menudo corrigen el filósofo, [ cita requerida ] fomentar un debate animado por el espíritu de ijtihad .

En el mundo islámico medieval , debido al éxito de Avicena [ cita requerida ] la reconciliación entre el aristotelismo y el neoplatonismo , junto con Kalam , Avicennism finalmente se convirtió en la principal escuela de la filosofía islámica en el siglo 12, con Avicena convertirse en una autoridad central en la filosofía. [26]

Avicennism también influyó en la Europa medieval , especialmente sus doctrinas sobre la naturaleza del alma y su existencia - esencia distinción, junto con los debates y la censura que se plantean en Europa escolástica. Este fue especialmente el caso de París , donde Avicennism fue posteriormente prohibida en 1210. Sin embargo, la psicología y la teoría del conocimiento influenciado Guillermo de Auvernia, obispo de París y Albertus Magnus , mientras que su metafísica tuvieron un impacto en el pensamiento de Tomás de Aquino . [27]

Doctrina metafísica

La filosofía islámica temprana y la metafísica islámica , imbuido como está con la teología islámica , se distingue con mayor claridad que el aristotelismo la diferencia entre esencia y existencia . Mientras que la existencia es el dominio de lo contingente y lo accidental, la esencia permanece en un ser más allá de lo accidental. La filosofía de Ibn Sina, en particular la parte relativa a la metafísica , le debe mucho a al-Farabi . La búsqueda de una filosofía islámica definitiva separado de Ocasionalismo se puede ver en lo que queda de su obra.

Siguiendo el ejemplo de al-Farabi, Avicena inició una investigación en toda regla en la cuestión del ser , en la que se distingue entre esencia (Mahiat) y la existencia (Wuyud). Sostuvo que el hecho de la existencia no se puede deducir a partir de o explica por la esencia de las cosas existentes, y que la forma y la materia por sí mismos no pueden interactuar y originar el movimiento del universo o la actualización progresiva de las cosas existentes. Existencia debe, por lo tanto, ser debido a un agente-causa que requiere, imparte, da, o añade existencia de una esencia. Para ello, la causa debe ser una cosa existente y convivir con su efecto. [28]

Consideración de Avicena de la cuestión de esencia-atributos puede ser dilucidado en términos de su análisis ontológico de las modalidades del ser, es decir la imposibilidad, contingencia y necesidad. Avicena sostuvo que el ser imposible es lo que no puede existir, mientras que el contingente en sí mismo (mumkin bi-dhatihi) tiene el potencial de ser o no ser, sin que ello suponga una contradicción. Cuando se actualiza, el contingente se convierte en un 'existente necesaria por lo que no es el mismo "(wajib al-wuyud bi-ghairihi). Por lo tanto, la contingencia-en-sí es posible estado de ser que con el tiempo podrían ser autorizados por una causa externa que no sea la propia. Las estructuras metafísicas de la necesidad y la contingencia son diferentes. Necesario se debe a sí mismo (wajib al-wuyud bi-dhatihi) es verdadero en sí mismo, mientras que el ser contingente es 'falsa en sí misma "y" verdadera debido a otra cosa que no sea la propia. La falta es la fuente de su propio ser sin existencia prestada. Es lo que siempre existe. [29] [30] La necesaria existe "debido a Su-Uno mismo ', y no tiene esencia / esencia (mahiyya) que no sea la existencia (wuyud). Además, es 'One' (wahid ahad) [31] ya que no puede haber más de una "necesaria-Existente-debido-a-sí", sin diferenciación (msnm) para distinguir a unos de otros. Sin embargo, para requerir la diferenciación implica que existen "debido a ellos mismos", así como "debido a lo que es distinto de sí mismos", y esto es contradictorio. Sin embargo, si no hay diferenciación que los distingue de los demás, entonces no hay sentido en el que no son estos 'Existents "uno y el mismo. [32] Avicena añade que la "necesaria-Existente-debido-a-sí 'no tiene género (jins), ni una definición (hadd), ni una contraparte (Nadd), ni un opuesto (DID), y se separa (BARI) a partir de materia (madda), la calidad (kayf), la cantidad (kam), lugar (ayn ), orientación (taco) y el tiempo (Waqt). [33] [34] [35]

La filosofía natural

Ibn Sina y Abu Rayhan al-Biruni participan en un debate escrito, con Abu Rayhan Biruni sobre todo criticando aristotélica filosofía de la naturaleza y de la escuela peripatética , mientras que Avicena y su estudiante Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi responden a las críticas de Biruni por escrito. Abu Rayhan comenzó preguntando Avicena dieciocho preguntas, diez de las cuales fueron las críticas de Aristóteles 's en los cielos . [36]

Teología

Avicena fue un musulmán devoto y tratado de conciliar la filosofía racional con la teología islámica . Su objetivo era probar la existencia de Dios y su creación del mundo científico ya través de la razón y la lógica . [37] Avicena escribió una serie de tratados que se ocupan de la teología islámica. Estos tratados se incluyen en los profetas islámicos , a quien veía como "filósofos inspirados", y en varias interpretaciones científicas y filosóficas del Corán , como la forma del Corán cosmología corresponde a su sistema filosófico. [38]

Avicena memorizado el Corán a la edad de diez, y en la edad adulta, escribió cinco tratados comentar suras del Corán. Uno de estos textos incluyen la prueba de las Profecías, en el que comenta varios versículos del Corán y el Corán sostiene en alta estima. Avicena sostuvo que los profetas islámicos deben ser considerados superiores a los filósofos. [39]

Los experimentos mentales

Mientras estuvo encarcelado en el castillo de Fardajan cerca Hamadhan , Avicena escribió su famoso "Hombre flotante" experimento del pensamiento humano para demostrar la autoconciencia y la sustancialidad y la inmaterialidad del alma . Avicena creía que su "Man Floating" experimento mental demuestra que el alma es una sustancia, y afirmó que los humanos no podemos dudar de su propia conciencia, incluso en una situación que impide que toda la entrada de datos sensoriales. El experimento contó a sus lectores a imaginarse a sí mismos crearon a la vez mientras que está suspendido en el aire, aislado de todas las sensaciones , que incluye ningún contacto sensorial con incluso sus propios cuerpos. Sostuvo que, en este escenario, todavía tendría la conciencia de sí . Debido a que es posible que una persona, suspendido en el aire, mientras que aislados de la experiencia sensible , todavía sería capaz de determinar su propia existencia, los puntos experimento de pensamiento a las conclusiones de que el alma es una perfección, independiente del cuerpo, y un ser inmaterial sustancia. El concebible de este "Man Floating" indica que el alma se percibe intelectualmente, lo que implica la separación del alma del cuerpo. Avicena se refirió a la vida humana de inteligencia , en particular el intelecto activo , que él cree que es la hipóstasis por el cual Dios se comunica la verdad al ser humano la mente y da orden y la inteligibilidad de la naturaleza . Sin embargo, Avicena postula el cerebro como el lugar donde la razón interactúa con la sensación. Sensation prepara el alma para recibir conceptos racionales del intelecto agente universal. El primer conocimiento de la persona que volar sería "Yo soy", afirmando su esencia. Esa esencia no puede ser el cuerpo, obviamente, ya que la persona que viaja tiene ninguna sensación. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de que "Yo soy" es el núcleo de un ser humano:. Existe el alma y es consciente de sí mismo [40] por lo tanto Avicena concluye que la idea de la auto no depende lógicamente en cualquier física cosa , y que el alma no debe ser vista en términos relativos , sino como una primaria dada, una sustancia . El cuerpo no es necesario;. En relación con ella, el alma es su perfección [41] [42] [43] En sí mismo, el alma es una sustancia inmaterial. [44]

El Canon de Medicina

A América ejemplar de El Canon de Medicina, de fecha 1484, que se encuentra en el PI Nixon Medical Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad de Texas Health Science Center en San Antonio , EE.UU..
Un árabe copia de El Canon de Medicina, de 1593
El personal médico universitario de formación dedicado a Avicena en su lugar de nacimiento, Afshona

Cerca de 100 tratados fueron atribuidos a Ibn Sina. Algunos de ellos son extensiones de unas pocas páginas. Otros son obras que se extienden a través de varios volúmenes. Sus 14 volúmenes de El Canon de Medicina (Al-Qanoon fi al-Tibb, Las Leyes de la Medicina) fue un texto médico estándar en Europa y el mundo islámico hasta el siglo 18. [45]

Medicina y farmacología

El libro es conocido por su descripción de las enfermedades contagiosas y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual , [46] la cuarentena para limitar la propagación de enfermedades infecciosas , y las pruebas de los medicamentos. Avicena adoptó, desde los griegos, la teoría de que las epidemias son causadas por la contaminación en el aire ( miasma ). [47] Se clasifica y describe las enfermedades , y describe sus causas asumidas. Higiene , medicamentos simples y complejas, y las funciones de las partes del el cuerpo también están cubiertos. El Canon de acuerdo con Aristóteles (y no está de acuerdo con Hipócrates ) que la tuberculosis era contagiosa, un hecho que no ha sido universalmente aceptada en Europa hasta siglos después. También se describen los síntomas y complicaciones de la diabetes . Ambas formas de parálisis facial se describen en profundidad.

El Canon de Medicina discute cómo probar la eficacia de nuevos medicamentos:

  • El medicamento debe estar libre de toda cualidad accidental extraña.
  • Se debe utilizar en una enfermedad simple, no es un material compuesto,.
  • El fármaco debe ser probado con dos tipos contrarios de las enfermedades, ya veces, un medicamento cura una enfermedad por sus cualidades esenciales y otras por sus queridos accidentales.
  • La calidad de la droga debe corresponder a la fuerza de la enfermedad. Por ejemplo, hay algunos fármacos cuyo calor es menor que la frialdad de ciertas enfermedades, de modo que no tendrían ningún efecto sobre ellos.
  • El tiempo de la acción debe ser observado, por lo que la esencia y el accidente no se confundan.
  • El efecto de la droga debe ser visto para producir constantemente o, en muchos casos, ya que si no fue así, fue un efecto accidental.
  • La experimentación se debe hacer con el cuerpo humano, para probar un medicamento en un león o un caballo no podría probar nada acerca de su efecto sobre el hombre.

Una edición en árabe de la Canon presentó en Roma en 1593, y una versión hebrea en Nápoles en 1491. De la versión latina había cerca de treinta ediciones, fundada en la traducción original por Gerard de Sabloneta . En el siglo 15 se compone de un comentario sobre el texto del Canon. Otros trabajos médicos traducidos al latín son los Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina y el Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso.

Fue sobre todo accidente que determinó que desde el 12 hasta el siglo 18, Avicena debe ser la guía de los estudios de medicina en las universidades europeas, y eclipsar los nombres de Razi , Ali ibn al-Abbas y Averroes . Su trabajo no es esencialmente diferente de la de sus predecesores Razi, porque presenta la doctrina de Galeno , y por medio de Galen la doctrina de Hipócrates , modificado por el sistema de Aristóteles . Sin embargo, el Canon de Avicena se distingue del Al-Hawi (continencia) o Resumen de Razi por su mayor método, tal vez debido a los estudios lógicos de la primera.

El trabajo ha sido diversamente apreciado en años posteriores, algunos considerándolo como un tesoro de sabiduría, y otros, como Averroes, sosteniendo que es útil sólo como papel de desecho. En los tiempos modernos ha sido principalmente de interés histórico como la mayoría de sus principios han sido refutadas o completada por la medicina científica. El vicepresidente del libro es la clasificación excesiva de las facultades físicas, y el exceso de sutileza en la discriminación de las enfermedades. Incluye cinco libros, de los cuales el primero y segundo discutir la fisiología , la patología y la higiene , la tercera y cuarta acuerdo con los métodos de tratamiento de la enfermedad, y la quinta se describe la composición y preparación de los recursos. Esta última parte contiene algunas observaciones personales.

Él es amplio en la enumeración de los síntomas, y se dice que es inferior en medicina práctica y la cirugía . Se introduce en la teoría médica de las cuatro causas de la peripatética sistema. De la historia natural y la botánica fingió ningún conocimiento especial. Hasta el año 1650, más o menos, la Canon todavía se utiliza como libro de texto en las universidades de Lovaina y Montpellier .

En el museo de Bukhara , hay pantallas que muestran muchos de sus escritos, instrumentos quirúrgicos de la época y las pinturas de los pacientes sometidos a tratamiento. Avicena estaba interesado en el efecto de la mente sobre el cuerpo , y escribió mucho sobre la psicología , es probable que influyen Abentofail y Ibn Bajjah . También introdujo hierbas medicinales.

Avicena extendió la teoría de los temperamentos en el Canon de la medicina para abarcar " emocional aspectos, la capacidad mental, moral actitudes, conciencia de sí mismo , los movimientos y los sueños . " Resumió su versión del cuatro humores y temperamentos en un cuadro como el siguiente: [48]

Cuatro humores y de Avicena temperamentos
Evidencia Caliente Frío Húmedo Seque
Estados Morbid inflamaciones convierten febril fiebres relacionadas con el humor serio, reumatismo lasitud pérdida de vigor
Alimentación funcional deficiencia de energía deficiente digestivo poder digestiones difíciles
Sensaciones subjetivas sabor amargo , excesiva sed , ardor en el cardias La falta de deseo de fluidos mucoide salivación , somnolencia insomnio , vigilia
Los signos físicos alto pulso índice, lasitud flácidos articulaciones diarrea , hinchazón de los párpados , piel áspera, adquieren hábitos piel áspera, adquirió hábitos
Los alimentos y medicinas sustancias calentadoras nocivos, infrigidants beneficiosos infrigidants nocivos, sustancias calentadoras beneficiosos húmedos artículos dañinos seco régimen perjudiciales, humectantes beneficioso
Relación con el clima peor en verano peor en invierno mal en otoño

Avicena fue el primero en utilizar una cánula insertada en la garganta para ayudar a un paciente de asfixia. Cortar la tráquea se sugirió sólo como último recurso. [49]

Ejercicio físico: la clave para la salud

El Canon de la medicina: el Volumen 1 de 5, parte 4 de 5: La preservación de la salud

De Canon de la medicina que está escrito en 5 volúmenes de Ibn Sina, sólo el primer volumen apareció en el idioma Inglés. En el primer volumen, Ibn Sina se divide en dos partes: la medicina como él lo explica todo el primer libro: el teórico y el práctico. The theoretical part consists of, but is not limited to, such things as: the causes of health and disease, the temperaments, the humours, anatomy, general physiology, the breath, psychology, discussion of causes of diseases and symptoms, the causes of illness, the classification of diseases, the pulse, the urine etc.

As he himself says in the book on pg 353 "In the first part of this book it was stated that medicine comprises two parts, one theoretical, and one practical, though both are really speculative science." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 353)

Theoretical and Practical Medicine

Ibn Sina goes on to say that you do not get any benefit from just knowing how your body works, but rather the true benefit of medicine itself is in its practical aspect, since medicine is for the preservation of health.

"That which is speculative named theory relates to the formation of opinions and the showing of the evidence upon which they are based, without reference to the mode of acting upon them. Thus this part deals with the temperaments, the humors, the drives, and with the forms, the symptoms, and the causes of disease. That which is specially named practical relates to the mode of acting upon this knowledge, and the prescription of a regimen." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 353)

The Benefits of Exercise

Once the purpose of medicine has been set forth, then from pages 377–455, Ibn Sina divides the way of achieving health as:

"Since the regimen of maintaining health consists essentially in the regulation of: (1) exercise (2) food and (3) sleep, we may begin our discourse with the subject of exercise". ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 377)

Exercise itself is divided into three main parts: The Massage (which is equivalent to massaging your muscles before you start to exercise); The Exercise itself; and lastly the Cold Bath.

Giving one of the greatest benefits of the regimen of exercise, and then explaining the extremely important and necessary need for physical exercise; Ibn Sina states:

"Once we direct the attention towards regulating exercise as to amount and time, we shall find there is no need for such medicines as are ordinarily required for remedying diseases dependent on [abnormal] matters, or diseases of temperament consequent upon such. This is true provided the rest of the regimen is appropriate and proper." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 377)
The value of exercise includes the following (1) it hardens the organs and renders them fit for their functions (2) it results in a better absorption of food, aids assimilation, and, by increasing the innate heat, improves nutrition (3) it clears the pores of the skin (4) it removes effete substances through the lungs (5) it strengthens the physique. Vigorous exercise invigorates the muscular and nervous system." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 379)

In what manner does Ibn Sina uses the word temperament? In saying that exercise cures diseases of temperamant

Ibn Sina divides temperament into that which is harmonious and that which is non-uniform. Ibn Sina says on pg 276–277

"In addition to the signs of the normal temperament already given, there are: Mental faculties including: vigor of imagination, intellectual power, and memory." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 276)
"In brief, there is non-uniformity of temperament among the members; or, perchance, the principal members depart from equability and come to be of contrary temperament, one deviating towards one, another to its contrary. If the components of the body are out of proportion, it is unfortunate both for talent and reasoning power." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 277)

The Purpose of Exercise and the Dangers of its negligence

Continuing on the proof to why exercise should be so beneficial Ibn Sina says "We know that this must be so when we reflect how in regard to nutriment, our health depends on the nutriment being appropriate for us and regulated in quantity and quality. For not one of the aliments which are capable of nourishing the body is converted into actual nutriment in its entirety. In every case digestion leaves something untouched, and nature takes care to have that evacuated. Nevertheless, the evacuation which nature accomplishes is not a complete one. Hence at the end of each digestion there is some superfluity left over. Should this be a frequent occurrence, repetition would lead to further aggregation until something measurable has accumulated. As a result, harmful effete substances would form and injure various parts of the body. When they undergo decomposition, putrefactive diseases arise [bacterial infections]. Should they be strong in quality, they will give rise to intemperament; and if they should increase in quantity, they would set up the symptoms of plethora which have already been described. Flowing to some member, they will result in an inflammatory mass, and their vapors will destroy the temperament of the substantial basis of the breath. That is the reason why we must be careful to evacuate these substances. Their evacuation is usually not completely accomplished without the aid of toxic medicines, for these break up the nature of the effate substances. This can be achieved only by toxic agents, although the drinking of them is to a certain extent deleterious to our nature. As Hippocrates says: "Medicine purges and ages." More than this the discharge of superfluous humor entails the loss of a large part of the natural humidities and of the breath, which is the substance of life. All this is at the expense of the strength of the principal and the auxiliary members, and therefore they are weakened thereby. These and other things account for the difficulties incident to plethora, whether they remain behind in the body or are evacuated by it." ( Avicenna 1999 , pp. 377–8)

Just before this Ibn Sina explained how accumulation of food in our body, can cause diseases, and one way to rid us of this is strong medicines. However, as he explains; this is not the ideal way, and certainly not the long-term. Thus, to make his point very clear, and show the extreme necessity of daily exercise for health, Ibn Sina states:

"Now exercise is that agent which most surely prevents the accumulation of these matters, and prevents plethora. The other forms of regiment assist it. It is this exercise which renews and revives the innate heat, and imparts the necessary lightness to the body, for it causes the subtle heat to be increased and daily disperses whatever effete substances have accumulated; the movements of the body help them to expel them conveying them to those parts of the body whence they can readily leave it. Hence the effete matters are not allowed to collect day after day and besides this, as we have just said, exercise causes the innate heat to flourish and keeps the joints and ligaments firm, so as to be always ready for service, and also free from injury. It renders the members able to receive nutriment, in being free from accumulated effate matters. Hence it renders the members light and the humidities attenuated, and it dilates the pores of the skin. To forsake exercise would often incur the risk of "hectic", because the instinctive drives of the members are impaired, inasmuch as the deprivation of movement prevents the access to them of the innate breath. And this last is the real instrument of life for every one of the members." ( Avicenna 1999 , pp. 378–9)

Massage

Before you begin to exercise it is important that you massage your muscles; as Ibn Sina says on page 385:

"Massage as a preparatory to athletics. The massage begins gently, and then becomes more vigorous as the time approaches for the exercise." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 385)

Exercises

The exercises themselves are divided into 'strenuous, mild, vigorous and brisk'. On pages 379–381; Ibn Sina states the types of exercises under each type:

"Strenuous exercises include: wrestling contests, boxing, quick marching, running, jumping over an object higher than one foot, throwing the javelin, fencing, horsemanship, swimming. Mild exercises include: fishing, sailing, being carried on camels, swinging to and fro. Vigorous exercises include: those performed by soldiers in camp, in military sports; field running, long jumping, high jumping, polo, stone throwing, lifting heavy stones or weights, various forms of wrestling. Brisk exercises include: involves interchanging places with a partner as swiftly as possible, each jumping to and fro, either in time [to music] or irregularly." ( Avicenna 1999 , pp. 379–81)

There are certain important things to note once you start exercising, one is the amount, the other consistency; Ibn Sina states about the amount:

"(1) the color - as long as the skin goes on becoming florid, the exercise may be continued. After it ceases to do so, the exercise must be discontinued." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 384)

On being consistent with exercise Ibn Sina states (on the importance of having a regimen):

"At the conclusion of the first day's exercise, you will know the degree of exercise allowable and when you know the amount of nourishment the person can bear, do not make any change in either on the second day. Arrange that the measure of aliment, and the amount of exercise shall not exceed that limit ascertained on the first day." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 385)

On the side note those who think themselves to be elderly, and thus think of shunning exercise, Ibn Sina write a complete chapter titled "Concerning the Elderly" in the Qanun, and states the same regimen for them, as he does for others. He states on page 433

"For if, towards the end of life, the body is still equable, it will be right to allow attempered exercises. If one part of the body should not be in a first-rate condition, then that part should not be exercised until the others have been exercised. ... On the other hand, if the ailment were in the feet, then the exercise should employ the upper limbs: for instance, rowing, throwing weights, lifting weights." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 433)

Bathing in Cold Water

Once you have finished exercising; it is often that the person will feel tired and fatigued; to combat this problem Ibn Sina says on page 388:

"The beneficial Effects of Baths: The benefits are (1) induction of sleep (2) dilation of pores (3) cleansing of skin (4) dispersal of the undesirable waste matters (5) maturation of abscesses (6) drawing of nutriment towards the surface of the body (7) assistance to the physiological dispersion and excretion of poisonous matters (8) prevention of diarrhea and (9) removal of fatigue effects." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 388)

Most importantly you should remember:

"A person should not go into the bath immediately after exercise. He should rest properly first." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 387)

There are two more things that are important to mention on this subject:

"Injurious effects include the fact that the heart is weakened if the person stays too long in the bath" ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 388)
"Cold Bathing should not be done after exercise except in the case of the very robust. Even then the rules which we have given should be followed. To use cold baths in the ways we have named drives the natural heat suddenly into the interior parts, and then invigorates the strength so that the person should leave the bath twice as strong as when he entered." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 390)

Dieta

Once Ibn Sina has laid the foundation of exercise being central to health, he names many exercises as running, swimming, weight lifting, polo, fencing, boxing, wrestling, long jumping, high jumping, etc. He also gives a diet to go along with the exercise:

"The meal should include: (1) meat especially kid of goats; veal, and year-old lambs [this means white meat in today's terms] [ citation needed ] (2) wheat, which is cleaned of extraneous matter and gathered during a healthy harvest without ever being exposed to injurious influences (3) sweets (fruits) of appropriate temperament." ( Avicenna 1999 , p. 390)

Lastly, the third thing mentioned is sleep; to make sure that you do not sleep during the days, and do not stay awake during the nights. From the above reading, it is clear that Ibn Sina gave advice in his book which is still the same advice medical doctors give to their patients. [ citation needed ] Daily Physical Exercise; and to defeat diseases such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, the prescription of a diet which contains high amounts of Whole Grains and little to no amounts of Refined Carbohydrates. [ citation needed ]

Psychology

In The Canon of Medicine , Avicenna described a number of conditions, including melancholia. [ 50 ] He described melancholia as a depressive type of mood disorder in which the person may become suspicious and develop certain types of phobias . [ 51 ]

Unani medicine

Though the threads which comprise Unani healing can be traced all the way back to Galen of Pergamon , who lived in the 2nd century AD, the basic knowledge of Unani medicine as a healing system was developed by Hakim Ibn Sina in his medical encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine . The time of origin is thus dated at circa 1025 AD, when Avicenna wrote The Canon of Medicine in Persia , which remains a text book in the syllabus of Unani medicine in the colleges of India [ 52 ] and Pakistan.

The Book of Healing

The oldest copies of Ibn Sina's second volume of "Canon Of Medicine" from the year 1030.

Earth sciences

Ibn Sīnā wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in The Book of Healing . [ 53 ] While discussing the formation of mountains , he explained:

Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, such as might occur during a violent earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys, the strata being of different kinds, some soft, some hard ... It would require a long period of time for all such changes to be accomplished, during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size.
[ 53 ]

Filosofía de la ciencia

In the Al-Burhan ( On Demonstration ) section of The Book of Healing , Avicenna discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry . He discusses Aristotle 's Posterior Analytics and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypotheses of a deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty." Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles : the ancient Aristotelian method of induction ( istiqra ), and the method of examination and experimentation ( tajriba ). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry." [ 54 ]

Logic

An early formal system of temporal logic was studied by Avicenna. [ 9 ] Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between temporalis and the implication. [ 55 ] Avicenna's work was further developed by Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī and became the dominant system of Islamic logic until modern times. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as Albertus Magnus [ 58 ] and William of Ockham . [ 59 ] [ 60 ]

Física

In mechanics , Ibn Sīnā, in The Book of Healing , developed an elaborate theory of motion , in which he made a distinction between the inclination (tendency to motion) and force of a projectile , and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination ( mayl ) transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that projectile motion in a vacuum would not cease. [ 61 ] He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance . [ 62 ]

The theory of motion developed by Avicenna may have influenced Jean Buridan's theory of impetus (the ancestor of the inertia and momentum concepts). [ 63 ]

In optics , Ibn Sina was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that "if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite.". [ 64 ] He also provided a wrong explanation of the rainbow phenomenon. Carl Benjamin Boyer described Avicenna's ("Ibn Sīnā") theory on the rainbow as follows:

Independent observation had demonstrated to him that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror. Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the color formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye.
[ 65 ]

In 1253, a Latin text entitled Speculum Tripartitum stated the following regarding Avicenna's theory on heat :

Avicenna says in his book of heaven and earth, that heat is generated from motion in external things.
[ 66 ]

Psychology

Avicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the Kitab al-nafs parts of his Kitab al-shifa' ( The Book of Healing ) and Kitab al-najat ( The Book of Deliverance ). These were known in Latin under the title De Anima (treatises "on the soul"). [ dubious ] The main thesis of these tracts is represented in his so-called "flying man" argument, which resonates with what was centuries later entailed by Descartes 's cogito argument (or what phenomenology designates as a form of an " epoche "). [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality. Avicenna grounds his psychology on physiology, which means his account of the soul is one that deals almost entirely with the natural science of the body and its abilities of perception. Thus, the philosopher's connection between the soul and body is explained almost entirely by his understanding of perception; in this way, bodily perception interrelates with the immaterial human intellect. In sense perception, the perceiver senses the form of the object; first, by perceiving features of the object by our external senses. This sensory information is supplied to the internal senses, which merge all the pieces into a whole, unified conscious experience. This process of perception and abstraction is the nexus of the soul and body, for the material body may only perceive material objects, while the immaterial soul may only receive the immaterial, universal forms. The way the soul and body interact in the final abstraction of the universal from the concrete particular is the key to their relationship and interaction, which takes place in the physical body. [ 67 ]

The soul completes the action of intellection by accepting forms that have been abstracted from matter. This process requires a concrete particular (material) to be abstracted into the universal intelligible (immaterial). The material and immaterial interact through the Active Intellect, which is a "divine light" containing the intelligible forms. [ 68 ] The Active Intellect reveals the universals concealed in material objects much like the sun makes color available to our eyes.

Other contributions

Astronomy and astrology

The practice of judicial astrology was refuted by Avicenna. His reasons were due to the methods used by astrologers in judicial astrology being conjectural rather than empirical and also due to the principles of this type of astrology conflicting with orthodox Islam . He also cited passages from the Qur'an in order to justify his refutation of astrology on both scientific and religious grounds. [ 69 ] However, Avicenna's refutation of astrology (in the treatise titled Resāla fī ebṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm ) concerned only the judicial application of astrology rather than the philosophical principles of the subject and its natural influence. He stated that it was true that each planet had some influence on the earth, but his argument was the difficulty of astrologers being able to determine the exact effect of it. In essence, Avicenna did not refute astrology, but denied man's limited capacity to be able to know the precise effects of the stars on the sublunar matter. With that, he did not refute the essential dogma of astrology, but only refuted our ability to fully understand it. [ 70 ]

In astronomy , he criticized Aristotle 's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun . Ibn Sīnā stated that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are also self-luminous. [ 71 ] He claimed to have observed the transit of Venus across the Sun on May 24, 1032. [ 72 ] However, modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time. [ 73 ] He used his transit observation to demonstrate that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in the Ptolemaic cosmology. [ 74 ]

Soon after, he wrote the Compendium of the Almagest , a commentary on Ptolemy 's Almagest . Avicenna concluded that Venus is closer to the Earth than the Sun. [ 72 ] In 1070, Abu Ubayd al-Juzjani , a pupil of Ibn Sīnā, claimed that his teacher Ibn Sīnā had solved the equant problem in the Ptolemaic model . [ 75 ]

Química

Ibn Sīnā used distillation to produce essential oils such as rose essence, forming the foundation of what later became aromatherapy . [ 76 ] Four of his works on alchemy were translated into Latin as: [ 77 ]

  • Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae
  • Declaratio Lapis physici Avicennae filio sui Aboali
  • Avicennae de congelatione et conglutinatione lapidum
  • Avicennae ad Hasan Regem epistola de Re recta

In one of these works, Ibn Sīnā discredited the theory of the transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemists :

Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change.
[ 78 ]

Among his works on alchemy, Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae was the most influential, having influenced later medieval chemists and alchemists such as Vincent of Beauvais . [ 77 ]

In another work, translated into Latin as De congelatione et conglutinatione lapidum , Ibn Sina proposed a four-part classification of inorganic bodies, which was a significant improvement over the two-part classification of Aristotle (into orycta and metals ) and three-part classification of Galen (into terrae , lapides and metals). The four parts of Ibn Sina's classification were: lapides , sulfur , salts and metals. [ 79 ] [ verification needed ]

Poesía

Almost half of Ibn Sīnā's works are versified. [ 80 ] His poems appear in both Arabic and Persian. As an example, Edward Granville Browne claims that the following Persian verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám , and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā: [ 81 ]

از قعر گل سیاه تا اوج زحل
کردم همه مشکلات گیتی را حل
بیرون جستم زقید هر مکر و حیل
هر بند گشاده شد مگر بند اجل

Up from Earth's Centre through the Seventh Gate,
I rose, and on the Throne of Saturn sate,
And many Knots unravel'd by the Road,
But not the Master-Knot of Human Fate.

Legado

Image of Avicenna on the Tajikistan somoni

As early as the 14th century when Dante Alighieri depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in his Divine Comedy such as Virgil , Averroes , Homer , Horace , Ovid , Lucan , Socrates , Plato , and Saladin , Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history.

George Sarton , the author of The History of Science , described Ibn Sīnā as "one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history" [ 46 ] and called him "the most famous scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times." He was one of the Islamic world 's leading writers in the field of medicine, and similarly to earlier Islamic writers he followed the approach of Galen (and Hippocrates as transmitted through Galen). [ 82 ] Along with Rhazes , Abulcasis , Ibn al-Nafis , and al-Ibadi , Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine. He is remembered in the Western history of medicine as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European Renaissance . His medical texts were unusual in that where controversy existed between Galen and Aristotle's views on medical matters (such as anatomy), he preferred to side with Aristotle, where necessary updating Aristotle's position to take into account post-Aristotilian advances in anatomical knowledge. [ 83 ] Aristotle's dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna's linking of Galen's medical writings with Aristotle's philosophical writings in the Canon of Medicine (along with its comprehensive and logical organisation of knowledge) significantly increased Avicenna's importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine. His influence following translation of the Canon was such that from the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries he was ranked with Hippocrates and Galen as one of the acknowledged authorities, princeps medicorum (prince of physicians). [ 84 ]

In Iran , he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as one of the greatest Persians to have ever lived. Many portraits and statues remain in Iran today. An impressive monument to the life and works of the man who is known as the "doctor of doctors" still stands outside the Bukhara museum and his portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris . There is also a crater on the Moon named Avicenna and a plant genus Avicennia . Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan (Iran), the ibn Sīnā Tajik State Medical University in Dushanbe (The capital of the Republic of Tajikistan ), Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences at Aligarh , India , Avicenna School in Karachi and Avicenna Medical College in Lahore [ 85 ] Pakistan , Ibne Sina Balkh Medical School in his native province of Balkh in Afghanistan , Ibni Sina Faculty Of Medicine of Ankara University Ankara , Turkey and Ibn Sina Integrated School in Marawi City (Philippines) are all named in his honour. In 1980, the former Soviet Union , which then ruled his birthplace Bukhara, celebrated the thousandth anniversary of Avicenna's birth by circulating various commemorative stamps with artistic illustrations, and by erecting a bust of Avicenna based on anthropological research by Soviet scholars. Near his birthplace in Qishlak Afshona, some 25 km (16 mi) north of Bukhara, a training college for medical staff has been named for him. On the grounds is a museum dedicated to his life, times and work. GoogleEarth : SEE .

In March 2008, it was announced that Avicenna's name would be used for new Directories of education institutions for health care professionals, worldwide. The Avicenna Directories will list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The project team stated "Why Avicenna? Avicenna ... was ... noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna's name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality." [ 86 ]

Arabic Works

The treatises of Ibn Sīnā influenced later Muslim thinkers in many areas including theology , philology , mathematics , astronomy , physics , and music . Ibn Sīnā's works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 volumes of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. [ 8 ] His most famous works are The Book of Healing , a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine , [ 9 ]

Ibn Sīnā wrote at least one treatise on alchemy , but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His book on animals was translated by Michael Scot . His Logic , Metaphysics , Physics , and De Caelo , are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine, though the Metaphysics demonstrates a significant departure from the brand of Neoplatonism known as Aristotelianism in Ibn Sīnā's world; Arabic philosophers have hinted at the idea that Ibn Sīnā was attempting to "re-Aristotelianise" Muslim philosophy in its entirety, unlike his predecessors, who accepted the conflation of Platonic, Aristotelian, Neo- and Middle-Platonic works transmitted into the Muslim world.

The Logic and Metaphysics have been extensively reprinted, the latter, eg, at Venice in 1493, 1495, and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, etc., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). [ citation needed ] Two encyclopaedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, Al-Shifa' ( Sanatio ), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian Library and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium , and the long account of Ibn Sina's philosophy given by Muhammad al-Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat ( Liberatio ). The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monastic editors confess that they applied. There is also a حكمت مشرقيه ( hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya , in Latin Philosophia Orientalis ), mentioned by Roger Bacon , the majority of which is lost in antiquity, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone.

List of works

This is the list of some of Avicenna's well-known works: [ 87 ] [ 88 ]

  • Sirat al-shaykh al-ra'is ( The Life of Ibn Sina ), ed. y trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Ibn Sina's autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works, Leiden: Brill, 1988.) [ 87 ]
  • Al-Isharat wa-'l-tanbihat ( Remarks and Admonitions ), ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by SC Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996. [ 87 ]
  • Al-Qanun fi'l-tibb ( The Canon of Medicine ), ed. I. a-Qashsh, Cairo, 1987. (Encyclopedia of medicine.) [ 87 ]
  • Risalah fi sirr al-qadar ( Essay on the Secret of Destiny ), trans. G. Hourani in Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. [ 87 ]
  • Danishnama-i 'ala'i ( The Book of Scientific Knowledge ), ed. y trans. P Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. [ 87 ]
  • Kitab al-Shifa' ( The Book of Healing ). (Ibn Sina's major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa' in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952–83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour [ 87 ]
  • Kitab al-Najat ( The Book of Salvation ), trans. F. Rahman, Avicenna's Psychology: An English Translation of Kitab al-Najat, Book II, Chapter VI with Historical-philosophical Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo Edition , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952. (The psychology of al-Shifa'.)
  • Hayy ibn Yaqdhan a Persian myth. A novel called Hayy ibn Yaqdhan , based on Avicenna's story, was later written by Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) in the 12th century and translated into Latin and English as Philosophus Autodidactus in the 17th and 18th centuries respectively. In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis wrote his own novel Fadil ibn Natiq , known as Theologus Autodidactus in the West, as a critical response to Hayy ibn Yaqdhan . [ 89 ]

Persian works

New Persian , the native language of Avicenna, [ 90 ] was not a scientific language till the 10th century, however Avicenna became one of the pioneers in writing new Persian scientific language.

Danishnama-i 'Alai

Danishnama-i 'Alai is called "the Book of Knowledge for [Prince] 'Ala ad-Daulah". One of Avicenna's important Persian work is the Daaneshnaame (literally: the book of knowledge) for Prince 'Ala ad-Daulah (the local Buyid ruler). The linguist aspects of the Dāneš-nāma and the originality of their Persian vocabulary are of great interest to Iranian philologists. Avicenna created new scientific vocabulary that had not existed before in the modern Persian language. The Dāneš-nāma covers such topics as logic, metaphysics, music theory and other sciences of his time. This book has been translated into English by Parwiz Mowewedge. [ 91 ] The book is also important in respect to Persian scientific works.

Andar Danesh-e-Rag

Andar Danesh-e-Rag is called "On the science of the pulse". This book contains nine chapters on the science of the pulse and is a condensed synonpsis.

Persian poetry

Persian poetry from Ibn Sina is recorded in various manuscripts and later anthologies such as Nozhat al-Majales .

En la cultura popular

The Walking Drum

In Louis L'Amour's 1985 historical novel The Walking Drum , Kerbouchard studies and discusses Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine .

The Physician

In his book The Physician (1988) Noah Gordon tells the story of a young English medical apprentice who disguises himself as a Jew to learn from Avicenna, the great master of his time.

Véase también

Referencias

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Atribución

Otras lecturas

Encyclopedic articles

Primary literature

  • Avicenna (2005). The Metaphysics of The Healing . A parallel English-Arabic text translation. Michael E. Marmura (trans.) (1 ed.). Brigham Young University. ISBN 0-934893-77-2 .  
  • Avicenna (1999). The Canon of Medicine (al-Qānūn fī'l-ṭibb), vol. 1. Laleh Bakhtiar (ed.), Oskar Cameron Gruner (trans.), Mazhar H. Shah (trans.). Great Books of the Islamic World. ISBN 978-1-871031-67-6 .  
  • Avicenne: Réfutation de l'astrologie . Edition et traduction du texte arabe, introduction, notes et lexique par Yahya Michot. Préface d'Elizabeth Teissier (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2006) ISBN 2-84161-304-6 .
  • For a list of other extant works, C. Brockelmann 's Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 452–458. (XV. W.; GWT)
  • For Ibn Sina's life, see Ibn Khallikan 's Biographical Dictionary , translated by de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld 's Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher (Göttingen, 1840).
  • Madelung, Wilferd and Toby Mayer (ed. and tr.), Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics. A New Arabic Edition and English Translation of Shahrastani 's Kitab al-Musara'a.

Secondary literature

  • Afnan, Soheil M. (1958). Avicenna: His Life and Works . London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 31478971 .  
    • This is, on the whole, an informed and good account of the life and accomplishments of one of the greatest influences on the development of thought both Eastern and Western. ... It is not as philosophically thorough as the works of D. Saliba, AM Goichon, or L. Gardet, but it is probably the best essay in English on this important thinker of the Middle Ages. (Julius R. Weinberg, The Philosophical Review , Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr. 1960, pp. 255–259)
  • Goodman, Lenn E. (2006). Avicenna (Updated ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-415-01929-X .  
    • This is a distinguished work which stands out from, and above, many of the books and articles which have ben written in this century on Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā) (AD 980–1037). It has two main features on which its distinction as a major contribution to Avicennan studies may be said to rest: the first is its clarity and readability; the second is the comparative approach adopted by the author. ... (Ian Richard Netton, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society , Third Series, Vol. 4, No. 2, July 1994, pp. 263–264)
  • Gutas, Dimitri (1987). "Avicenna's maḏhab, with an Appendix on the question of his date of birth". Quaderni di Studi Arabi 5–6 : pp. 323–36.  
  • YT Langermann (ed.), Avicenna and his Legacy. A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy , Brepols Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-2-503-52753-6
  • For a new understanding of his early career, based on a newly discovered text, see also: Michot, Yahya, Ibn Sînâ: Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd . Editio princeps d'après le manuscrit de Bursa, traduction de l'arabe, introduction, notes et lexique (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2000) ISBN 2-84161-150-7 .
  • Strohmaier, Gotthard (2006). Avicenna (in German). Beck CH ISBN 3-406-54134-8 .  
    • This German publication is both one of the most comprehensive general introductions to the life and works of the philosopher and physician Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037) and an extensive and careful survey of his contribution to the history of science. Its author is a renowned expert in Greek and Arabic medicine who has paid considerable attention to Avicenna in his recent studies. ... (Amos Bertolacci, Isis , Vol. 96, No. 4, December 2005, p. 649)
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Resalah Judiya of Ibn Sina (First edition 1971), Literary Research Unit, CCRIH, Aligarh Muslim University , Aligarh ; (Second edition 1981) Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Govt. of India, New Delhi; (Fourth edition 1999), Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Govt. of India, New Delhi .  
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1996). AI-Advia al-Qalbia of Ibn Sina . Publication Division, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.  
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Ilmul Amraz of Ibn Sina (First edition 1969), Tibbi Academy, Delhi (Second edition 1990), (Third edition 1994), Tibbi Academy, Aligarh .  
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1986). "Qanoon lbn Sina Aur Uskey Shareheen wa Mutarjemeen". Publication Division, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.  
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1986), Qānūn-i ibn-i Sīnā aur us ke shārḥīn va mutarajimīn , ʻAlīgaṛh: Pablīkeshan Dīvīzan, Muslim Yūnīvarsiṭī  
  • Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2004). "Qanun Ibn Sina and its Translation and Commentators (Persian Translation; 203pp)". Society for the Appreciation of Cultural Works and Dignitaries, Tehran, Iran.  
  • Shaikh al Rais Ibn Sina (Special number) 1958–59, Ed. Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India .

Medicina

Filosofía

  • Amos Bertolacci, The Reception of Aristotle's Metaphysics in Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'. A Milestone of Western Metaphysical Thought (Leiden: Brill 2006)
  • Dimitri Gutas , Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works (Leiden: Brill 1988)
  • Michot, Jean R., La destinée de l'homme selon Avicenne (Louvain: Aedibus Peeters, 1986) ISBN 978-90-6831-071-9 . (French)
  • Nader El-Bizri , The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, NY: Global Publications SUNY, 2000)
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna and Essentialism," Review of Metaphysics , Vol. 54 (June 2001), pp. 753–778
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming , ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67–89
  • Nader El-Bizri, "Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna's Metaphysics and Cosmology," in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm , ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006), pp. 243–261
  • Reisman, David C. (ed.), "Before and After Avicenna: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group" (Leiden: Brill 2003)

Enlaces externos